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Circular Gallifreyan

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Circular Gallifreyan
Atheqa Gallifrey'am
Type
Oligosynthetic
Alignment
Nominative–Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
1
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Gallifreyan is the language used by the Time Lords from the planet Gallifrey. There are several forms of written and spoken Gallifreyan.

Circular Gallifreyan evolved from Modern Linear Gallifreyan. The writting is sub-divided into:

  • Collapsed Circular Gallifreyan

A complex system of interlocking circles. Used in every day life, computers and TARDISes.

  • Long Circular Gallifreyan

Its use is similar to cursive in English and other human languages. Mostly seen in poetry. 

Many of its words sound like frustrated grunts and clucks to most other species. Gallifreyan has 27 tenses, ten of which are for discussing alternate universes caused by events discussed in the other 17. It is not uncommon for Time Lords, when discussing the future, to suddenly shift into an alternate-universe tense.  Most of the nouns and adjetives are compounds words, making them very long and complicated. Fortunately, with the introduction of Modern Gallifreyan, these senteces-like words became shorter.

Gallifreyans only evolved a language when it became necessary to discuss concepts which could not be adequately expressed telepathically, such as quantum physics. Many concepts, particularly those relating to emotions, can still only be truly expressed telepathically.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ ŋ
Plosive p  b t  d k  g q
Fricative f  v s  z ʃ  ʒ ʝ h
Affricate t͡ʃ  d͡ʒ
Approximant j
Trill r
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i  y u
Near-close
Close-mid e o
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open ã ɑ

AlphabetEdit

There are no letters in Circular Gallifreyan. Each circle represents a unique sound.

Time Lords do not disting consonants from vowels. The order of their alphabet isn't like any other from Earth. Also, every circle has it owns name. These names are never used on writings, only orally. 

This is the alphabet taught to the children of Gallifrey when they enter the Academy:

Collapsed Circular Alphabet

Collapsed Circular Gallifreyan

Ñ    =     ÑEH

J    =     JEH

N    =     NEH

P    =     PEH

M    =     MEH

K    =     KEH

L    =     LEH

B    =     BET

Ç    =     ÇET

G    =     GET

H    =     HET

F    =     FET

CH    =    CHET 

D    =     DET

TS    =     TSEM

Long Circular Alphabet

Long Circular Gallifreyan

QU    =     QUEM

X    =     XEM

NG    =     NGEM

Y    =     YEM

Z    =     ZEM

T    =     TEL

ZH    =    ZHEL 

V    =     VEL

W    =     WEL

S    =     SEL

SH    =     SHEL

R    =     REL

O    =     OHTE

Ē    =     ĒFSE

U    =     UXE

E    =     ELBE

I    =     ITGE

Ū    =     ŪHDE

A    =     AKHE

à   =    Ã'ÇE 








GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No No No No
Nouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Sentence Structure Edit

The main structure is SOV for sentences and questions.

Words OrderEdit

Subject Object Auxiliar Verb


Adjective Subject Object Verb


Subject Object Time Auxiliar Verb


Subject Object Place Auxiliar Verb


Subject Indirect Object Direct Object Auxiliar Verb


Subject Ind. Object Direct Object Negative Element Auxiliar Verb


Subject Ind. Object Direct Object Negative Element Adverb Auxiliar Verb

QuestionsEdit

- Questions are formed by adding the particle praZHa at the end of a sentence.


  • Ex: Qutch on brakppafho olvs'helgonn praZHa. - "Are you an alien?"


Symbol for PRAZHA in Collapsed Circuler Gallifreyan:


Prazha







NounsEdit

All nouns are gender neutral. The particles "kz" & "kl" could be added at the end of a noun to mark if a word is feminine or masculine respectively.




Plurality in nouns is expressed in different manners. The particle "l" must always be added to the noun when pluralizing. To indicate the exact quantity is necessary to always use the following list of words, otherwise, the pluralized noun's meaning is ambiguous.

Grotjjo

a single one of
On a/an of
Wersmontnn a pair of the same thing of
Chortẽf a pair of different things of
Yãtn a treble of the same thing of
Sumntri a treble of different things of 
Diprathon a group of / a set of / several of
Qalñū a groups of different / a set of differing 
Ikporr a chain of / a line of
Trnnzho a chain of different / a line of differing
Xertyyhrns a web of / a mass of
Volshbich a web of different / a mass of different
Chiskãlesss a chaotic / incoherent group or mass of (used when something is all wibley wobley)
Subzharm absolutely no quantity of
Ñuyqrr zero quantity of
Patoluhko very few of
Çetyri few of
Al'ledyyrh some / average quantity of
Soljyarzçi many of
Sharhothū very many of
Rhassisyy'ta all of
Tenforxa absolutely / extremely all of
Tondiok an almost impossible to determine amount of
unkowable amount of
nowhere near the desired amount of
hard to pinpoint / hard to determine amount of
fluctuating / ever-changing amount of

 



Honorifics in nouns are marked with the following suffixes:

Ugsproid - alive in the present (optional)


Vlyproid - alive once in the past (optional)
Jūdproid - never alive (optional)
Gçkdproid - alive in the future (optional)
'Barfw - from a parallel universe
-Lēlaefr - is/from/of a Time Lord
-Gallã - is/from/of Gallifrey(an)
-Trqa - is/from/of a TARDIS
'Brakpp - non-native
-Tsrh - 4th person (disambiguation of the third person referents)
Rhssy - universal reference (every single one of [...] in the universe)

TensesEdit

The modern Gallifreyan language has 17 tenses:

Tense

Example Translation
Past Perfect Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou vlaystgkem rherjy The man went home
Past Imperfect Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou jekkçamp rherjy The man was going home
Past Anterior Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou trezhpau rherjy The man had gone home
Saudade  Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou hadchzuptn rherjy iera  *
Present Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou rherjy The man goes home
Present Continous Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou olvs'hekgonn rherjy The man is going home
Future Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou rherjy iera The man will go home
Future Perfect Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou iera rherjy xajyakho The man will have gone home
Future Continous Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou olvs'hekgonn rherjy iera The man is going to go home
Pluperfect Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou hadchzuptn rherjy The man had been gone home
Oblivion Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou hadchzuptn rherjy meelotjagk **
Pan-Temporal/Spatial Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou inasēsuth rherjy olvs'hekgonn ***
Simple Conditional Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou rherjy '''iera jenzhi The man would go home
Conditional Perfect Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou xajyakho'''''''rherjy iera jenzhi The man would have gone home
Imperative Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou rherjy baehilt Man, go home!
Utopia Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou chrestasebe rherjy iera ****
Cannot Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou rherjy kotchun The man must never go home. *****
Example: Vimur (man) - Rherjy (to go) - En'ē kue (to) - Lapeljou (home) 
* The Saudade Tense is used with things that used to be and may be again one   day.
** The Oblivion Tense is used with things that used to be and have been erased from time completely.
*** The Pan-Temporal/Spatial Tense is used with things which always are and    were and will be, all through the universe. Mostly seen in (time) laws.
**** The Utopia Tense is used with things that never were but could be. Mostly seen in sentences expressing feelings.
***** The Cannot Tense is used with things that must never happen.


Tenses for Alternate Universes Edit

The tenses for Alternate Universes are comformed of the auxiliar, the verb and the suffix -'kalra.

Example: 

  •  Vimur en'ē kue lapeljou rherjy'kalra''' iera.     (future tense in an Alternate Universe)

But only 10 of the verb tenses can be used in the AU mode: 

  1. Present
  2. Past Perfect
  3. Past Imperfect
  4. Past Anterior
  5. Future
  6. Future Perfect
  7. Future Continous
  8. Pluperfect
  9. Saudade
  10. Conditional Perfect

Some young Time Lords tend to use the AU suffix with other tenses, although this is incorrect.


TimelinesEdit

It's not necessary to specify in which or whose timeline the actions are being performed, nevertheless, Time Lords love a complicated language so they often, when conjugating a verb, add a Timeline Specifier. There are 3 timelines in which one can talk:

  1. Personal Timeline: The Timeline of the speaker not the subject who commits the action. Used in conversations between 2 to 5 Time Lords and generally when the subject is not present. It's represented with the word zhan after the verb.
  2. Individual Timeline: The Timeline of the subject who commits the action. Used in conversations between 2 or more Time Lords and generally when the subject is also the speaker. It's represented with the word zhana before the verb.
  3. Universal Timeline:The Timeline of the Universe, the one that never changes. Used in conversations between more than 5 Time Lords. It's represented with the word zhante at the beginning of the sentence.

Fixed Points in TimeEdit

Time Lords can see what is, what could be, what used to be, what must never change (fixed points in time) and what must never happen. 

To talk about fixed points in time, they simply add the word baghk after the conjugated verb. Some count this as the 28th verb tense of the Gallifreyan language.

PronounsEdit

Subjective Personal PronounsEdit

1st Person
English Gallifreyan
I Pira Jyei
We (I and someone who's not I) Haloewano Kou
We (Two parts of one whole) Jablu Sayll
2nd Person 3rd Person
Time Lord (formal) Zag Ostraig Vara Gulth
Time Lord (informal) Qutch
Time Lord (plural) Qutchl Garbe Shf
Other races Phouuni Dara Bvi
Other races (plural) Phouunil Budes Delati
Objects & Animals Pratngçu Borhear
Objects & Animals (plural) Pratngçul Borhearl

Objective Personal PronounsEdit

The Subjective Personal Pronouns are used as Objective as well.

Possesive Personal PronounsEdit

The preffix çagts' is added before the personal pronoun. Ex.:

                         Çagts'pira jyei    =   Mine

                         Çagts'borhear      =   Its

                         Çagts'qutchl       =   Yours

Demostrative PronounsEdit

When referring to something on the same timeline of the speaker:

This/These     =      Niat

That/Those     =     Zu

When referring to something on a different timeline that the speaker's:

This/These     =     Fhe'lē Niat

That/Those     =     Fhe'lē Zu

Indefinite PronounsEdit

English Gallifreyan
All Rhassisyy'ta
Another Fhe'n
Any Dialaen
Anybody Dialaen konbrpsom
Anyone Dialaen konbrpsom
Anything Dialaen'yetje'ol
Each Gylau
Everybody Rhassisyy'ta konbrpsom
Everyone Rhassisyy'ta konbrpsom
Everything Rhassisyy'ta'yetje'ol
Few Çetyri
Many Soljyarzçi
Nobody Ganmhetshi konbrpsom
None Ganmhetshi
One Etth
Several Dwefwenuin
Some Al'ledyyrh
Someone Al'ledyyrh konbrpsom
Somebody Al'ledyyrh konbrpsom

NumbersEdit

Time Lords use a septenary numeral system:

0 - Senth

1 - Etth

2 - Sitth

3 - Trzith

4 - QUhotth

5 - Teincth

6 - ZHiCHtth

Long Circular Numbers

Long Circular Gallifreyan Numbers

Collapsed Circular numbers

Collapsed Circular Gallifreyan Numbers


Higher numbers are formed by adding several affixes, also, the double "t" is eliminated.


  • kn when adding just one zero: Kenth (10) - Ksinth (20) - KZHinchth (60)
  • kenCH when adding 2 zeros: KentenCH (100) - KtrzinthenCH (300)
  • zneCH + decimal form for thousands: ZnekenthCH (1 000) - ZneksinthCH (2 000)
  • NGess + decimal form + c when adding 4 zeros: NGesskentCH (10 000) - NGesskteninetCH (50 000)
  • mbent + decimal form + c when adding 5 zeros: MbentkentCH (100 000) - MbentksintCH (200 000)
  • qettn + decimal form +c for millions: QettnkentCH (1 000 000) - QettnkqhontCH (4 000 000)

DecimalsEdit

0.1 - zaik etth

0.01 - tezaik senth etth

0.001 - qhezaik senth senth etth


Numbers are always written inside a hexagon. 

Ex: 

6 4

6 + 4

NegationEdit

Negative sentences are constructed using the 3 negative words beofre the verb:

Ganmhetshi

Negation in the PRESENT (don't)

Rujyopasz

Negation in the PAST (didn't)

Meelotjagk

Negation in the FUTURE (won't)

CasesEdit

Origin CaseEdit

Indicates the origin of an action or the reason for an action. Usually means "because": Pira jyei kt'o irgyu qbyxãngto tarlavenydd'am hefwax'ani. (I run because I'm scared)

Accusative CaseEdit

Indicates the direct object of a verb: Due voormelleo haloewano kou-vol dnlden'ēdwnth vlaystgkem. (The Doctor remembered us)

Ablative Case

Indicates movement from' something: Vimur aerynūãl-Gallifrey ngotyo Vulkan vlaystgkem rherjy. (The man went from Gallifrey to Vulcan

Locative CaseEdit

Indicates a location: Fowmikoeh'am labeljyoul hefwax'ani-Sol IV. (The houses in Mars are beautiful)

Instrumental CaseEdit

Indicates an object used in performing an action: Vara gulth ñprosghjetl ndive'on wethalkagj'am atwithodshuldoēqzjãxen. (He opened the door with a sonic screwdriver)

Translative CaseEdit

Indicates a change in the state of a noun, with the general sense of "becoming X" or "change to X": Pira jyei kchish'op-en'ē kue grotanarchrhu'am vimur (I become a new man) ***this is the only known case in Gallifreyan where a verb comes right after the subject.

DativeEdit

Marks the goal, recipient or affected: Pira jyei xuph-qutch irgyu (I run for you)

Comitative CaseEdit

Indicates accompaniment: Ndi-pira jyei al'valono-ve nthlyehadde (I travel in the company of/together with pain)

Expectative CaseEdit

Indicates expectation: Garbe shf on mildha ois'is'en vlaystgkem olvs'sparjezhtan-tiklol (They expected a war) *** Literally translated as: They imagined and believed a war to be.

Credential CaseEdit

Indicates an expression of belief: Pira jyei kt'o borhear vlaystgkem shek hitasp'tiklolū. (I think it died)

Impositive CaseEdit

Used to express an imposing expectation upon a party: Qutch denta'shrtrawonf-zai'dhūngajrweq (You are supposed to stay)

Anticipative CaseEdit

Indicates positive anticipation: Jablu sayll n'diprathon'faelasēsuth-alkl'oerlēt zai'rherjy Gallifrey (We look forward to visiting Gallifrey) *** Literally translated as We with several madness wait to visit Gallifrey.

MoodsEdit

  • ===Habitual Mood===

It's used to indicate actions the speaker does or did frequently

Ex:

Past Tenses: Pira jeyi dodagçash Earth ndi'rikhutsng vlaystgkem rherjy. - "I used to go to planet Earth" 

Present Tenses: Pira jyei dodagçash Earth ndi'rikhutsng rherjy. - "I go to planet Earth frequently" 

Future Tenses: Pira jyei dodagçash Earth ndi'rikhutsng rherjy iera. - "I would like to get into the habit of frequently go to planet Earth" 

  • ===Causative Mood===

It's used to indicate that someone or something played a role assisting or causing another action. The Causative is divided into 4 cases:

- Forced Action. Ex: Thlihante-zai'baehilt - Someone/something is making someone/something do something.

- Assited Action. Ex: Ñetroplg-zai'baehilt - Someone/something is helping someone/something do something.

- Permitted Action. Ex: Xērtten-zai'baehilt - Someone/something is letting someone/something do something.

- An Action Caused Indirectly or As a Result of Something Else. Ex: Raigh-llakhib-zai'baehilt - Something else happened that let/caused someone/something to do something.

  • ===Desiderative Mood===

- Expressing optional desire. Ex: Pira jyei rrgonklq-zai'azhñortem - I wish to travel.

- Used to express not optional desire. Ex: Pira jyei midrhafortx-zai'azhñortem - I want to travel.

  • ===Obligational Mood===

- Expressing preferential obligation but it's not optional. Ex: Pira jyei denta-jmara-zai'azhñortem - I must travel.

- Expressing optional but preferential obligation. Ex: Pira jyei denta-shrtrawonf-zai'azhñortem - I should travel.

  • ===Necessity Mood===

- Optional necessity. Ex: Pira jyei prnteduria-zai'azhñortem - I need to travel.

- Obligatory necessity. Ex: Pira jyei denta-prnteduria-zai'azhñortem - I have to travel.

  • ===Alethic Mood===

- Having the potential or possibility to do something. Ex: Pira jyei delgartnowrzh-zai'azhñortem - I can travel.

- Having the opportunity to do something. Ex: Pira jyei usogz'delgartnowrzh-zai'azhñortem - I could travel.

  • ===Potential Mood===

- To express probability. Ex: Pira jyei daheltroppm-zai'azhñortem - I will probably travel.

  • ===Irrealis Mood===

- Expressing regret over a past event now long gone. Ex: Pira jyei xartlov-zai'azhñortem pira jyei ayiretuj guszharrr-jekkçamp - If I had travelled, I wouldn't be here.

AdjectivesEdit

For describing in Gallifreyan, the verb am (to exist) is added as a suffix to the noun becoming this the adjective. Ex:

Fowmikoeh'am

Beauty + Exists = Beautiful

When forming sentences like "I'm happy" or "She's scared" is always necessary to add the word hefwax'ani (in - inside) after the adjective. Using hefwax'ani in sentences like "the beautiful planet" is also acceptable but not obligatory. Ex:

Fowmikoeh'am hefwax'ani dodagçash. / Fowmikoeh'am dodagçash.

The planet is beautiful.

Literally translated as: Beauty exists in the planet.

-------------------------------

Jednost'am hefwax'ani pira jyei.

I'm happy.

Literally translated as: Happiness exists in me.

Comparative FormEdit

Superiority:Edit

The word cheeiv (more) is placed before the adjective. Ex:

Cheeiv konfinijd'am hefwax'ani on kamor zu vimur.

A child uglier than man.

Equality:Edit

The word shet'e (like) is placed between nouns. Ex:

Konfinijd'am hefwax'ani on kamor shet'e vimur.

A child as ugly as man.

Inferiority:Edit

The word ietyeonl (less) is placed before the adjective. Ex:

Ietyeonl konfinijd'am hefwax'ani on kamor zu vimur.

A child less ugly than man.

Superlative FormEdit

The words due (the) and erucheykath (superior) are placed before the adjective. Ex:

Due erucheykath konfinijd'am hefwax'ani on kamor.

The ugliest child.

Expressing Feelings in GallifreyanEdit

In the early days of the Gallifreyan language, Time Lords only expressed their feelings telepathically. With the invention of a writing system for, the until then, spoken language, they started coming up with words to describe the way they felt themselves and towards others. For a Time Lord, a feeling is much more than just an emotion, it's a state of being. For example, instead of saying "I'm in love" they say "I'm love". A more literal translation would be: "I am in the state of love" 

There's an especial TO BE verb used exclusively to describe emotions: Zai'zaphod.

"I'm in love" in Gallifreyan would read as follows: Pira jyei lomã zaphod

Now, if you want to tell someone that you love them, you'll have to use the rule of the Emotional Response Verbs:

I love you - Qutch pira jyei x'lyu lomã zai'zaphod (you make me be in the state of love)

This rule is used with all the emotions.

Example text

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