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Cargàlhan-dê

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90.48.44.244 11:53, January 2, 2013 (UTC)

Progress 13%
Cargalian
Cargàlh-dê
Type
Synthetic
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Cargàlhan-dê (cargalian language) is a language spoken in Cargal islands, by dwarf population. It takes part of dwarf languages. The major difference between cargalian and others dwarf languages is the number of consonants which is really bigger in cargalian.

It also keep some pharyngeal and glottal consonants and the syntheticity like the others dwarf languages. In 2013, cargalian is spoken by 1 million people.

History

It was born on the XIIth century, in the Cargal islands, like many other dwarf languages of West Islands. Its origin is not sure, surely came from Extalia continent, the original dwarfs did colonize West Island on 1000 or 1100 (-100 or 0 for their calendar). On this year, it surely looked like Navaghul, the dwarf language from Extalia.

PhonologyEdit

There are 50 consonants in cargalian, and 12 vowels.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m (m) ɱ (m) n (n) ɳ (ng) ŋ (ñ)
Plosive

p, b   (p, b)

t, d (t, d) c (qq) k, g (q, g) q, ɢ  (k, gg)
Fricative ɸ, β (ph, vh) f, v   (f, v) θ, ð (sh, z) s, z (s) ʃ, ʒ (c, s) ʐ (d) ç, ʝ (ti, ri) x, ɣ (sx, gg) χ, ʁ (rh, r) ħ (gh) ʜ (h)
Affricate pɸ (ph) ts, dz (ts, ds) tʃ, dʒ (c, ds) qχ (krh)
Approximant ʋ (vv) ɹ (rr) ɻ (lh) j (i) ɰ (gh)
Trill r (r) ʀ (rr)
Flap or tap ⱱ (tv) ɾ (r)
Lateral fric. ɬ (lh)
Lateral app. l (l)
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i, y ɨ, ʉ ɯ, u
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Close-mid e o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ
Near-open
Open a

AlphabetEdit

Cargalian is written with latin alphabet since the XIX century, 6 letters were added to this alphabet in 1950, and 'j' has been deleted long time ago.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Êê Ëë Ff Gg Hh Ii Kk Ll Mm Nn Ññ Oo Ȏȏ Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Ûû Üü Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

PhonotacticsEdit

The words from Cargalian (ones which don't come from others languages) are made of 1 vowel, and some importants words like "a (wale)" are only made of one vowel. So words which are less important are usually made with two, or three smaller words : "aitontê (a (wale)+it (north)+on (sea)+ tê (ablative)" means wale of the norht seas.

Cargalian has got "dark" and "light" words, determined by the gender of the vowels which is inside. In a constructed word like "aitontê", a dark vowel can't be with a light vowel. There are the vowels :

Light vowels Dark vowels
i ü (close arounded)
e (open mid) e (close mid)
û (central rounded) i (central unarounded)
a u
o ê (central mid)
ûû (near back near close) üü (close back)

An other rule, there are lot of diphthongs in cargalian :

Case 1 :

sx- /x/ is followed by a dark vowel, it becomes an uvular-fricative deaf consonnant.

Case 2 :

gg- /uvular plosive/ is followed by a light vowel and an"üü" it becomes a pharyngeal fricative consonnant.

Case 3 and 4 :

sh- /dental fricative/ is followed by a dark vowel, it becomes a bilabial fricative sonorous consonnant.
ti- /ti/ is followed by an "e", an "ë" or an "ü" it becomes

/ç/ and get written tie (for e and ë) and tiu (for ü).

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns Yes Yes No No Yes No No No
Adjectives No No Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes No No Yes No No No
Participles Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Adverb No Yes No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No

Cargalian is a synthetic language which has got 5 cases :

1. Nominative (a go dê / the wale has a tongue)

2. Accusative (de go ai / the tongue has a wale +ê for dark words words and +i for light words)

3. Dative (at sê nan / I'm speaking to you +të for light words and +düü for dark words)

4. Inessive (a ggê osxrrûû / the wale is in the sea +rrûû for light words and +ña for dark words)

5. Instrumental (at müü gald / I play with the guitar +në for light words and +dê for dark words)

Nominative Accusative Dative Inessive Instrumental
Light words -/ -i -të -rrûû -në
Dark words -/ -ê (if the word contains an accentued vowel, the accent is deleted) -düü -ña (if the words contain an accentued vowel, the accent is deleted) -dê

Some words can lose their accentuals vowels with accusative and inessive. It happens only to the dark words like "lhên" becomes "lhenña (dative)".

They are called strong words, while other ones are called low words (which are usually dark words). This table shows some strong and low words (strong light words can win accents and become dark (a : ai) ; in the vocabulary, a strong light word will be written [S.L] and a low dark word [D.L]).

Strong

rra (rra)

cod (cod)

sa (sai)

a (ai)

Low

lhên (lhen)

krhê (khre)

tên (ten)

tüü (tu)

VocabularyEdit


No. English Cargalian
1I
2you (singular)
3heTüü
4weSan
5you (plural)Kagg
6theyÛgh
7this
8thatNüü
9hereSxagh
10thereȎ
11whoË
12what
13whereKëtë
14when
15howLhüün
16notÜ
17allSëngsê
18manyLot
19someShüüng
20fewTië
21otherPhëmng
22oneCȏn
23twoRiê
24three
25fourBan
26fiveDëtv
27bigË
28long
29wideMun
30thickDsêrr
31heavyIt
32smallNikȏ
33shortLüüngsh
34narrowTit
35thinIb
36womanTsungsh
37man (adult male)Bën
38man (human being)Navt
39childMi
40wife
41husband
42motherSha
43father
44animalMet
45fishÊ
46birdU
47dogLoph
48louseRa
49snakeNiph
50wormTrêhüün
51treeÜng
52forestPha
53stickTu
54fruitË
55seedLogg
56leafRatva
57rootSiph
58barkTrȏ
59flowerCia
60grassLang
61ropeShi
62skinTȏm
63meatNin
64bloodO
65boneTo
66fatLac
67eggId
68hornCang
69tailSima
70featherAgh
71hairNot
72headSirrv
73earLhu
74eyeIgh
75noseVtü
76mouthSho
77toothRüüc
78tongueKrha
79fingernailRimën
80footLin
81legMash
82kneeKur
83handZad
84wingHaa
85bellyMin
86gutsË
87neckPon
88backHon
89breastNia
90heartLëa
91liverHem
92drinkSing
93eatI
94biteTa
95suckHoru
96spitSküm
97vomitLogg
98blowSaûû
99breatheTon
100laughSxang
101seeMi
102hearNüü
103knowPëa
104thinkNëa
105smellTash
106fearNoha
107sleepNogg
108liveInma
109dieKoroko
110killKna
111fightKnat
112hunt
113hitEn
114cutËta
115splitAso
116stabGron
117scratchKint
118digStër
119swimQqa
120flySaë
121walkNêt
122comeSomqq
123lieAz
124sitSëza
125standBûûta
126turnSott
127fallShion
128giveMip
129holdTrêpü
130squeezeNina
131rubËgo
132washOtê
133wipeSop
134pullKinekt
135pushNêt
136throwFün
137tieGin
138sewMalt
139countTarë
140sayLin
141singGha
142playHan
143floatÛû
144flowSên
145freezeDev
146swellNost
147sunÜt
148moonËl
149starKec
150waterAn
151rainZet
152riverLüün
153lakeCesht
154seaHa
155saltHaton
156stoneTon
157sandAkë
158dustLhüggê
159earthRut
160cloudMërh
161fogMërh
162skyAmë
163windNophis
164snowAmënaphës
165iceNeqqrhtê
166smokeTus
167fireRa
168ashNud
169burnDed
170roadHin
171mountainSëda
172redDun
173greenTiël
174yellowTêrê
175whiteSora
176blackRraûûk
177nightAghëm
178dayMar
179yearTamarë
180warmYulhê
181coldSado
182fullGgoqqa
183newSai
184oldDenüü
185goodLhang
186badTütien
187rottenHûûrha
188dirtySoyë
189straightNuz
190roundSato
191sharpKurb
192dullDoqqa
193smoothAtin
194wetLuttê
195dryIta
196correctNa
197nearSëm
198farTûût
199rightAkë
200leftLettê
201at-rrûû (ña)
202in-rrûû(ña)
203with-në (dê)
204andY
205ifNi
206becauseKolhë
207nameKaghûûl

Cargalian words have for origin the dwarf language from West Islands of Xth century.

Example textEdit

Pȏ gêth́al sê-nu-h́ê ga sââ lhisxa ggûntie guȏ Kargh́al.  

Start a Discussion Discussions about Cargàlhan-dê

  • Synthetic and agglutinant languages

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    • Thanks -the wikia contributor was me- for this explaining :)
    • Not a problem :D If you need anything else, feel free to either ask on the forums, or if you'd like to address someone specifically, o...

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