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Celitian
Celitiàm
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders two
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 72%
Statistics
Nouns 100%
Verbs 88%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 21%
Words 115 of 1500
Creator Limao

Classification and DialectsEdit

Celitian is a romance language spoken in Bavaria as well as in Austria and parts of Czechia. It is spoken by around 1.000.000 people.

There are two major dialects, a western and an eastern one. The western one is spoken in Bavaria and the eastern one is spoken in Austria and Czechia. The eastern dialect tends to drop or not pronounce more letters in a word than the western dialect.

he is not as good as that amazing man:

Celitiam


il nu e pra calo si isto calíssimo oumo (west) / il n'e pra calo s'ist(o) calíssim(o) oumo (east)





PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b d t k g
Fricative f v ʃ ʒ h
Affricate
Approximant l j
Trill r
Flap or tap

VowelsEdit

 
Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Mid e ə o
Near-open ɐ
Open a

DiphthongsEdit

diphthong Pronunciation
ai /ai/
ăi /ɐi/
ău /ɐu/
au /au/
eu /ew/
ĕu /əw/
ou /u/
oi /oi/
ae /e/
ei /ɛi̯/
éi /ei/
çh /ʃ/
ch /tʃ/

AlphabetEdit

Letter a b c d e f g h i j l m
Sound a b k d e f g h i zj l m
Letter n o p q r s t u v x y z
Sound n o p q r s t u v sj j z
Letter ă ĕ ĭ ç
Sound ɐ ə ɨ s

The stress lies on the second to last syllable (chapUnto-correct), but never on vowels with a breve: ă, ĕ and ĭ (prăzEns-present). If the stress lies on another syllable then this is indicated by an accent on the vowel in that syllable (çhantàt-sung). An accent aigu indicates a long vowel and an accent grave a short vowel.

if there stands an -s before a vowel with an accent grave on it, you pronounce the -s (sj). Grasèus (grasjEus-thank you).

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

There are two genders, masculine and feminine, and three numbers, singular, dual and plural.

All nouns are divided into four different groups.

singular ending dual ending plural ending
group 1 -o/-a: oumo (man) -e: oume -oi/-ai: oumoi
group 2 -u: fiu (boy) -e: fie -i: fii
group 3 -er: vaqer (cow) -re: vaqre -ri: vaqri
group 4 any: mox (moustache) -e: moxe -i/-s: moxi

In group 1, masculine words end with -o and feminine words end with -a

Nouns from group 2 are almost always masculine.

Words from group 3&4 can either be masculine or feminine and can sometimes have irregular plurals.

In a one-syllable word from group 4, the dual and plural ending comes behind the word. In a more-syllable word, the last letter is replaced with the dual and plural ending. For example: mox - moxe but ananas - ananae.

articles Edit

there are definite and indefinite articles.

masculine feminine
definite singular iu/i' (for vowels) ia/i' (for vowels)
definite dual éi éi
definite plural éi éi
indefinite singular un un
indefinite dual dou/d' (for vowels) doa/d' (for vowels)
indefinite plural uns uns

cases Edit

even though Celitiàm has abandoned most of its cases, there are still genitive forms that are used, especially in the eastern dialect. The genitive indicates a posession. Instead of the genitive case, the preposition 'de' can be used, which is now more common. To form the genitive, you take the dual form of a word and then you delete the -e to get the stem. Then you add the genitive endings.

Genitive forms
sg du pl
group 1 (m) -iu: oumiu -ei: oumei -oior: oumoior
group 1 (f) -au: muiau (of the woman) -ei: muiei -aior: muiaior
group 2 -iu: fiiu -ei: fiei -ior: fiior
group 3 -iu: vaqriu -ei: vaqrei -ior: vaqrior
group 4 -iu: moxiu -ei: moxei -ior: moxior

you can always replace the genitive with the word: de

iu mox i'oumiu (the man's moustache) vs. iu mox de i'oumo.

articles in the genitive
masculine feminine
def. sg ie/i' ie/i'
def. du oi ai
def. pl oi ai
ind. sg uniu uniu
ind. du doui doui
ind. pl unoi unai

iu iavro ie muiau (the woman's book)

ia festas oi fiei/fiior (the (two) boys' party)

posessive pronouns Edit

posessive pronouns change depending on number and gender.

1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
masc mou tou sou nos(su) vos(su) loro
fem ma ta sua noa voa lora
pl méi téi séi néi véi léi

adjectives Edit

an adjective conjugates to the noun it belongs to, but they do not have a genitive form. Adjectives can either be placed before or after the noun. An adjective in the masculine form can end in either -o or -u.

masc. sg fem. sg masc. du fem. du masc. pl fem. pl
pelo (beautiful) pela pele pele peli peli
calo (good) cala cale cale cali cali
feçho (ugly) feçha feçhe feçhe feçhi feçhi
ejau (equal) ejaa ejae ejae ejai ejai

ist'oumo e pra calo. (this man is so good.)

il n'e pra calo s'ista pela muia (he is not as good as this beautiful woman.)

cala sàra. (good evening.)

cómparatis and súperlatis Edit

to form the comparative and the superlative of an adjective, you take the masculine form of the adjective and add the ending -ro/ra for the comparative and -sto/sta for the superlative.

masc. sg fem. sg masc. du fem. du masc. pl fem. pl
pósitis pecho (small) pecha peche peche pechi pechi
cómparatis pechoro pechora pechore pechore pechori pechori
súperlatis pechosto pechosta pechoste pechoste pechosti pechosti

ia calosta muia venĭ a ma çhiasa. (the best woman comes to my house.)

when the adjective in the comparative or superlative is not directly next to the noun, you use the forms of multi (much), plu, (am) fos + póstitis.

illa çhiasa e plu pela si i'autra. (that house is more beautiful than the other one.)

(tu) es am fos gralto. (you are the longest/biggest.) You use am fos + pósitis if the adjective describes someone's/something's appearence. In other cases, you use an article with fos + pósitis

(tu) es iu fos calo. (you are the best.)

there are a few adjectives that have irregular comparative and superlative forms.

maio (bad), peioro, peiosto

pievro (poor), pievoro, pievosto

multi (much), plu, fos

VerbsEdit

there are four types of verbs. Verbs that end in the infinitive with: -ar, -er, -ir, -re (çhantar - to sing, qiser - to eat, velir - to want, prandre - to take). To conjugate a verb you take away -ar, -er, -ir, -re to get the stem and then you add the endings.

Cerlitian verbs have: 7 tenses: iu prăzens, i'imperfatu, iu perfatu, iu furamu, iu passe compent, iu plussiperfatu simplo and iu plussiperfatu compent; 2 numbers: iu singularis and iu pluralis; 4 moods: i'indicatis, iu condixionel, iu parafatis and iu coniunctis and 2 voices: i'actius and iu passius.

the personal pronouns are:

1sg 2sg 3sg (m) 3sg (f) 1du 2du 3du 1pl 2pl 3pl

subject

ieu tu il el nus vus ile nus vus ili
dir. object nus vus le nus vus li
ind. object miu tiu siu siu nui vui lui nui vui lui
refl. verbs me te se se nos vos si ni vi si

the personal pronouns are not required before a verb since every person has another ending. The formal form to say you is 'umă' in the singular form and just vus in the plural form.

direct object personal pronouns can either be placed before or after the verb, unless the sentence is negative or a question because then it must stand in front of the verb.

ieu lavu-tĕ / ieu tĕ lavu (I love you) but only: ieu nu tĕ lavu (I don't love you)

Reflexive verbs have -si behind them in the infinitive (coutarsi - to behave) but in other tenses, the reflexive pronoun is placed in front of the verb. If there is an infinitive next to another verb, you place the pronoun directoy after the infinitive

ieu veliu louvarme (I want to wash myself)

Present tense Edit

present tense (iu prăzens)
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
-ar -u -as -ams -atz -ai
-er -u -es -ems -etz -ei
-ir -iu -is -ims -itz -ii
-re -u -s -/ -ĕms -ĕtz -i

the present tense is used to describe something that happens frequently or something that happens now.

(ieu) çhantu zi (tu) qises. (I sing and you eat/i am singing and you are eating)

(ieu) veliu cafè am let. (I want coffee with milk)

Past imperfect tense Edit

past imperfect tense (i'imperfatu)
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
-ar -ivàm -ivàs -ivă -ivàms -ivàtz -ivài
-er -ivàm -ivàs -ivă -ivàms -ivàtz -ivài
-ir -ivàm -ivàs -ivă -ivàms -ivàtz -ivài
-re -ivàm -ivàs -ivă -ivàms -ivàtz -ivài

the past imperfect tense is used to describe something that happened frequently in the past or to describe background information.

nu pasad, (ieu) ios xavivàm alcuhol pa un festas.(in the past, i always drank alcohol at a party.)

ia vencha fajivă caet un oumo ambulá per ia sadura. (the wind was blowing while a man was walking through the forest.)

Preterite tense Edit

preterite tense (iu perfatu)
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
-ar -ái -asti -íms -ís -arai
-er -éi -esti -íms -ís -erei
-ir -éi -isti -íms -ís -irei
-re -esti -íms -ís -réi

the preterite is used to describe an event that occured in the past.

ir (el) vostá cu ma sora (yesterday she spoke with my sister.)

ia nicta passe ambulíms isul per ia caje (last night we walked through the street.)

Future tense Edit

future tense (iu furamu)
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
-ar -aro -aris -ari -arims -aritz -arii
-er -ero -eris -eri -erims -eritz -erii
-ir -iro -iris -iri -irims -iritz -irii
-re -ro -ris -ri -rims -ritz -rii

the future tense is used to describe something that will happen in the future.

(tu) furis un calíssimo oumo. (you will be a great man.)

(ieu) savu qua (ili) dirii a miu. (I know what they will say to me.)

Compound past Edit

the compound past (iu passe compent) is formed by the auxiliary verb aure (to have) + the past participle form of the verb.

the verb aure
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
au as a ams atz ai
past participle
sg pl
-ar -àt -ati
-er -èt -eti
-ir -ìt -iti
-re -t -ti

the compound past is used to describe something that has ended so there's no use/possibility to do it again.

(ieu) au qisèt ia pizza. (I have eaten the pizza).

(nus) ams pranti i'ofriu. (We have taken the offer.)

Pluperfect tense Edit

there are 2 types of pluperfect tenses. The simple pluperfect and the compound pluperfect. They are usually interchangeable, but if you have two pluperfect tenses in one sentence, you use the compound pluperfect to describe the event that happend first and the simple pluperfect to describe the event that happend after that.

simple pluperfect (iu plussiperfatu simplo)
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
-ar -azam -azas -ază -azams -azatz -azai
-er -ezam -ezas -eză -ezams -ezatz -ezai
-ir -izam -izas -iză -izams -izatz -izai
-re -(e)zam -(e)zas -(e)ză -(i)zams -(i)zatz -(e)zai

you use the pluperfect tense to describe something that happened before the main action happened.

caet (vus) ís estior, já delază de plurar. (when you went outside, it had already stopped raining.)

(ili) já qisezai. (they had already eaten.)

the compound pluperfect is formed using the past form of the verb aure and then the past participle. (see compound past tense.)

aure - past
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
avam avas avă avams avatz avai

irregular verbs Edit

There are a few irregular verbs. The most frequent are: sère (to be), dir (to say), posser (to can), ponder (to place), fiar (to make) and aendre (to go)

sère (to be)
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
prăzens su es e sims sitz sunt
imperfatu siàm siàs sià siàms siàtz siài
perfatu féi fusti fue fums fuis ferei
furamu furo furis furi furims furitz furii
plussiperfatu fuzam fuzas fuză fuzams fuzats fuzai
past participle sit sit sit siti siti siti
dir (to say)
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
prăzens diu dies die dims ditz dii
imperfatu dievàm dievàs dievă dievàms dievàtz dievài
perfatu diséi disti disé disíms disís diserei
furamu diro diris diri dirims diritz dirii
plussiperfatu dizam dizas diză dizams dizatz dizai
past participle dit dit dit diti diti diti
posser (to can)
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
prăzens possu poves povĕ possims possitz possei
imperfatu posàm posàs posă posàms posàtz posài
perfatu pudéi pudesti pudé pudíms pudís puderei
furamu poro poris pori porims poritz porii
plussiperfatu posezam posezas poseză posezams posezatz posezai
past participle post post post posti posti posti
ponder (to place)
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
prăzens pondu pones ponĕ pondems pondetz pondei
imperfatu povàm povàs povă povàms povàtz povài
perfatu pondéi pondesti pondé pondíms pondís ponderei
furamu pondro pondris pondri pondrims pondritz pondrii
plussiperfatu pondezam pondezas pondeză pondezams pondezatz pondezai
past participle pont pont pont ponti ponti ponti
fiar (to make)
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
prăzens fau fas fia fiams fatz fai
imperfatu fiavàm fiavàs fiavă fiavàms fiavàtz fiavài
perfatu fasái fasti fasá fasíms fasís fasarai
furamu facro facris facri facrims facritz facrii
plussiperfatu fiazam fiazas fiază fiazams fiazatz fiazai
past participle fat fat fat fati fati fati
aendre (to go)
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
prăzens vau vach va aendĕms aendĕtz vai
imperfatu aevàm aevàs aevă aevàms aevàtz aevài
perfatu éi iesti ims ís ierei
furamu aero aeris aeri aerims aeritz aerii
plussiperfatu aezam aezas aeză aezams aezatz aezai
past participle vaet vaet vaet vaeti vaeti vaeti

passive Edit

The passive (iu passius) has five tenses. The present, the past imperfect, the future, the perfect and the pluperfect tense. The first three are formed using a form of the verb vuir + passive participle. The other two are formed using a form of sère + passive past participle. The perfect tense is formed using the present tense of sère (su), the pluperfect tense is formed using the past tense of sère (siàm). Some verbs, like sère, don't have passive forms themselves.

vuir
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
prăzens vui vus vu vums vutz vui
imperfatu vuiàm vuiàs vuiă vuiàms vuiàtz vuiài
furamu vuro vuris vuri vurims vuritz vurii

the passive pasticiple is for every verb in singular and plural: stem + usc, for example: çhantusc (sung)

passive past participle
sg pl
-ar -atu -atui
-er -etu -etui
-ir -itu -itui
-re -tu -tui

the passive past participle is the same as the past participle + u for singular and + ui for plural.

the passive is used when you want to say what happens to the subject or when you don't not know the subject.

ia pizza e qisetu. (the pizza is eaten.)

(nus) ios vuiàms batusc per nos(su) paiu. (we were always hit by our father.)

subjunctive Edit

The subjunctive (iu coniunctis) has 2 tenses and 2 voices, present and past, active and passive. Things that will happen in the future, are also expressed with the present subjunctive. To form the conjunctive, you take the 1sg form of the verb in the indicative and then you take away -u/-iu (-ir verbs). Then you add the endings, so it is vaiem and not aendĕm (aendre). If the forms are (almost) the same, you can add the word 'sa' in front of the verb to indicate the use of the subjunctive, but this is not required.

These are the most important uses of the subjunctive:

- wishes ((sa) vivei(ĕ) iu renyu, long live the king/may the king live long)

- desires ((ieu) veliu qe (tu) (sa) mauries, I want you to die)

- doubts ((ieu) dobu qe (ili) (sa) possei vorber Celitiàm, I doubt that they can speak Celitian)

- possibilities (nu e possiblo qe (vus) (sa) vorbeite Celitiàm, It is not possible that you speak Celitian)

Some verbs that often have a subjunctive with them are: velir (want), dobar (doubt), stundar (think), jesper (hope), desar (desire/wish).

present subjunctive active (prăzens du coniunctis actius)
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
-ar -aiem -aies -ai(ĕ) -aime -aite -ai
-er -eiem -eies -ei(ĕ) -eime -eite -ei
-ir -iem -ies -ime -ite -ii
-re -ĕm -ĕs -ĕme -ĕte -ei
past subjunctive active (perfatu du coniunctis actius)
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
-ar -assem -asses -assĕ -asseme -assete -asse
-er -essem -esses -essĕ -esseme -essete -esse
-ir -issem -isses -issĕ -isseme -issete -isse
-re -essem -esses -essĕ -esseme -essete -esse

the passive of the subjunctive is formed using the subjunctive form of vuir in the present tense and the subjunctive form of sère in the past tense. The pasticiples stay the same as in the indicative.

present subjunctive passive (prăzens du coniunctis passius)
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
prăzens vuir vuiem vuies vui(ĕ) vuime vuite vui

(nus) jespems qe (vus) nu (sa) vuite madeçusc (we hope that you will not be murdered)

past subjunctive passive (perfatu du coniunctis passius)
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl

prăzens sère

siem sies si(ĕ) sime site si

(ieu) stundái qe (il) (sa) si(ĕ) batatu (I thought that he was hit)

SyntaxEdit

negation and questions Edit

To make a sentence negative, you can do two things. You can add the word nu directly in front of the verb (ieu nu tĕ lavu). Or you can add the suffix -ne to the verb, but you can only do this if the verb ends in: a vowel (not the vowels with a breve mark on it) or an s (ieu tĕ lavune). However, if the verb is only one syllable long, this is also not possible (il nu e, and not: il ene)

To form a question, you can just add a question mark after the sentence (tu mĕ lavas?). Or you can put ce in front of the sentence (ce tu me lavas?).

the stressed syllable never changes because of the suffixes (tu mĕ lAvasne).

adverbs Edit

To make an adverb out of a adjective, you make the adjective feminine and then you add the ending: -mè. Adverbs are used to say something about a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Adverbs never change in form.

tu ambulas răfamè (you walk fast) vs i'oumo răfo (the fast man)

There are a few exceptions on the rule.

calo - chiel

maio - mal

multi - mult

contractions Edit

there are a few prepositions that contract if there comes an article after them.

de (from/of)

de + iu = du

de + ia = da

de + éi = déi

in (in)

in + iu = nu

in + ia = na

in + éi = néi

pa (at)

pa + iu = piu

pa + ia = pia

pa + éi = péi

Cu/am Edit

cu and am can both be translated as ‘with’, but there is a difference in use. Am means that you have added one thing to another, mostly liquids/food ex. cafè am let (coffee with milk) or tort am zachĕr (cake with sugar). Cu is used in all other cases ex. ieu veliu ambular cu tiu (I want to walk with you). When you have a personal pronoun after a preposition, you use the indirect object form.

LexiconEdit


No. English Celitiàm
1Iieu
2you (singular)tu
3heil
4wenus
5you (plural)vus
6theyili
7thisisto/ista/ist'
8thatillo/illa/ill'
9hereaich
10thereala
11whocúi
12whatqua
13whereunt
14whencaet
15howçommè
16notnu/-ne
17alltos
18manymulti
19somecualti
20fewpuali
21otherautro
22oneun
23twodui
24threetréi
25foursàtra
26fivecinca
27biggralto/gralta
28longialto/ialta
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32smallpecho/pecha
33shortcurto/curta
34narrow
35thin
36womanmuia
37man (adult male)oumo
38man (human being)humanu / sèrendu humanitaru
39childĭnfant
40wife
41husband
42mothermaia
43fatherpaiu
44animalanimal
45fishpesco
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forestsadura
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73earoreya
74eyegúilo
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heartcour
91liver
92drinkxaver
93eatqiser
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breatheaspirar
100laughlĕzir
101see
102hear
103knowsauvar
104thinkstundar
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109diemaurir
110killmadecer
111fight
112hunt
113hitbatar
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walkambular
122comeveuner
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140saydir
141singçhantar
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sunsoyo
148moonluma
149starestraya
150wateraxa
151rainpluiu
152riverflua
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177nightnicta
178dayuz
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184oldmaio
185goodcalo/cala
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correctchapunto/chapunta
197near
198far
199right
200left
201atpa
202inin
203withcu/am
204andzi
205if
206because
207name


expressions Edit

greetings: Edit

there are a few ways to greet someone in Celitiàm.

informal:

prava / salut / ileu / chiau = hi / hello

prava / chiau / vale = bye

formal:

calo uz / cal'uz = good morning/afternoon

cala sàra = good evening

cala nicta = good night

a rever = see you later

a mĕnau = see you tomorrow

other expressions: Edit

here are a few other expressions that can be useful:

stĕplază (from: si tĕ plază. lit. 'if it pleases you') = please

(multi) grasèus = thank you (very much)

ma plaza (lit. 'my pleasure') / de ras (lit. 'from nothing') = no ploblem

Numbers Edit

1 unu
2 deus
3 trai
4 qatre
5 chinqe
6 sài
7 sete
8 optĕ
9 novĕ
10 dezĕ
11 unzĕ
12 deuzĕ
13 traizĕ
14 qatzĕ
15 chinzĕ
16 sàizĕ
17 setedezĕ
18 optedezĕ
19 novedezĕ
20 zintum
21 zintum-unu
22 zintum-deus
30 trintum
31 trintum-unu
40 cuantum
50 chintum
60 sàitum
70 settum
80 optum
90 novium
100 zencu
200 deuszencu
1.000 miiu
10.000 dezĕmiiu
20.000 zintummiiu
100.000 zencumiiu
100.001 zencumiiu-unu
1.000.000 (un) mijun

to say 'i am 23 years old in Celitian you say: (ieu) au zintum-trai ani (lit. I have 23 years).

Example textEdit

from the universal decleration of human rights:

Tos éi sèrendi humanitari sunt naetati leuvri zi ejai in dignitat zi drechi. Sunt dotatui du rajau zi consènzia zi deuvei coutarsi fraternamè am lauta.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards another in a spirit of brotherhood.