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樱语

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Chàkmwá
樱语
Type
Isolating
Alignment
Nominative Accusative
Head direction
initial
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
no
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Chàkmwá, /ʨʰɑ˦˩k̚ mɥɑ˧˥/

PhonologyEdit

The phonology is for the most part based on that of some Chinese dialects, like cantonese. But also made up.

ConsonantsEdit

labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p t k ʔ
plosive aspirated
Fricative f s ɕ x h
Affricate ʦ ʨ
affricate aspirated ʦʰ ʨʰ
Approximant w j ɥ
Flap or tap ɽ
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i y ɨ ɯ u
Mid e ø ə o
Open-mid ɛ ʌ ɔ
Open a ɑ


TonesEdit

number contour name countour of tone 6
1 ˥ (55) high ˦˥˧ (453)
2 ˨˩ (21) low ˨˩˧ (213)
3 ˧˥ (35) rising ˦˩˧ (413)
4 ˦˩ (41) falling ˨˥˧ (253)
5 ˦˧ (43) base ˨˦˧ (243)
6 Depending

PhonotacticsEdit

Words in Chàkmwá are only one syllable long, words can combine to form different meaning.

The syllable structure of Chàkmwá is (C(C2))Vt(F)

where :

C is for an initial consonant,

C2 is for a secondary consonant that follows the initial one,

V is for a vowel,

t is for the tone,

F is for the final consonant.

OrthographyEdit

Initial consonant ipa Initial consonant ipa
p c ʨ
t f f
k h h
j j g k
l l m m
n n b p
q x r ɽ
s s d t
v ɥ w w
x ɕ z ʦ
ch ʨʰ zh ʦʰ
ng ŋ jn ɲ
' ʔ
2ndary consonant ipa 2ndary consonant ipa
v* w j* j
w ɥ x ɕ
h x f f

the 2ndary consonants v and j also occur as diphthongs of vowels, where j being the initial i and v being the initial u or o, v and j occur when the diphthong of the other kind is an initial diphthong, or when there's an final based diphthong,

ie: moa, mvao, mvia, mvai. mia, mjoa, mjao, mjai.

Vowel tone 5 and 6 other tones tone 5 and 6 + final r other tones + final r
a a ɑ ɑr ɑr
aa a a ɑr ar
y i i ir ir
i ɨ ɨ ɨr ɨr
u y u ɯr ɯr
uu y y ɯr
e ɛ ə ər ər
ee ɛ e ər ər
o ʌ o ʌr ɔr
oo ʌ ɔ ʌr ɔr
eu ø ø øɽ øɽ
tone accent example
1 ̈ ä ÿ ï ü ë ö
2 ̃ ã ỹ ĩ ũ ẽ õ
3 ́ á ý í ú é ó
4 ̀ à ỳ ì ù è ò
5 ̄ ā ȳ ī ū ē ō

There are four kinds of diphthongs, any of the base-vowels can carry a diphthong, but not more than one per vowel, except when using the 2nd consonant to add an initial u or i, but those also have rules. for them see the 2ndary consonant.

diphthong pronunciation examples exceptions
i initial /i/ or /j/ ia iy ii iu ie io ieu none-
u initial /u/ or /w/ oa uy oi oe uo ueu a, i and e get an o instead of u, uu is not possible.
i final /i/ or /j/ ai yi ui ei oi eui ii is not possible
u final /u/ or /w/ ao yu io eo ou same as initial
final consonant ipa final consonant ipa
n n m m
ng ŋ x ɕ
k k r see vowels

If the word has an i or u final diphthong the final consonants x, k and r cannot occur.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

VerbsEdit

hanzi romanized location
Perfect (aspect) la after verb
imperfect (aspect) ja after verb
interrogative (mood) hiaa end of sentence
imperative (mood) before verb
negative before verb

An imperative sentence can also be obtained by leaving out the subject.

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit

personal pronouns hanzi romanized
1st person joó
1st person (male)
1st person (female) wào
2nd person nào
2nd person (formal) nàng
3rd person male
3rd person female
3rd person object
dual
plural
numerals hanzi formal hanzi romanized
1 hiỳ
2 nií
3 siý
4 chiì
5 mỳ
6
7 nià
8 hiá
9 kiá
0
10 'èn
100 sén
1000 xién
10000 iéng
100000 亿 iér
Demonstratives hanzi romanized
distal niỳ
proximal zhỳ
interrogative niá

Example textEdit

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