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|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Classification and DialectsEdit
Calgrian (natively Kaugrian) is a germanic language spoken [sometime in the future] in the Pacific Northwest of North America and as far East as the city of Calgary, AB, where it diverged from English and took on the city's name.
- T - Devoiced stop
- F - Fricative
- X - Devoiced fricative
- C - Consonant
- V - Vowel
h » Ø
t͡ʃ » tˣʲ / #_
t͡ʃ » ʃ ! _ɹ
sk » ks ! #_
l » u̯ / V_C
θ » fː
ð » vː
b » p̚ / V_#
d » t̚ / V_#
ng » ŋ
g » k̚ / V_#
ni » nʲ / V_V
g » x / _T
g » k #_F
F » X / T_
gn » nʲ
g » ɰ / V_(æ / ɐ / ɑ / ʌʊ̯u̯ / ʊu̯)
g » ɣ / _(ɔi̯ / i / i̯ʊu̯ / ɛ / ɪ / ai̯)
g » j
i » ai̯ / #_
wʊl » l
|Plosive||p b||t d tˣʲ||k kʷ|
|Fricative||f v||s z||ʃ ʒ||ɣ ~ x ~ ɰ|
|Low-mid||ɛ||ʌ ʌʊ̯u̯ ɔi̯|
|Letter||A a||Á á||B b||C c||D d||E e||É é||F f||G g||I i||Í í||J j|
|Sound||æ ɐ||ei̯||b||s||d||ɛ||i||f||ɣ ɰ x||ɪ||ai̯||ʒ d͡ʒ|
|Letter||K k||L l||M m||N n||O o||Ó ó||P p||Q q||R r||S s||T t||U u|
|Letter||Ú ú||V v||W w||X x||Y y||Z z|
|Digraph||Ai ai||cc||Fh fh||gn||ng||Oi oi||Oo oo||Sh sh||Vh vh|
Much like in English, the Calgrian orthography is not entirely phonemic, and the written form of a word is often not sufficient to determine pronunciation. However, the following apply in the vast majority of cases
- Y is pronounced as [ai] in the final position when preceeded by a consonant
- Y is pronounced as a neutral vowel [ʊ ~ ə] before a consonant
- I is pronounced as [i] in the final position
- E is pronounced as [ei] in the final position
- C only exists when followed by E or I
- X is pronounced as [ʃ] in the final position
- W can sometimes be used as a vowel, with various sounds.
- T is often pronounced as [t͡ʃ] before R
- O is pronounced as Ó before L or R
Calgrian verbs normally conjugate only to tense -- past and nonpast. Other tenses and moods can be formed with paraphrastics. The following describe conjugations and paraphrastic constructions, but are by no means applicable in 100% of cases, as Calgrian does have a number of irregular verb forms.
- The non-gerund infinitive is simple the verb preceeded by t (pronounced [tʊ] or [tʊu̯] in some cases). Some words already include the t, like afta, meaning "have to"
- The simple past tense is formed with the suffix « -t ». Use of this form without a pronoun generally implies the first person singular, however, if it's sufficiently clear from context, the past tense without a pronoun can also refer to the third person singular or plural
- The simple present tense is simply the default form of the verb (the infinitive without the t). Use of this form without a pronoun implies an imperitive. However, the suffix « -s » indicates the third person singular and the pronoun is dropped if this suffix is used. Some verbs have irregular imperitives, like iz, whose imperitive form is be
- The simple future tense is identical to the present, except the « -s » suffix is not used. Pro-dropping is not allowed in this tense. If emphasis or clarification of the future is required, the modal verb yl is used
- The conditional mood, only existing in the past tense, is conveyed through use of the modal verb yd
- The hypothetical mood, existing only in the past perfect and the future, is conveyed through the modal verb kyd
- The perfect aspect is conveyed through the use of the verb av (ad in the past tense) along with the past participle of the verb, which is generally formed with either « -t » or « -n »
- The progressive aspect is conveyed through the use of the verb iz (ist in the past tense) followed by the present participle.
conjugating with -s allows for a third person pronoun to be dropped.