18.104.22.168 11:53, January 2, 2013 (UTC)
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|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Cargàlhan-dê (cargalian language) is a language spoken in Cargal islands, by dwarf population. It takes part of dwarf languages. The major difference between cargalian and others dwarf languages is the number of consonants which is really bigger in cargalian.
It also keep some pharyngeal and glottal consonants and the syntheticity like the others dwarf languages. In 2013, cargalian is spoken by 1 million people.
It was born on the XIIth century, in the Cargal islands, like many other dwarf languages of West Islands. Its origin is not sure, surely came from Extalia continent, the original dwarfs did colonize West Island on 1000 or 1100 (-100 or 0 for their calendar). On this year, it surely looked like Navaghul, the dwarf language from Extalia.
There are 50 consonants in cargalian, and 12 vowels.
|Nasal||m (m)||ɱ (m)||n (n)||ɳ (ng)||ŋ (ñ)|
p, b (p, b)
|t, d (t, d)||c (qq)||k, g (q, g)||q, ɢ (k, gg)|
|Fricative||ɸ, β (ph, vh)||f, v (f, v)||θ, ð (sh, z)||s, z (s)||ʃ, ʒ (c, s)||ʐ (d)||ç, ʝ (ti, ri)||x, ɣ (sx, gg)||χ, ʁ (rh, r)||ħ (gh)||ʜ (h)|
|Affricate||pɸ (ph)||ts, dz (ts, ds)||tʃ, dʒ (c, ds)||qχ (krh)|
|Approximant||ʋ (vv)||ɹ (rr)||ɻ (lh)||j (i)||ɰ (gh)|
|Trill||r (r)||ʀ (rr)|
|Flap or tap||ⱱ (tv)||ɾ (r)|
|Lateral fric.||ɬ (lh)|
|Lateral app.||l (l)|
|Close||i, y||ɨ, ʉ||ɯ, u|
Cargalian is written with latin alphabet since the XIX century, 6 letters were added to this alphabet in 1950, and 'j' has been deleted long time ago.
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Êê Ëë Ff Gg Hh Ii Kk Ll Mm Nn Ññ Oo Ȏȏ Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Ûû Üü Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
The words from Cargalian (ones which don't come from others languages) are made of 1 vowel, and some importants words like "a (wale)" are only made of one vowel. So words which are less important are usually made with two, or three smaller words : "aitontê (a (wale)+it (north)+on (sea)+ tê (ablative)" means wale of the norht seas.
Cargalian has got "dark" and "light" words, determined by the gender of the vowels which is inside. In a constructed word like "aitontê", a dark vowel can't be with a light vowel. There are the vowels :
|Light vowels||Dark vowels|
|i||ü (close arounded)|
|e (open mid)||e (close mid)|
|û (central rounded)||i (central unarounded)|
|o||ê (central mid)|
|ûû (near back near close)||üü (close back)|
An other rule, there are lot of diphthongs in cargalian :
Case 1 :
|sx- /x/ is followed by a dark vowel, it becomes||an uvular-fricative deaf consonnant.|
Case 2 :
|gg- /uvular plosive/ is followed by a light vowel and an"üü" it becomes||a pharyngeal fricative consonnant.|
Case 3 and 4 :
|sh- /dental fricative/ is followed by a dark vowel, it becomes||a bilabial fricative sonorous consonnant.|
|ti- /ti/ is followed by an "e", an "ë" or an "ü" it becomes||
/ç/ and get written tie (for e and ë) and tiu (for ü).
Cargalian is a synthetic language which has got 5 cases :
1. Nominative (a go dê / the wale has a tongue)
2. Accusative (de go ai / the tongue has a wale +ê for dark words words and +i for light words)
3. Dative (at sê nantë / I'm speaking to you +të for light words and +düü for dark words)
4. Inessive (a ggê osxrrûû / the wale is in the sea +rrûû for light words and +ña for dark words)
5. Instrumental (at müü galdnë / I play with the guitar +në for light words and +dê for dark words)
|Dark words||-/||-ê (if the word contains an accentued vowel, the accent is deleted)||-düü||-ña (if the words contain an accentued vowel, the accent is deleted)||-dê|
Some words can lose their accentuals vowels with accusative and inessive. It happens only to the dark words like "lhên" becomes "lhenña (dative)".
They are called strong words, while other ones are called low words (which are usually dark words). This table shows some strong and low words (strong light words can win accents and become dark (a : ai) ; in the vocabulary, a strong light word will be written [S.L] and a low dark word [D.L]).
Cargalian words have for origin the dwarf language from West Islands of Xth century.
Pȏ gêth́al sê-nu-h́ê ga sââ lhisxa ggûntie guȏ Kargh́al.