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Canotexús

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Canotexús
Type
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Head-Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator appleturdpie

Classification and Dialects VisualEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ (ŋ)
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v θ s z ʃ ʒ (χ) h
Affricate tʃ dʒ
Approximant ɹ j (ʍ) w
Lateral l

VowelsEdit

Front Near-Front Central Near-Back Back
High i ʉ
Near-High ɪ
High-Mid e
Mid ə  əɪ̯
Low-Mid ɛ ɔ
Near-Low æ
Low ä

PhonotacticsEdit

Syllables follow one of two general patterns: (C)3V(C)or N(C)

Any single consonant may appear as an onset. The possible initial syllable clusters can be a (fricative)(plosive), optionally followed by medials /w/, /r/, /l/, /j/, which may also follow single consonants. So, basically the initial clusters are represented by this:

(Fricative)(Plosive/Affricate)(Approximate/Lateral).

V is any vowel or diphthong the most common dipthongs are /ɑʊ̯/, /ɔɪ̯/, and /uɪ̯/.

N is a syllabic nasal, which may be followed by a coda but may not be preceded by an onset.

The possible final syllable clusters can be (lateral/nasal)(plosive/affricate/fricative) or (lateral/nasal/fricative)(plosive/affricate).

Writing SystemEdit

Letter Aa Áá Ää Bb Cc Chch Dd Ee Éé Ii Ff
Sound ä ə æ b k, s d e ɛ i f
Letter Gg Hh Ĩĩ Íí Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn(g) Ññ Oo
Sound g h əɪ̯ ɪ k l m n, ŋ ɲ ɔ
Letter Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Ðð Uu Úú Vv Ww Ẃẃ
Sound p k, χ ɹ s t θ ʉ ə v w, ʉ̠ ʍ
Letter Xx Yy Zz Жж
Sound ʃ j z ʒ

Aaaa is used instead of Ää if /æ/ is the central vowel in a monosyllabic root.

Cc is /s/ before é or ĩ otherwise it's /k/.

Qq is /χ/ before a otherwise it's /k/.

C is generally used instead of k in /lk/, (don't yell at me k is ugly, and the word for cave (élc) would have looked like elk, and look at how much better lc looks than lk, l and k are to similar it just looks bad).

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns decline according to case, number, and definiteness. Here is the declension of book:

 Declension of Book
Definiteness Indefinite Definite
Case Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative nomá noman nomal nomargél
Accusative nomét nomént nomél nompél
Genitive nomux nomun nomupél nomupol
Dative nompá nompín nompíl nompĩrgél
Instrumental nomu nomon nomul nomorgél
Locative nomeg nomen nomel nomgel

When a noun ending in á is declined, á is dropped and the suffix is added (Shown above).

When a noun ending in ú followed by a consonant is declined, the ú becomes á if the suffix starts with a vowel (Shown below is the declension of table).

 Declension of Table
Definiteness Indefinite Definite
Case Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative wĩlúm wĩláman wĩlámal wĩlámargél
Accusative wĩlát nt wĩlál wĩlúml
Genitive wĩlámux wĩlámun wĩlámupél wĩlámupol
Dative wĩlúm wĩlúmn wĩlúml wĩlúmpĩrgél
Instrumental wĩlámu wĩlámon wĩlámul wĩlámorgél
Locative wĩlámeg men wĩlámel wĩlúmgel

Mass NounsEdit

Mass nouns behave exactly like normal nouns do except they are always in singular form.

VerbsEdit

The infinitive form of a verb is formed by adding the suffix -pa or -pá. The standard negative form of verb can be achieved by adding the prefix zo-, the habitual suffix is -in or -ín.

Mood Present Past Future
Indicative -∅ -ak -úm
Abilitative -at -átak -átúm
Imperative -ag
Potentiative -xpo

Here is the conjugation of bring/carry:

Mood Present Past Future
Indicative ledar ledarak ledarúm
Abilitative ledarat ledarátak ledarátúm
Imperative ledarag
Potentiative ledarxpo

ParticiplesEdit

The participle of a verb can be formed by adding the suffix: -úna to the present tense form of the verb.

CopulaEdit

There is a zero-copula system: the copula can be excluded as long as it is present tense indicative; the copula is needed for all other conjugations.

These conjugations are as follows including the present tense indicative:

Mood Present Past Future
Indicative pél zél
Abilitative péx pélat zélat
Imperative kab
Potentiative kaxpo

Example of zero-copula: Coco wĩlámel. (Coco is at the table.)

While "Coco wĩlámel kĩ." means the same thing and is perfectly valid, but speakers tend to eliminate the copula, although not using zero-copula is often used to emphasis a statement, and is used in formal language.

DerivationEdit

Verbs can be derived into nouns.

Adjective DerivationEdit

The suffix -ante can be added to nouns and the present form of verbs to form an adjective the acts like without or less. For example mundél (sound) can be used to form mundálante (quiet).

Agentive DerivationEdit

The suffix for agentive derivation is -ír or -dam, -ír is thing that does and -dam is one who does. The suffix is added to the present form of the verb. For example, wífolcír (door) can be derived from the verb wífolc (close).

Patientive DerivationEdit

The suffix for patientive derivation is -ar which is thing which something is done to. The suffix is adding to the present form of the verb.

PronounsEdit

Number Person Gender Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Instrumental Locative
Singular 1st Person Neuter yax xét (yaxét) yaxux yaxpá yaxul yaxeg
2nd Person Neuter yaaf yaafét yaafux yaafpá yaafu yaafeg
3rd Person Male kápor káporét kuchá káporpá káporu káporeg
Neuter vok vokét vokux vokpá voku vokeg
Female bríz brĩzét kíxá brízpá brĩzul brĩzeg
Plural 1st Person Neuter yaxan yaxént yaxun yaxpín yaxon yaxen
2nd Person Neuter yaafan yaafént yaafun yaafpín yaafon yaafen
3rd Person Neuter vokan voként vokun vokpín vokon voken

AdjunctsEdit

Conotashus has both adjectives and adverbs.

Adjectives follow the noun that they describe.

Yax    wĩlámét   oslúm  yaafpá  grĩforak.
1S.NOM table-ACC orange you-DAT give-PST
I gave you an orange table.

Adverbs that describe adjectives go infront of the adjective but behind the noun.

Wĩlámal       véndur drená ke wĩlámél       ledarpá   jĩcél    .
table-NOM.DEF very   heavy so table-ACC.DEF carry-INF difficult.
The table is very heavy so the table is hard to carry.

Adverbs that describe verbs follow the verb.

IdeophonesEdit

Ideophones are words that express feelings and emotions. Ideophones do multiple things in Conotashus. Ideophones can commonly be used on there own in certain contexts or senarios. Ideophones can be used as adjectives except they precide the noun they describe. Ideophones can also be used to form compound words, the ideophone is then put after the noun; For example: zgogarwabá means jungle. Here are some ideophones:

SyntaxEdit

The head-direction is final. The general word order is SOV, Although case allows for some variation.

Noun PhrasesEdit

A noun phrase consists of a noun optionally followed by modifiers (adjuncts), and that optionally has a relative clause. Although all modifiers follow the noun there is a proper order that they should be placed in. The order of modifiers and relative clauses is shown below, and further description is provided below.

Noun, Genitive, Determiner, Adverb, Adjective, Relative Clause

Determiners such as numbers follow the noun, adjectives also follow the noun, and adverbs that are effecting adjectives precede them, going between them and the noun. If there are adjectives, adverbs and numbers, numbers precede adverbs and adverbs precede adjectives. If there is any kind of possesion, in particular genitive the genitive noun precedes numbers, adverbs and adjectives. Relative clauses are placed after all of the modifiers of a noun and marked with 'tlúná'. Note: Adverbs need to remain precedeing the adjective they effect, and multiple adjectives and adverb-adjective pairs can be added but must always preced any relative clause.

Relative ClausesEdit

Relative clauses allow you to describe things with more detail than you could with modifiers. A relative clause is housed within a noun phrase and preceded by the relativizer tlŭnă. Relative clauses consist of a statement that describes more information about a noun. Often, the job of a relative clause is to have the effected noun phrase perform an action that is seperate from the main verb of the statement. Sometimes this action can be a relation with usage of the copula, which is often excluded because of the zero copula system (which is explained above). Here is an example of a simple relation:

Yaaf   nomél        tlúná wĩlámel       yaxpá  grĩforag.
2S.NOM book-DEF.ACC REL   table-LOC.DEF 1S-DAT give.IMP
Give me the book that is on the table.

Adpositional PhrasesEdit

Postpositional phrases can be formed using nouns, the adposition is placed after all of the modifers and before any relative clauses.

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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