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Ceraomi

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Name: [[]]

Type:

Alignment:

Head Direction:

Number of genders:

Declensions: No

Conjugations: No

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

Hello and thank you for visiting my language page. Please also see my other language called Nauhi. This language I'm creating is called Ceraomi (pronounced /Kerao̯mi/), and it is supposed to be spoken by the fictional Ceraomi elves who inhabit a large forest in Northeast Siberia. Ceraomi is an isolating language with SVO word order. It has a root vocabulary of about 2000 words. There are a large number of words corresponding to things found in nature and particularly in forests, whereas there are a comparatively small number of words corresponding to man-made things. Apart from a small number of borrowed words from Chukchi and Russian, Ceraomi has had very little influence from any other language. It is also a language isolate, unrelated to any other language.

PhonologyEdit

Ceraomi has a phonemic inventory of 5 vowels and 12 consonants shown in the tables below. Sounds in brackets are allophonic.

VOWELS Front Central Back
High i o
Mid e ə
Low a

Diphthongs: Opening: /ea/, /oe/, /oə/, /oa/; Closing: /ei/, /eo/, /əi/, /əo/, /ai/, /ae/, /ao/, /oi/.

CONSONANTS Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p t k
Fricative (β) s ç x h
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Sonorant l (ɾ) j w


Ceraomi has a five-vowel system consisting of the vowels /i/, /e/, /ə/, /a/ and /o/. The vowel /o/ is pronounced about three quarters of the way in height between a low vowel and a high vowel, significantly higher than the vowels /e/ and /ə/ which are pronounced half way in height between a low and a high vowel. Vowel quality is the only contrastive feature in the vowel system (features such as length and nasality are not phonemically contrastive). The consonant system is fairly small with 12 consonants. A large amount of allophonic variance is found within the consonant system, however. The voiceless consonants /p/, /t/, /k/, /s/, /ç/, /x/ and /h/ become voiced to [b], [d], [g], [z], [ʝ], [ɣ] and [ɦ] respectively when occurring between two vowels within a word, and /l/ becomes a flap [ɾ] in this environment. /w/ is realized as a fricative [β] between two the same vowels. /n/ assimilates to [ŋ] before /k/.

PhonotacticsEdit

Ceraomi words are subject to a number of strict phonotactic constraints. All words start in one of the following eight consonants: /p/, /t/, /k/, /s/, /ç/, /x/, /h/, /l/. All non-monosyllabic words end in a vowel. Monosyllabic words may end in a vowel or diphthong. Diphthongs occur fairly frequently but are limited to stressed syllables. Clusters of two adjacent vowels pronounced separately are not permitted. Consonant clusters also occur fairly frequently but are limited to a length of two consonants and are mostly found word-medially.

Word stressEdit

Stress in Ceraomi words is fairly weak and also is not phonemic. Stress is always predictable and falls on the penultimate syllable when the word has more than one syllable.

Root morphemesEdit

There are about 2000 root morphemes in Ceraomi. Due to this fairly small root vocabulary size, Ceraomi relies heavily on the joining of root morphemes to form compound structures. When forming compounds, root morphemes are placed side by side and maintain their original form, rather than being agglutinated into a single longer word. Ceraomi morphology is discussed in more depth in the grammar section of this page (please see below). Root morphemes never exceed three syllables in length. The following word structures are found for Ceraomi root morphemes (C = consonant, V = vowel, D = diphthong): Monosyllabic: CV, CD; Disyllabic: CVC(C)V, CDC(C)V; Trisyllabic: CVCVC(C)V, CVCDC(C)V.

OrthographyEdit

Ceraomi remained without any written form until the late 20th century. Since then it has been written using the Latin script. The alphabet consists of the following 20 letters: a b bh c ch e ë f h i l m n o r s sh t w y. The alphabet is entirely transparent and so it can be learnt quickly and easily. The table below shows each letter of the alphabet and its associated pronunciation(s). As can be seen, some of the letters have two pronunciations. For all these letters other than 'n', the second pronunciation listed in the table occurs when the letter is present between two vowels within a word, and the first pronunciation occurs elsewhere. For the letter 'n', the second pronunciation is found when preceding the letter 'k' and the first is present elsewhere.

Letter a b bh c ch e ë h i l m n o r s sh t w y
Pronunciation(s) /a/ /p, b/ /β/ /k, g/ /x, ɣ/ /e/ /ə/ /h, ɦ/ /i/ /l/ /m/ /n, ŋ/ /o/ /ɾ/ /s, z/ /ç, ʝ/ /t, d/ /w/ /j/


Basic GrammarEdit

Grammar overviewEdit

Ceraomi is a nominative-accusative language with a strict Subject-Verb-Object word order. The indirect object, however, precedes the verb. Ceraomi is postpositional and predominantly left-branching, with modifiers preceding the parts of speech they modify in most environments. The morphology of Ceraomi is strongly isolating, with very few cases of agglutinativity. To help compensate for this lack of agglutinativity, Ceraomi relies heavily on the use of postpositions. In fact, every noun or pronoun that occurs is followed by an obligatory postposition that indicates its grammatical case. The same words can function either as nouns or as verbs in Ceraomi, and the case-marking postpositions following nouns are important in distinguishing the noun forms from the corresponding verb forms. There are eight parts of speech present in Ceraomi; the noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, postposition, conjunction and interjection.

NounsEdit

Nouns is Ceraomi are not marked by any definite or indefinite articles. Neither is there any noun gender in Ceraomi. As mentioned above, nouns are followed by postpositions indicating their grammatical case. The nominative and accusative cases each have two different postpositions depending upon whether the noun is animate or inanimate. The animate category does not only include humans and animals, but also living things that are not capable of thought, such as plants, trees and flowers. There are a total of 46 different grammatical cases that are conveyed by postpositions in Ceraomi. The following is a complete list of these:

Adessive (e.g. near/at/by the building); apudessive (e.g. next to the building); inessive (e.g. inside the building); intrative (between the buildings); pertingent (touching the building); subessive (under the building); superessive I (on the building); superessive II (over the building); ablative (away from the building); initiative (beginning from the building); lative (to the building); terminative (as far as the building); perlative (through/along the road); prolative (via/ by way of the building); antessive (before the game); temporal (at eight o clock (only used for describing time)); accusative animate; accusative inanimate; instructive (by means of the building); instrumental (with/using the building); nominative animate; nominative inanimate; ablative (concerning the building); aversive I (avoiding the building); aversive II (fearful of the building); benefactive I (for the benefit of the building); benefactive II (for/intended for the building); causal (because of the building); comitative (with the building); dative (for the building); distributive (per / for each building); genitive (of the building); possessive (belonging to the building); ornative (endowed/equipped with a building); partitive (three (of the) buildings); comparative (similar to the building); equative (comparable with the building); essive ((temporary state of being) as the building); excessive ((transition from a state) from being a child (is not a child any more)); identical (being the building); orientative (turned toward the building); revertive (backwards to/against the building); translative ((change from one form to another) turning into an adult); multiplicative ((number of times) six times); vocative ((used to address someone) O father!); disjunctive ((used in isolation or other special situations) What is it? A building).

PronounsEdit

Ceraomi contains 1st, 2nd and 3rd person personal pronouns. Personal pronouns in Ceraomi are not affected by gender or by formality. Similarly to nouns, however, they are marked as either animate or inanimate when occurring in either the nominative or accusative case. This also applies to non-personal pronouns. Pronouns in Ceraomi are marked for grammatical case with the same set of postpositions that are used for nouns. In addition to the postpositions that mark grammatical case, postpositions indicating intensity, reflexivity, reciprocity and expletivity can mark personal pronouns. These precede the postpositions indicating grammatical case when present in the same word. The table below shows the personal pronouns of Ceraomi:

Singular Plural
First person ca ca hë
Second person to to hë
Third person ti ti hë

As can be seen in the table, Ceraomi uses the postposition 'hë' (/hə/) to indicate plurality. This postposition is used in every instance of plurality for nouns and pronouns. When a plural personal or non-personal pronoun occurring in the nominative or accusative case refers to a mixture of animate and inanimate nouns, the animate form of the postpositional case marker is always used.

Ceraomi only contains one demonstrative pronoun that corresponds to the both the word ‘this’ and the word ‘that’ in English. There are two relative pronouns corresponding to the English words ‘who/which/that’ and ‘whose’. There are also two interrogative pronouns corresponding to the words ‘who’ and ‘what’ respectively in the following English sentences: 1) Who is in the garden?; 2) What is his name?. Ceraomi contains 19 different indefinite pronouns that are equivalent to the following English words: any; anybody/anyone; anything; each; either; enough; everyone/everybody; everything; little/few; more; most; much/many; one/you; other; plenty; somebody/someone; something; such; whatever. Negative indefinite pronouns are indicated by a postposition that means ‘opposite of’ (e.g. ‘anybody’ + [opposite] = ‘nobody’, ‘more’ + [opposite] = less, ‘either’ + [opposite] = neither).

Colour termsEdit

Ceraomi has root morphemes for the primary colours red, blue and yellow, and for the secondary colours green, orange and purple. It also has root morphemes for black, grey, white and brown. Other colours can be formed by placing two or more root colour words side by side.

VerbsEdit

Verbs in Ceraomi are marked by postpositions for tense, aspect, modality, mirativity and voice. The same postpositions are used to represent both tense and aspect. There are three tenses (past, present, future) and three aspects (perfective, habitual, continuous) expressed through these postpositions. The table below shows the postpositions used to represent each aspect occurring in each tense:

Perfective Habitual Continuous
Past tense cho chomi choro
Present tense sa sami saro
Future tense tëmi tëro


Specific postpositions are used to indicate the following moods in Ceraomi: imperative; conditional; subjunctive; optative; potential; cohortative. The infinitive form of a verb is formed by the addition of the postposition 'cai' (/kai/). The postposition 'shehi' (/çeɦi/) expresses mirativity. The sentence below makes use of mirativity:

To si loni caha cansi sami chirëba laocë howa lo shehi.

You [subj.] - very good - play [pres. habit.] - football game [obj.] - [mir.]

You play soccer very well!

Ceraomi has both an active and a passive voice. The passive voice is indicated by a postpositional marker following the verb.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives in Ceraomi can take either the attributive, absolute, predicative or nominal form. The comparative degree for adjectives is formed by adding before the adjective the word 'sota' (/soda/) meaning 'more', and the superlative degree is formed by adding before the adjective the word 'sabi' (/sabi/) meaning 'most'. Attributive adjectives in Nauhi tend to occur in the following order: quantity; color; size; quality; shape; age; opinion; purpose. Other orders are permissible also. Adjectives and other modifiers are not marked for restrictiveness.

Example textEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name

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