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Chinayan/Sound Change

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Consonants Edit

Proto-Cinaiŋi Middle-Cinaiŋi Cinaiŋi
Plain

plosives

*p

*t

*kʲ

*k

p

t

c

k

p

t

c

k

*b

*d

*gʲ

*g

*b

*d

*g

*b

*d

*g

Aspirated

plosives

*pʰ

*tʰ

*kʲʰ

*kʰ

ɸ

θ

ç

x

*bʰ

*dʰ

*gʲʰ

*gʰ

ɟʰ

β

ð

ʝ

ɣ

Nasals *m

*n

*ŋʲ

m

n

ɲ

ŋ

m

n

ɲ

ŋ

Sbilant *ts

*dz

*ts

*dz

ts1; s

dz1; z

*r r r
Approximants *l

*ʟʲ

*w

*j

l

ʎ

w

j

l

ʎ

w

j

Notes:

  • 1 Before vowels

Vowels Edit

original monophthongs original Diphthongs
Proto ɨ e a H o ɑ
Middle ɨ i ε a ə o ʌ
Modern y i εi ə u ʌ ai ui
Proto Middle Modern Notes
ɨ ɨ y In words with roundedness
i i -
e e i after other vowels
ε -
æ a a -
ə ə ə -
o o u -
ɑ ʌ ʌ -
æe ae ai
oe oe ui

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