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Cirtanian

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Cirtanian
Cirtaugnan Χιρταυνιαν
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nom-Acc
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Cirtanian, known natively as Cirtaugnan/Χιρταυνιαν <ʃir'tawɲ.ans> or Leng Cirtaugnan/Λενγ Χιρταυνιαν ('leŋg ʃiɾt'aw.ɲan) is a Romance language native to the island of Cirtania east of Italy in the Mediterranean sea. It split off from late Classical/ early Vulgar Latin and retains some aspects of Latin lost in other languages such as nouns that decline to case in number (though the ablative, dative and genitive cases merged, and the fourth and fifth declensions merged with the second and third) Due to its proximity to Greece, it picked up several Greek loanwords as well as phonological and grammatical influences. There is even a way of writing the language in the Attic alphabet used mainly in Greece and taught in most schools in Cirtania, though the Latin system is more common and will be used primarily in this grammar.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Dental Alveolar Alveolo-Palatal Palatal Velar
Nasal m (μ)

n (ν)

ɲ (gn) (ν)

Plosive

p, b (π, β) t, d (τ, δ) k, g (c/ch, g/gh) (κ, γ)
Affricate ts, dz (z)

(τσ, δσ)

ks (x)(ξ),

gz (x)(ξ)

Fricative f, v (φ, υ) s (σ) ʃ, ʒ (c, g)

(χ, ζ)

Tap/Trill ɾ/r (r) (ρ)
Glide w (u) (υ) j (i) (ι)
Lateral l (λ) ʎ (gl) (λ)

Some notes about the orthography

  • The rule about c and g is similar Italian: c and g are pronounced <k> and <g> except before i, e and ӑ. Ch and gh are variants of c and g used to maintain the hard pronunciation even before i, e and ӑ. The Attic variant instead uses the separate letters χ and ζ to represent the soft pronunciation.
  • Z is pronounced as ts if it derives from a t in Latin (i.e. nātiō > nauziu <'naw.tsi.u>) and dz if it derives from a d (persuādeō > persuauziu <peɾ'swaw.dzi.u>
  • X is a similar story doctus > dox <'doks>, vagus > vax <'vagz>. However, when the x is followed by a soft c, it is pronounced kʃ.
  • I and u represent <j> and <w> before another vowel.
  • The letter h is always silent and is not even represented in the Attic variant.
  • N and l have palatal allophones when followed by an unstressed front vowel and another vowel. In the Latin writing system, the Italian convention of gn and gl is used, whereas no special spelling is used in Greek since a similar allophony already exists in Greek (it is written νι or λι, hence magno is written in Greek μανιo and Itaglia is written Ιταλια)
  • ɾ and r are used interchangeably.

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Middle Near-back Back
Close i ι u υ
Near-close
Close-mid e ε ə (ă) (η) o ο
Open-mid
Open a α

Greek borrowings usually use Greek-resembling spellings in the Attic variant even when they conflict with how Cirtanian is typically spelled. Thus anoits (stupid) is spelled ανοητς instead of ανοιτς, although it is not uncommon for native speakers to misspell these words.

Sound ChangesEdit

Cirtanian sound changes happened in four stages. The first were unique to Cirtanian and define it from other Romance languages. The second were the basic changes of Vulgar Latin (of which only most occurred in Cirtanian, some sound changes did not manifest except in Romance borrowings.) Then, after the split of the Roman Empire, a series of Hellenistic sound changes occurred. Finally, a second series of Romance sound changes occurred due to influence from Italy.

Original Cirtanian Changes (100 BC - 100 AD) Edit

Short final unstressed vowels dropped initially and finally unless a consonant other than -s follows it

  • bonus (good) > bons (later > buons)

Long vowels diphthongize, shift place, or simply remain the same.

  • lātus (wide) > lauz
  • cēlō (hide) > cilu
  • rōmānus (Roman) > rumauns (urban, civilized)
  • crūdelis (rude, evil) > crodels
  • īre (to go) > ir

Final plosives become affricates (except in feminine nouns/adjectives)

  • et (and) > ez > es (de-affrication is irregular)
  • per hoc (for this reason) > peróc (however, but)  > peróx
  • comēta (comet) > comit

Double vowels simplify

  • tuus (your) > tos (note, the short u > o was because of analogy with tū > to, not a regular sound change.)
  • vacuus (empty) > vacus > vax (ignorant)

It was also at this time that the genitive and ablative cases were lost, leaving nominative, accusative, and dative.

Vulgar Latin Changes (0 AD - 200 AD) Edit

Diphthongs become monophthongs

  • caelum (sky) > celo
  • deinde (then) > denz
  • deiciō (throw down) > deciu (defeat)
  • laus (praise) > los

E turns into i before another vowel and after a lenitable consonant.

  • persuādeō (persuade) > persauziu
  • iāceō (throw) > giaciu

E before a vowel elsewhere disappears

  • habeō > aveu > avu

Word-final M drops

  • templum > tempio (note the u > o resulted from analogy with the Greek neuter, not any sound change.)
  • quam > quă

C and g palalize after i and e.

  • circum > circo ('tʃir.co)
  • gēns (tribe) > gins ('dʒins)

Aspirates lose their aspiration (and ph > f)

  • theatrum (theater) > tatro
  • alphabētum (alphabet) > alfabito

Hellenist Sound Changes (285 AD- 1200 AD) Edit

Unstressed vowels with no onset drop initially, and an m, n or l after the dropped vowel disappears and voices the following consonant.

  • angustus (narrow) > gusz (often pronounced <gus:> rather than <gusts>)
  • imperium (empire) > berio (nation)

Sc and St metathesize at the beginning of a word (except sc doesn't metathesize before i or e)

  • stō (stand) > zu
  • σκιά (shadow) > xiă
  • sciō (know) > ciu (study)

Consonants degeminate

  • callidus > caliz

.Palatals de-affricate

  • circo ('tʃir.co) > circo ('ʃir.co)
  • gins ('dʒins) > gins ('ʒins)

During this period the dative case was reinterpreted as genitive, paralleling Greek's declension system.

Italic Sound Changes (1096 AD - present) Edit

L becomes i after a fricative or plosive

  • plūs (more) > pió
  • flōs (flower) > fiús

E and o diphthongize in stressed open syllables

  • tepidus (lukewarm) > tiepiz (indifferent)
  • novus (new) > nuovs ('nwovz)

I and u lower in stressed closed syllables (except in monosyllabic words)

  • victus (defeated) > vecz
  • iungō (join) > giongu
  • in (in) > in

B becomes v intervocallically

  • habeō (have) > avu
  • caballus (horse) > cavals

GrammarEdit

Nouns and AdjectivesEdit

As stated previously, nouns decline in two major groups to four cases and two numbers. Below are some examples of declined nouns and adjectives.

Masculine Edit

Standard Declension (nom sing -s)

Buons- good

Singular

Plural

NOM

buons

buoni

ACC

buono

buonus

GEN

buonu

buonis

Abnormal Declension (nom sing irregular)

Fiús- flower

Singular

Plural

NOM

fiús

fiúris

ACC

fiúrӑ

fiúris

GEN

fiúri

fiúrus

Former second declension nouns (called masculi normali) are pretty much the same as Latin plus sound change. Former third declension nouns with a nominative singular ending of -is, -(C)s, -x, or -or became second declension (called masculi normali). Other third declension nouns retained their paradigm, and are called masculi gonditi.

Feminine Edit

Standard Declension (nom sing null)

Buon- good

Singular

Plural

NOM

buon

buone

ACC

buonӑ

buonas

GEN

boune

buonis

Abnormal Declension (nom sing irregular)

Aucziu action

Singular

Plural

NOM

aucziu

aucziunis

ACC

aucziunӑ

aucziunis

GEN

aucziune

aucziunus

Former first declension nouns (called feminine normale) are also the same as Latin plus sound change. Former third declension nouns (feminine gondite) again retain a paradigm closer to the Latin third (none of them merged with any other declensions in the feminine gender.)

Neuter Edit

Standard Declension (nom sing -o)

Bono- good

Singular

Plural

NOM

bono

bonӑ

ACC

bono

bonӑ

GEN

bonu

bonis

Abnormal Declension (nom sing irregular)

Temps- time

Singular

Plural

NOM

temps

temporӑ

ACC

temps

temporӑ

GEN

tempori

temporus

Again, both declensions remain mostly the same. Second declension nouns are called neutră normală and third neutră gondită.

As should be expected, adjectives must agree with the nouns they modify in number, gender and case. Thus large flower would be fiús magnăs (a schwa is inserted between gn or gli and -s), large girl would be corít magn, and large nation would be berio magno.

Adjective Degrees Edit

  • The positive is the citation form (shocking!)
  • The comparative is formed with pió (more, derived from plūs) plus the positive forms
  • The superlative is formed with -issims added to the fem. nom. sing, e.g. liez (happy, from laetus) > lietissims (happiest.) Words ending with -ls and -r add -ims instead (facils (easy, from facilis) > facilims, liber (free, from līber) > liberims)

Articles and Prepositions Edit

Latin prepositions that governed the ablative or genitive case now govern the dative case, and Latin prepositions that governed the accusative case still govern that case, with a few exceptions and irregularities. A few common prepositions:

in (+ABL in, inside, +ACC in, into) > in (+GEN in, inside, +ACC in, into)

ēx (+ABL out of, outside of) > es (+GEN outside of, +ACC (moving) out of)

dē (+ABL down from, about) > di (+GEN about, +ACC down from)

super (+ACC beyond) > sur

ad (+ACC to) > a

Like most other Romance languages, Cirtanian developed its definite article from Latin ille/illa/illud. The definite article, for the most part, is similar to that of Italian. It is used before all proper nouns including people (except when directly addressing those people) (thus il Efrup and sil Marx, not Efrup or Marx) and to form a generic sense of a group or category (lӑ teknӑ son filicӑ- babies are happy.) Unlike Italian or Spanish, Cirtanian articles do not change depending on the onset (or lack thereof) of the next word.

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative Sing

sil

il

lo

Accusative Sing

lo

lo

Genitive Sing

lu

le

lu

Nominative Plural

li

le

Accusative Plural

les

lӑs

Genitive Plural

lis

lis

lis

Similar to Italian, Cirtanian definite article can contract with some prepositions.

M sing

F sing

N sing

M pl

F pl

N pl

in + GEN

nul

nal

nul

nis

nis

nis

in + ACC

nοl

nӑl

nοl

nus

nӑs

es + GEN

sul

sal

sul

sis

sis

sis

es + ACC

sοl

sӑl

sοl

sus

sӑs

di + GEN

dul

dal

dul

dis

dis

dis

di + ACC

dοl

dӑl

dοl

dus

dӑs

sur

ciul

cial

ciul

cis

cis

cis

a as al alo alis alis alis

There's also an indefinite article, but (like Italian) it doesn't contract with prepositions.

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative Sing

us

un

uno

Accusative Sing

uno

unӑ

uno

dative Sing

unu

une

unu

Nominative Plural

uni

une

unӑ

Accusative Plural

unus

unӑs

unӑ

dative Plural

unis

unis

unis

Pronouns Edit

First person Edit

Derived from egō/nos

Singular

Plural

NOM

giu nus

ACC

mi nus

GEN

me nuis

Second person Edit

Derived from tū/vōs

Singular

Plural

NOM

to vus

ACC

ti vus

GEN

te vuis

Third Person Edit

Less worn-down form of ille, illa, illud

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative Sing

ile

il

ilo

Accusative Sing

ilo

ilӑ

ilo

Genitive Sing

ili

ili

ili

Nominative Plural

ili

ile

ilӑ

Accusative Plural

ilus

ilӑs

ilӑ

Genitive Plural

ilis

ilis

ilis

Proximal Demonstrative Edit

Borrowed from Italian ecco.

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative Sing

ex

ec

eco

Accusative Sing

eco

ecӑ

eco

Genitive Sing

eci/ecu

eci/ece

eci/ecu

Nominative Plural

eci

ece

ecӑ

Accusative Plural

ecus

ecӑs

ecӑ

Genitive Plural

ecis

ecis

ecis

Distal Demonstrative Edit

Derived from ipse, ipsa, ipsud

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative Sing

eps

ep

epso

Accusative Sing

epso

epsӑ

epso

Genitive Sing

epsi/epsu

epsi/epse

epsi/epsu

Nominative Plural

epsi

epse

epsӑ

Accusative Plural

epsus

epsӑs

epsӑ

Genitive Plural

epsis

epsis

espis

When two forms are given, the first form is older and more academic whereas the second is quickly becoming more popular in colloquial speech.

Number Edit

Cardinal Ordinal Multiplier
us/un/uno prims senguls
du seconz dupiӑs
tris tirzs tripiӑs
quator quarz quadrupiӑs
chenche chinz chentupiӑs
six sexz sextupiӑs
septe septims septupiӑs
octu octauvs
nuove nuns
diece diecims diecupiӑs
undice undicims
dudice dudicims
tridice tridicims
quatordice quatordicims
chendici chendicims
sidice sidicims
diciasepte diciaseptims
dicioctu dicioctims
dicianuove dicianuns
venti ventisims
ventius/un/uno ventiprims
trenta trentisims
quaranta quarantisims
chenquanta chenquantisims
sexanta sexantisims
septanta septantisims
octanta octantisms
nuovanta nuovantisims
cento centisims
ducento ducentisims
mile milesims
dumile dumilesims
migliu migliunisims
dumigliu dumigliunisims

VerbsEdit

The conlang wikia is not friendly to porting over massive tables, and I don't feel like rewriting all of my conjugation paradigms in friendlier wikitables, so go here to see the charts.

Tense Edit

Cirtanian's unique paradigm for tense developed during the Vulgar Latin period and into the Hellenistic period.

  • The present tense is largely Latin with sound change, except for the second and third person singular which were borrowed from Italian.
  • The preterite is uniquely conservative from the Latin perfect, lacking the innovations other romance languages needed in order to make it comprehensible.
  • The perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect all derive from forms of aver or eser (depending on the verb) plus the past participle.
  • The future tenses are formed by the present subjunctive (formed by ablaut similar to Latin, i.e. a > e, e > ea and i > a) plus worn away forms of Latin īre (to go) for the imminent future and velle (to want) for the simple future.

NB: For the future tenses and the perfect tenses, the auxiliary fused with the main verb. Thus "I have spoken" is avumilaz, not avu milaz, and he will run is "vucura" not "vu cura."

Syntax Edit

Word order is freer than other Romance languages, but the general scheme is SVO. Also, adjectives come after the noun they describe (except for adjectives of quantity or size, which usually come before), although articles and demonstratives always come before their noun.

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