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Charangae
tʃäɾängæ
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Charangae (tʃäɾängæ; literally mediator speech) is the native language of the Hkenunengae (hke̞nune̞ngæ; literally mediator people). As the name suggests, the Hkenunengae are a trading people, with many expert merchants and mediators due to their central location in the Ngaehbeha (ngæhbe̞xä; literally gold exchange) trade route. The Hkenunengae live on an archipelago in the middle of a vast ocean, making them the only stop for merchants to drop anchor in on their way to the other end of the ocean. Thus the Charangae language is agglutinative to focus on the word, as many foreign words make their way into the lexicon.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive b t d k g
Fricative ɸ f ʒ x h
Affricate
Approximant l
Trill
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open æ
Open ä

A dipthong can be formed between æ and i.

AlphabetEdit

To be implemented when I have time to transfer to digital

RomanizationEdit

For the sake of convenience, the following IPA symbols shall be referred to as such:

ɸ f
ʒ zh
ch
ɾ r
x h
æ ae
ä a
e

PhonotacticsEdit

The standard syllable structure is CV, with C being a consonant or consonant cluster, and V being a vowel. In this case a "none" vowel still counts as a vowel. The only consonant clusters involve the consonants n, l, h, and the consonants d, b, t, g, k. The second group of consonants cannot exist without one of the three first group consonants preceding them. The consonants t and k are the only consonants eligible for a "none" vowel. The "none" consonant clusters can only be used at the end of a root/affix. The standalone consonants are as follows: m/n, l, h/x, zh, ch, f/ɸ, ŋ, and ɾ. The slashes indicate that the two consonants are allophones (only outside of consonant clusters), the left consonant can only be used at the beginning of a word, while the right consonant can only be used in the middle of the word. The declensions or conjugations attached are to be ignored in this rule. The particle nae and the interrogative demonstratives are always pronounced with an n sound. Adjectives are only allowed to have one syllable, and when forming compound words, the modifying root comes after the modified root and must be in diminutive form.

Tones/Pitch AccentEdit

There are five tones, and they are only used on adjectives which are constrained to one syllable only. The rest of the words use a pitch accent system for a stress pattern, with the syllables sporting a consonant cluster getting the high pitch accent and the rest being low. The n, l, or h does not receive a pitch accent in this rule. If two consonant clusters are adjacent to one another, the sonorant n or l in between shall be lower pitched to provide contrast. If the second consonant cluster has an unvoiced h, then the syllable is not pitch accented. The five tones are: neutral, high, rising, dipping, and falling. The neutral tone is said with a normal voice, while the high tone is said with a higher pitched voice like in Mandarin. The rising tone rises like the Cantonese rising tone, and the dipping tone can be compared to the Mandarin dipping tone, except it is always fully pronounced. The falling tone is identical to the Mandarin falling tone. The tones shall be referred to as:

1 - Neutral

2 - High

3 - Rising

4 - Dipping

5 - Falling

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes No Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No Yes No No No No No No


Word Order Edit

The canonical word order for Charangae is Subject Object Verb, but the order can be changed while retaining the same meaning because of the case identifying prefixes for nouns.

Nouns Edit

The nouns are usually multisyllabic to contrast the monosyllabic adjectives. The are declined in this manner: (case indicator) (root) (number indicator). With each case indicator there is a different location the noun takes in a sentence. The root for person/entity mundae, and the present progressive conjugated copula htichindifu shall be used to illustrate the mechanics of declension. In instances where the coda is unusable, the present progressive conjugated verb htichinbaeina shall be used, the root of which means to give. For possession, the generic name lkanaht will be used.

Case Number Declined Root Position Example Example Translation
Nominative Singular ŋemundae First ŋemundae htichindifu The person is existing.
Accusative Pair naemundaehbant After Nominative ŋemundae naemundaehbant htichindifu The entity is a pair of people.
Dative Plural Few nemundaerazhaehk After Accusative ŋemundae naemundaehbant nemundaerazhaehk htichinbaeina The person is giving the pair of people a few people.
Ablative Plural Numerous ndumundaeraluhk After Modified Noun ŋemundae ndumundaeraluhk naemundaehbant nemundaerazhaehk htichinbaeina The person who went from the large group of people is giving the pair of people a few people.
Genitive Singular zhalkanaht Preceding Modified Noun zhalkanaht ŋemundae htichindifu Lkanaht's person is existing.
Vocative Singular handalkanaht Preceding Sentence handalkanaht ŋemundae htichindifu Lkanaht, the person is existing.
Locative Singular lbanemundae Preceding Modified Noun lbanemundae ŋemundae htichindifu The person is existing in the person.
Instrumental Singular chimundae Preceding Modified Verb ŋemundae zhalkanaht chimundae htichindifu The person is using Lkanaht's person for existing.

Pronouns Edit

The pronouns differentiate by gender and by person. There are three persons: first, second, and third. The pronouns are also subject to declension.

Pronoun Gender Person
ma Animate First
maei Animate Second
mu Animate Third
chaei Inanimate Second
chu Inanimate Third

Verbs Edit

The verbs are also multisyllabic to contrast the monosyllabic adjectives. They are conjugated in this manner: (tense, aspect, and polarity) (root) (mood). The conjugation shall be illustrated with the verb root nbaeina, meaning to give. To use a verb as a noun, remove conjugation and attach the prefix ri to the root.

Tense/Aspect/Polarity Edit

To change the polarity to negative just add zhaei to the end of the conjugation.

Past Past Translation Present Present Translation Future Future Translation
Perfective Aspect htenbaeina gave htinbaeina give htunbaeina will give
Progressive Aspect htechinbaeina was giving htichinbaeina is giving htuchinbaeina will be giving
Habitual Aspect ltenbaeina habitually gave ltinbaeina habitually gives ltunbaeina will habitually give

Mood Edit

The generic name lkanaht, the noun root mundae meaning person/entity, and the conjunction lbe meaning if are used to assist in the illustration along with the aforementioned verb root. For the potential mood, the la is extended in a similar manner and tone in which Cantonese places an ah after sentences.

Mood Conjugated Root Example Translation
Subjunctive nbaeinananu handamundae htinbaeinananu Person, it is suggested to give.
Conditional nbaeiŋaei ŋelkanaht htinbaeinaŋaei lbe ŋemundae htizhaeinbaeina Lkanaht would give if the person does not give.
Imperative nbaeichahk handamundae htinbaeinachahk Person, you must give!
Potential nbaeinala ŋemundae htuzhaeinbaeinala The person will probably not give in the future.

Copula Edit

The only copula of Charangae is ndifu, which is akin to desu in Japanese or to be in English.

DemonstrativesEdit

The demonstratives in Charangae are treated like adjectives in that the monosyllabic rule is applied and tones exist. The demonstrative is placed preceding the modified word. They are divided in Proximal, Medial, Distal, and Universal categories, changing with the two genders and quantity. The quantity grew from the Hkenunengae people's trading habits.

Proximal Medial Distal Universal Interrogative
Animate mi2

this animate

ma4

that animate

mu3

that animate over there

ma5

every animate

ni5

what animate

Inanimate chi2

this inanimate

cha4

that inanimate

chu3

that inanimate over there

cha1

every inanimate

na5

what inanimate

Quantity ri3

this many

faei1

that many

chu5

in that other amount

nu5

what amount

The interrogative words are always pronounced with n instead of m.

ConjunctionsEdit

The conjunctions are attached at the end of the phrase.

Conjunction Translation
lbe if
nde but
hana and
nkaehdae cause and effect
ŋae or
hankae and also

Adjectives Edit

Adjectives in Charangae are monosyllabic only, and employ the tone system. The adjectives precede the word they modify. There is no limit or order to which attributive adjectives may be attached to a word.

Adverbs Edit

Adverbs are mostly derived from adjectives by attaching na to the end of the adjective. There are some adverbs not derived from adjectives and vice versa.

Particles Edit

There are only four particles in Charangae: zhu, chuŋe, hkara, and nae.

Particle ZhuEdit

The particle zhu facilitates a noun describing a noun. The noun being modified holds the declensions. For example:

hahga (gold) mundae (person/entity) ndifu (copula)

hahga zhu ŋemundae htindifu

The person is gold-like.

Particle ChuŋeEdit

The particle chuŋe facilitates listing, similar to the English and. The last word in the list holds the declensions. For example:

lkanaht(generic name) hahga (gold) mundae (person/entity) ndichi (to own)

ŋelkanaht naehahgaraluhk chuŋe mundaeraluhk htindichi

Lkanaht owns much gold and many people.

Particle HkaraEdit

The particle hkara facilitates quotation. The particle precedes the quote and the phrase must have the verb to say. For example:

lkanaht (generic name) hahga (gold) mundae (person/entity) ndifu (copula) hgaŋe (to say)

ŋelkanaht hkara hahga zhu ŋemundae htindifu htehgaŋe

Lkanaht said the person is gold-like.

Particle NaeEdit

The particle nae is attached to the end of a phrase to give it an interrogative meaning. It is the only particle with a tone, and that tone is the falling tone. For example:

hahga (gold) mundae (person/entity) ndifu (copula)

hahga zhu ŋemundae htindifu nae5

Is the person gold-like?

NumbersEdit

The numbers in Charangae do not require any counter words, and are subject to declension. When counting other nouns, they require the use of the particle zhu to link the two words.

Root Translation Alternate Root Alternate Translation
faeifenanke the absence of substance riŋe zero; foreign word
fahbe one third none none
hbu one half hbunu half; literary
chuhbe one none none
zheht two laŋe pair; redundant foreign word
fa three chaene triple; foreign word
kana four zhi quadruple; foreign word
rae five none none
muhk six mahbara six; literary
chalt seven chaltana seven; literary
hdahte eight hdahtalaht eight; literary
hkalu nine none none
nuhkae ten none none
ranuhk hundred none none
ralunae thousand none none
hkahbene ten thousand none none
manunu hundred thousand none none
rahbalu one million none none

The numbers can be constructed in a similar manner to Chinese. To express a fraction, one must place the numerator, then the number of times halved or thirded. For example:


1/4

one two half

chuhbe zheht hbu


2/9

two three third

zheht fa fahbe


To express other fractions, one must put the denominator number after the literary form of half. For example:


1/7

one half seven

chuhbe hbunu chalt

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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