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Cjư

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Cjư
Cjư
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative–accusative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Cjư (/t͡ɕɯ/) is a priori conlang. It is designed to sound bizarre, but not too difficult to learn and speak. 


Phonology

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-palatal Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m〈m〉 n〈n〉 ɲ〈nj〉 ŋ〈g〉 ɴ
Plosive p〈p〉 k〈k〉 ʔ〈'〉
Fricative

s〈s〉

z〈z〉

ɕ〈sj〉

ʑ〈zj〉

x~χ〈h〉

ɣ~ʁ〈r〉

Affricate

t͡s〈c〉

d͡z〈x〉

t͡ɕ〈cj〉

d͡ʑ〈xj〉

Approximant

w〈w〉

ɥ〈wj〉

j〈y〉

ɥ〈wj〉

Click ǂ〈q〉
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l〈l〉
Lateral flap
  • /n/ and /ŋ/ are realized as [ɴ] before [χ] and [ʁ]
  • /n/ is realized as [ɲ] before [j], [ɥ], and [ǂ]
  • /w/ is realized as [ɥ] before [j]
  • /s/ and /t͡s/ become [ɕ] and [t͡ɕ], respectively, before [j] or [ɥ]

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close

i〈i〉

y〈ï〉

ɯ〈ư〉

u〈u〉

Near-close
Close-mid

e〈e〉

ø〈ė〉

Mid
Open-mid

ʌ〈ơ〉

ɔ〈o〉

Near-open
Open

a〈a〉

ɶ〈ȧ〉

AlphabetEdit

Letter Name IPA
A la a
Ȧ ɶ
C ce t͡s
E le e
Ė ø
G ŋ
H hoh χ
I li i
Ï y
J aya
K ke k
L alư l
M m
N n
O mo ɔ
Ơ ʌ
P pe p
Q ǂ
R rah ʁ
S se s
U mu u
Ư ɯ
W uwa w
X xo d͡z
Y iya j
Z zo z
' qa'a ʔ
  • The dot ( · ) or, diaeresis ( ¨ ) in the case of Ï, indicates rounding of a vowel who is by default unrounded.
  • The horn ( ̛ ) indicates unrounding of a vowel who is by default rounded.
  • The letter J has no phonological value, but rather acts as an in-line diacritic for palatalization.

PhonotacticsEdit

Syllable stucture is defined as (C)(j)V(K) where:

  • C is the onset. It is any consonant*.
  • j is the medial. It is any semivowel.
  • V is the nucleus. It is any vowel.
  • and K is the coda. It cannot include any voiced fricative, voiced affricate, click, /ʔ/, or /ɥ/**.

Therefore, a syllable cannot end in the phonemes /ʔ, z, ʑ, ʁ, d͡z, d͡ʑ, ɥ**/, or /ǂ/.

  • First syllables of a word do not start with /ʔ/, but any following syllables of a word can.
  • Allophonically, /ɥ/ can end a syllable because /w/ can. /w/ is realized as [ɥ] before an onset [j].

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes No No No
Nouns No No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No Yes No No No No No No

NounsEdit

VerbsEdit

All verbs are regular in Cjư, so once conjugation is learned, any verb can be conjugated. This is done by changing the ending of a verb. There are two types of conjugation in Cjư. They are Post-vowel (VCo) and Post-coda (KCo) conjugations.

Post-VowelEdit

These conjugations apply to verbs whose infinitives end in a vowel followed by a consonant plus the vowel o. They feature suffixes.
VCo:
1st singular 1st plural 2nd singular 2nd plural 3rd singular 3rd plural
Present VCoc VCocum VCanja VCanjam VCơh VCơhum
Past VCocjas VCocjumsa VCanjas VCanjamsa VCơras VCơrumsa
Future VCoxawa VCoxumwa VCaqawa VCaqamwa VCơhawa VCơhamwa 
Oso - to be:
1st singular 1st plural 2nd singular 2nd plural 3rd singular 3rd plural
Present osoc osocum osanja osanjam osơh osơhum
Past osocjas osocjumsa osanjas osanjamsa osơras osơrumsa
Future osoxawa osoxumwa osaqawa osaqamwa osơhawa osơhamwa 

Post-CodaEdit

Post-coda infinitives end in a coda by a consonant plus the vowel o. They feature suffixes and infixes.
KCo:
1st singular 1st plural 2nd singular 2nd plural 3rd singular 3rd plural
Present KocCo KocCom KanjaCa KanjaCam KơhCơ KơhCơm
Past KocjakCo KocjakCom KanjakCa KanjakCam KơrakCơ KơrakCơm
Future KoxawaCo KoxawaCom KaqawaCa KaqawaCam KơhawaCơ KơhawaCơm
Ơmipso - to see:
1st singular 1st plural 2nd singular 2nd plural 3rd singular 3rd plural
Present ơmipocso ơmipocsom ơmipanjasa ơmipanjasam ơmipơhsơ ơmipơhsơm
Past ơmipocjakso ơmipocjaksom ơmipanjaksa ơmipanjaksam ơmipơrakơ ơmipơrakơm
Future ơmipoxawaso ơmipoxawasom ơmipaqawasa ơmipaqawasam ơmipơhawasơ ơmipơhawasơm

ParticlesEdit

Particle Case/Tense Example
la nominative

John la pucnalosơras.

John slept.

xe accusative

Hơ la pomya xe kalơrakko.

He hit the ball.

dative

Xjon la qam kė zjagwja'e xe kư'oxawa.

I will give you the money.

ga genitive

Nje la Sherry ga awcu xe osơh.

That is Sherry's car.

locative

Hơ'ưm la New York hȧ ȧlosơhum.

They are in New York.

mwje lative

Xjon la hơ xe mïlȧce mwje cagagoxawa.

I will bring it to the party.

xjư ablative

Rȧn la ponanjaksal xe hog imu xjư pwacơrakmơ.

The dog took the bone from its mother.

SyntaxEdit

Word order in Cjư is SOV

S O V
ipȧ la hog zjacmac xe mwayơras.
/ipɶ la χɔŋ ʑat͡smat͡s d͡ze mwajʌʁas/
father his wife kissed.
The father kissed his wife.

VocabularyEdit


No. English Cjư
1IXjon
2you (singular)Qam
3he
4weXjonưm
5you (plural)Qamưm
6theyHơ'ưm
7this
8thatNje
9hereCơ'ec
10thereNje'ec
11whoAnmơ
12what
13whereEcmơ
14whenOpmơ
15howRacmơ
16notLec
17allSưp
18manyȦk
19someCu
20fewXėc
21otherZjonhok
22oneÏg
23twoNah
24threeOg
25fourCji
26fivePak
27bigKaci
28longPos
29wideLacmag
30thickKalag
31heavyMėpkal
32smallLiplic
33shortLipci
34narrowXalkac
35thinMincėk
36womanMacan
37man (adult male)Palan
38man (human being)Hơlan
39childLipan
40wifeZjacmac
41husbandPalmac
42motherImu
43fatherIpȧ
44animalZazjư
45fishMi'ė
46birdQacơl
47dogRȧn
48louseRalpucim
49snakeSizjas
50wormHulimwa
51treeXi
52forestMoh
53stickGac
54fruitPwol
55seedXele
56leafLȧy
57rootMunïcwjơ
58barkGahka
59flowerOlmơ
60grassĖnhwȧ
61ropeIpsưl
62skinRalmac
63meatUpselap
64bloodGơ'ưgsac
65bonePonanjaksal
66fatSawri
67eggGïzas
68hornLưn
69tailHalcon
70featherSeymoc
71hairWjas
72headXjoc
73earEqem
74eyePima
75noseOlnėk
76mouthXug
77toothCjici
78tongueLơg
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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