|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Gallifreyan is the language used by the Time Lords from the planet Gallifrey. There are several forms of written and spoken Gallifreyan.
Circular Gallifreyan evolved from Modern Linear Gallifreyan. The writting is sub-divided into:
- Collapsed Circular Gallifreyan
A complex system of interlocking circles. Used in every day life, computers and TARDISes.
- Long Circular Gallifreyan
Its use is similar to cursive in English and other human languages. Mostly seen in poetry.
Many of its words sound like frustrated grunts and clucks to most other species. Gallifreyan has 27 tenses, ten of which are for discussing alternate universes caused by events discussed in the other 17. It is not uncommon for Time Lords, when discussing the future, to suddenly shift into an alternate-universe tense. Most of the nouns and adjetives are compounds words, making them very long and complicated. Fortunately, with the introduction of Modern Gallifreyan, these senteces-like words became shorter.
Gallifreyans only evolved a language when it became necessary to discuss concepts which could not be adequately expressed telepathically, such as quantum physics. Many concepts, particularly those relating to emotions, can still only be truly expressed telepathically.
|Plosive||p b||t d||k g||q|
|Fricative||f v||s z||ʃ ʒ||ʝ||h|
|Flap or tap|
There are no letters in Circular Gallifreyan. Each circle represents a unique sound.
Time Lords do not disting consonants from vowels. The order of their alphabet isn't like any other from Earth. Also, every circle has it owns name. These names are never used on writings, only orally.
This is the alphabet taught to the children of Gallifrey when they enter the Academy:
Ñ = ÑEH
J = JEH
N = NEH
P = PEH
M = MEH
K = KEH
L = LEH
B = BET
Ç = ÇET
G = GET
H = HET
F = FET
CH = CHET
D = DET
TS = TSEM
QU = QUEM
X = XEM
NG = NGEM
Y = YEM
Z = ZEM
T = TEL
ZH = ZHEL
V = VEL
W = WEL
S = SEL
SH = SHEL
R = REL
O = OHTE
Ē = ĒFSE
U = UXE
E = ELBE
I = ITGE
Ū = ŪHDE
A = AKHE
Ã = Ã'ÇE
Sentence Structure Edit
The main structure is SOV for sentences and questions.
|Subject||Indirect Object||Direct Object||Auxiliar||Verb|
|Subject||Ind. Object||Direct Object||Negative Element||Auxiliar||Verb|
|Subject||Ind. Object||Direct Object||Negative Element||Adverb||Auxiliar||Verb|
- Questions are formed by adding the particle praZHa at the end of a sentence.
- Ex: Qutch on brakppafho olvs'helgonn praZHa. - "Are you an alien?"
Symbol for PRAZHA in Collapsed Circuler Gallifreyan:
All nouns are gender neutral. The particles "kz" & "kl" could be added at the end of a noun to mark if a word is feminine or masculine respectively.
Plurality in nouns is expressed in different manners. The particle "l" must always be added to the noun when pluralizing. To indicate the exact quantity is necessary to always use the following list of words, otherwise, the pluralized noun's meaning is ambiguous.
|a single one of|
|Wersmontnn||a pair of the same thing of|
|Chortẽf||a pair of different things of|
|Yãtn||a treble of the same thing of|
|Sumntri||a treble of different things of|
|Diprathon||a group of / a set of / several of|
|Qalñū||a groups of different / a set of differing|
|Ikporr||a chain of / a line of|
|Trnnzho||a chain of different / a line of differing|
|Xertyyhrns||a web of / a mass of|
|Volshbich||a web of different / a mass of different|
|Chiskãlesss||a chaotic / incoherent group or mass of (used when something is all wibley wobley)|
|Subzharm||absolutely no quantity of|
|Ñuyqrr||zero quantity of|
|Patoluhko||very few of|
|Al'ledyyrh||some / average quantity of|
|Sharhothū||very many of|
|Tenforxa||absolutely / extremely all of|
|Tondiok||an almost impossible to determine amount of|
|unkowable amount of|
|nowhere near the desired amount of|
|hard to pinpoint / hard to determine amount of|
|fluctuating / ever-changing amount of|
Honorifics in nouns are marked with the following suffixes:
Ugsproid - alive in the present (optional)
- Vlyproid - alive once in the past (optional)
- Jūdproid - never alive (optional)
- Gçkdproid - alive in the future (optional)
- 'Barfw - from a parallel universe
- -Lēlaefr - is/from/of a Time Lord
- -Gallã - is/from/of Gallifrey(an)
- -Trqa - is/from/of a TARDIS
- 'Brakpp - non-native
- -Tsrh - 4th person (disambiguation of the third person referents)
- Rhssy - universal reference (every single one of [...] in the universe)
The modern Gallifreyan language has 17 tenses:
|Past Perfect||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou vlaystgkem rherjy||The man went home|
|Past Imperfect||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou jekkçamp rherjy||The man was going home|
|Past Anterior||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou trezhpau rherjy||The man had gone home|
|Saudade||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou hadchzuptn rherjy iera||*|
|Present||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou rherjy||The man goes home|
|Present Continous||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou olvs'hekgonn rherjy||The man is going home|
|Future||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou rherjy iera||The man will go home|
|Future Perfect||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou iera rherjy xajyakho||The man will have gone home|
|Future Continous||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou olvs'hekgonn rherjy iera||The man is going to go home|
|Pluperfect||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou hadchzuptn rherjy||The man had been gone home|
|Oblivion||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou hadchzuptn rherjy meelotjagk||**|
|Pan-Temporal/Spatial||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou inasēsuth rherjy olvs'hekgonn||***|
|Simple Conditional||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou rherjy '''iera jenzhi||The man would go home|
|Conditional Perfect||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou xajyakho'''''''rherjy iera jenzhi||The man would have gone home|
|Imperative||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou rherjy baehilt||Man, go home!|
|Utopia||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou chrestasebe rherjy iera||****|
|Cannot||Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou rherjy kotchun||The man must never go home. *****|
- Example: Vimur (man) - Rherjy (to go) - En'ē kue (to) - Lapeljou (home)
* The Saudade Tense is used with things that used to be and may be again one day. ** The Oblivion Tense is used with things that used to be and have been erased from time completely. *** The Pan-Temporal/Spatial Tense is used with things which always are and were and will be, all through the universe. Mostly seen in (time) laws. **** The Utopia Tense is used with things that never were but could be. Mostly seen in sentences expressing feelings. ***** The Cannot Tense is used with things that must never happen.
Tenses for Alternate Universes Edit
The tenses for Alternate Universes are comformed of the auxiliar, the verb and the suffix -'kalra.
- Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou rherjy'kalra''' iera. (future tense in an Alternate Universe)
But only 10 of the verb tenses can be used in the AU mode:
- Past Perfect
- Past Imperfect
- Past Anterior
- Future Perfect
- Future Continous
- Conditional Perfect
Some young Time Lords tend to use the AU suffix with other tenses, although this is incorrect.
It's not necessary to specify in which or whose timeline the actions are being performed, nevertheless, Time Lords love a complicated language so they often, when conjugating a verb, add a Timeline Specifier. There are 3 timelines in which one can talk:
- Personal Timeline: The Timeline of the speaker not the subject who commits the action. Used in conversations between 2 to 5 Time Lords and generally when the subject is not present. It's represented with the word zhan after the verb.
- Individual Timeline: The Timeline of the subject who commits the action. Used in conversations between 2 or more Time Lords and generally when the subject is also the speaker. It's represented with the word zhana before the verb.
- Universal Timeline:The Timeline of the Universe, the one that never changes. Used in conversations between more than 5 Time Lords. It's represented with the word zhante at the beginning of the sentence.
Fixed Points in TimeEdit
Time Lords can see what is, what could be, what used to be, what must never change (fixed points in time) and what must never happen.
To talk about fixed points in time, they simply add the word baghk after the conjugated verb. Some count this as the 28th verb tense of the Gallifreyan language.
Subjective Personal PronounsEdit
|We (I and someone who's not I)||Haloewano Kou|
|We (Two parts of one whole)||Jablu Sayll|
|2nd Person||3rd Person|
|Time Lord (formal)||Zag Ostraig||Vara Gulth|
|Time Lord (informal)||Qutch|
|Time Lord (plural)||Qutchl||Garbe Shf|
|Other races||Phouuni||Dara Bvi|
|Other races (plural)||Phouunil||Budes Delati|
|Objects & Animals||Pratngçu||Borhear|
|Objects & Animals (plural)||Pratngçul||Borhearl|
Objective Personal PronounsEdit
The Subjective Personal Pronouns are used as Objective as well.
Possesive Personal PronounsEdit
The preffix çagts' is added before the personal pronoun. Ex.:
Çagts'pira jyei = Mine Çagts'borhear = Its Çagts'qutchl = Yours
When referring to something on the same timeline of the speaker:
This/These = Niat That/Those = Zu
When referring to something on a different timeline that the speaker's:
This/These = Fhe'lē Niat That/Those = Fhe'lē Zu
Time Lords use a septenary numeral system:
0 - Senth
1 - Etth
2 - Sitth
3 - Trzith
4 - QUhotth
5 - Teincth
6 - ZHiCHtth
Higher numbers are formed by adding several affixes, also, the double "t" is eliminated.
- kn when adding just one zero: Kenth (10) - Ksinth (20) - KZHinchth (60)
- kenCH when adding 2 zeros: KentenCH (100) - KtrzinthenCH (300)
- zneCH + decimal form for thousands: ZnekenthCH (1 000) - ZneksinthCH (2 000)
- NGess + decimal form + c when adding 4 zeros: NGesskentCH (10 000) - NGesskteninetCH (50 000)
- mbent + decimal form + c when adding 5 zeros: MbentkentCH (100 000) - MbentksintCH (200 000)
- qettn + decimal form +c for millions: QettnkentCH (1 000 000) - QettnkqhontCH (4 000 000)
0.1 - zaik etth
0.01 - tezaik senth etth
0.001 - qhezaik senth senth etth
Numbers are always written inside a hexagon.
Negative sentences are constructed using the 3 negative words beofre the verb:
Indicates the origin of an action or the reason for an action. Usually means "because": Pira jyei kt'o irgyu qbyxãngto tarlavenydd'am hefwax'ani. (I run because I'm scared)
Indicates the direct object of a verb: Due voormelleo haloewano kou-vol dnlden'ēdwnth vlaystgkem. (The Doctor remembered us)
Indicates movement from' something: Vimur aerynūãl-Gallifrey ngotyo Vulkan vlaystgkem rherjy. (The man went from Gallifrey to Vulcan)
Indicates a location: Fowmikoeh'am labeljyoul hefwax'ani-Sol IV. (The houses in Mars are beautiful)
Indicates an object used in performing an action: Vara gulth ñprosghjetl ndive'on wethalkagj'am atwithodshuldoēqzjãxen. (He opened the door with a sonic screwdriver)
Indicates a change in the state of a noun, with the general sense of "becoming X" or "change to X": Pira jyei kchish'op-en'ē kue grotanarchrhu'am vimur (I become a new man) ***this is the only known case in Gallifreyan where a verb comes right after the subject.
Marks the goal, recipient or affected: Pira jyei xuph-qutch irgyu (I run for you)
Indicates accompaniment: Ndi-pira jyei al'valono-ve nthlyehadde (I travel in the company of/together with pain)
Indicates expectation: Garbe shf on mildha ois'is'en vlaystgkem olvs'sparjezhtan-tiklol (They expected a war) *** Literally translated as: They imagined and believed a war to be.
Indicates an expression of belief: Pira jyei kt'o borhear vlaystgkem shek hitasp'tiklolū. (I think it died)
Used to express an imposing expectation upon a party: Qutch denta'shrtrawonf-zai'dhūngajrweq (You are supposed to stay)
Indicates positive anticipation: Jablu sayll n'diprathon'faelasēsuth-alkl'oerlēt zai'rherjy Gallifrey (We look forward to visiting Gallifrey) *** Literally translated as We with several madness wait to visit Gallifrey.
- ===Habitual Mood===
It's used to indicate actions the speaker does or did frequently
Past Tenses: Pira jeyi dodagçash Earth ndi'rikhutsng vlaystgkem rherjy. - "I used to go to planet Earth"
Present Tenses: Pira jyei dodagçash Earth ndi'rikhutsng rherjy. - "I go to planet Earth frequently"
Future Tenses: Pira jyei dodagçash Earth ndi'rikhutsng rherjy iera. - "I would like to get into the habit of frequently go to planet Earth"
- ===Causative Mood===
It's used to indicate that someone or something played a role assisting or causing another action. The Causative is divided into 4 cases:
- Forced Action. Ex: Thlihante-zai'baehilt - Someone/something is making someone/something do something.
- Assited Action. Ex: Ñetroplg-zai'baehilt - Someone/something is helping someone/something do something.
- Permitted Action. Ex: Xērtten-zai'baehilt - Someone/something is letting someone/something do something.
- An Action Caused Indirectly or As a Result of Something Else. Ex: Raigh-llakhib-zai'baehilt - Something else happened that let/caused someone/something to do something.
- ===Desiderative Mood===
- Expressing optional desire. Ex: Pira jyei rrgonklq-zai'azhñortem - I wish to travel.
- Used to express not optional desire. Ex: Pira jyei midrhafortx-zai'azhñortem - I want to travel.
- ===Obligational Mood===
- Expressing preferential obligation but it's not optional. Ex: Pira jyei denta-jmara-zai'azhñortem - I must travel.
- Expressing optional but preferential obligation. Ex: Pira jyei denta-shrtrawonf-zai'azhñortem - I should travel.
- ===Necessity Mood===
- Optional necessity. Ex: Pira jyei prnteduria-zai'azhñortem - I need to travel.
- Obligatory necessity. Ex: Pira jyei denta-prnteduria-zai'azhñortem - I have to travel.
- ===Alethic Mood===
- Having the potential or possibility to do something. Ex: Pira jyei delgartnowrzh-zai'azhñortem - I can travel.
- Having the opportunity to do something. Ex: Pira jyei usogz'delgartnowrzh-zai'azhñortem - I could travel.
- ===Potential Mood===
- To express probability. Ex: Pira jyei daheltroppm-zai'azhñortem - I will probably travel.
- ===Irrealis Mood===
- Expressing regret over a past event now long gone. Ex: Pira jyei xartlov-zai'azhñortem pira jyei ayiretuj guszharrr-jekkçamp - If I had travelled, I wouldn't be here.
For describing in Gallifreyan, the verb am (to exist) is added as a suffix to the noun becoming this the adjective. Ex:
Cheeiv konfinijd'am hefwax'ani on kamor zu vimur.
A child uglier than man.
The word shet'e (like) is placed between nouns. Ex:
Konfinijd'am hefwax'ani on kamor shet'e vimur.
A child as ugly as man.
The word ietyeonl (less) is placed before the adjective. Ex:
Ietyeonl konfinijd'am hefwax'ani on kamor zu vimur.
A child less ugly than man.
Expressing Feelings in GallifreyanEdit
In the early days of the Gallifreyan language, Time Lords only expressed their feelings telepathically. With the invention of a writing system for, the until then, spoken language, they started coming up with words to describe the way they felt themselves and towards others. For a Time Lord, a feeling is much more than just an emotion, it's a state of being. For example, instead of saying "I'm in love" they say "I'm love". A more literal translation would be: "I am in the state of love"
There's an especial TO BE verb used exclusively to describe emotions: Zai'zaphod.
"I'm in love" in Gallifreyan would read as follows: Pira jyei lomã zaphod
Now, if you want to tell someone that you love them, you'll have to use the rule of the Emotional Response Verbs:
I love you - Qutch pira jyei x'lyu lomã zai'zaphod (you make me be in the state of love)
This rule is used with all the emotions.