by SennomaUzanto
Date of creation 1st May 2015
SU-ID {{{SUID}}}
- Proto-Cinaiŋi
Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Sub pages

Sub pages
Cinaiŋi/Sound Changes

Cinaiŋi/Example Texts

Dictionary (Google Docs)
- Sound changes

- pronouns

General informationEdit

Cinajŋi (also called „ciŋi gënaino”, language of Gënai) is an african language.


Sound Change Edit

Main article: Cinaiŋi/Sound Change


Table of consonants
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d c ɟ k g
Fricative medial ɸ β θ ð s z ç ʝ x
Affricate ts dz
Approximants medial w j
lateral l ʎ
Trill r


Table of vowels
Front Central Back
Close i, y u
Mid ə
Open-mid ε ʌ
Open a

Writing System Edit

Latin IPA Latin






p [p] f [ɸ​] m [m] a [a]
t [t] th [θ] n [n] e [ε]
tc [c] c [ç] ņ [ɲ] i [i]
k [k] x [x] ŋ [ŋ] o [ʌ]
b [b] v [β] l [l] u [u]
d [d] dh [ð] ļ [ʎ] ë [ə]
dj [ɟ] j [ʝ] r [r]
g [g] gh [ɣ] w [w]
ts [t͡s] s [s] y [j]
dz [d͡z] z [z]




Case Edit

Case Suffix
1 Nominative -ka
2 Accusative -ne
3 Dative -da
4 Ablative -ba
5 Allative -ni
6 Locative -dji
7 Vocative -vo
8 Genitive -no
9 Posessive -tso

Gender Edit

Gender Prefix Example Translation
Inanimate unphysical ci- ciŋi language
physical mu- mufui stone
Human male lo- lostin father
female la- lastin mother
common le- lestin parent
Animal male vo- vokin male cat
female va- vakin female cat
common/plant ve- vekin cat

Number Edit

Only the pronouns have a real number. But there are quantifier prefixes, wich can be added to other nouns.

Prefix Usage Example Translation
Ø- Normal vejona, letine, muxadzu tree, person, house
gë- Collective vejona, letine, muxadzu forrest, nation, town
ca- Universal lcovejona, lcoletine, lcomuxadzu all trees, everybody, all houses
ca- Negatiive cavejona, caletine, camuxadzu no trees, nobody, no houses


The structur of Verbs is PERSON-ROOT-TENSE

Person Edit

Person Singular Plural
1st person to- do-
2nd person ti- di-
3rd person te- de-
Infinite ta-

Tense Edit

Tense Punctual Durative Habitual Inceptive Resultative
Past -ska -ņa -ļa -tla -dha
Present -ske -ņe -ļe -tle -dhe
Futur -sku -ņu -ļu -tlu -dhu
Imperative -sko -ņo -ļo -tlo -dho

Pronouns Edit

Table of correlatives Edit

[OLD] To redo!

Table of correlatives

interrogative relative demonstrative quantifier
near me near you far away not in sight existential universal negative alternative
ŋe- wo- ho- hi- he- ha- kai- lco- ca- ri-
reason -thën ŋethën wothën hothën hithën hethën hathën kaithën lcothën cathën rithën
time -l ŋel wol hol hil hel hal kail lcol cal ril
location -m ŋem wom hom him hem ham kaim lcom cam rim
manner of nouns -s ŋes wos hos his hes has kais lcos cas ris
manner of verbs -c ŋes woc hoc hic hec hac kaic lcoc cac ric
amount -jul ŋejul wojul hojul hijul hejul hajul kaijul lcojul cajul rijul
animate le-n leŋen lewon lehon lehin lehen lehan lekain lelcon lecan lerin
male lo-n loŋen lowon lohon lohin lohen lohan lokain lolcon locan lorin
female la-n laŋen lawon lahon lahin lahen lahan lakain lalcon lacan larin
inanimate ci-n ciŋen ciwon cihon cihin cihen cihan cokain cilcon cican cirin

Personal pronouns Edit

The personal pronouns are nouns with gender prefix and case suffix. They have three numbers. The indefinite pronoun lemau is used as the english one or you. The reflexive pronoun is used as english personal pronouns with -self.

Singular Dual Plural
1st person lelyo lelyot lelyim
2nd person leka lekot lekim
3rd person leņu leņot leņim
Indefinite lemau
Reflexive legu legot legim

Adjectives & Adverbs Edit

Adjectives end with -na. Adverbs end with -li.

Particles Edit

Positive Negative
Particle Usage Particle Usage
moa cona fast xlë cona not fast / slow
lai cona faster (Comparative) nie cona less fast / slower
lain cona the fastest (Superlative) nien cona the least fast / the slowest
joi cona too fast wal cona not fast enough
nux cona as fast as ... ëlka cona not as fast as ...


The word order is OSV, but variable. Najŋi uses prepositions



Example textEdit

English I saw a tree by the side of the lake.
Cinaiŋi vejonane tni muxadadji mudjanino tomatuska
Gloss tree-ACC by side-LOC lake-GEN 1SG-see-PUNCTUAL-PAST
IPA [vεˈʝ​ʌ​.na.nε] [tⁿi] [muˈxa.da.ɟi] [muˈɟʌ] [tʌˈma.tu.ska]

Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Article 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
lcoletine degonxa moa willi al moa ëlili go cigoladji al cinaundji...
ALL-Person 3.PL-live-PAST-INCEPTIVE POSITIVE-free-ADVERB and POSITIVE-equal-ADVERB in dignity-LOC and right-LOC...
[ˌɬʌ.lɛˈti.nɛ ˌdɛˈgʌn.xa ˈmʌa wilːi ˈal ˈmʌa ˈə ˈgʌ ˌçiˈgʌ.la.ɟi ˈal ˌçiˈgʌ.la.ɟi]

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