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Classical Aka language

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Name: Pasa Hatu, pasa pilauyu

Type: Agglutinative

Alignment:

Head Direction:

Number of genders: 1

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Aka language is a language spoken by the aboriginal population of the center of Pela language of the Archipelago of Mu. [1]

Phonology Edit

Aka uses 21 phonetic consonants and only 3 vowels.

Consonants Edit

Table of consonant phonemes of Aka
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal [m]
(m)
[n]
(n)
[ɲ]
(ny)
[ŋ]
(ng)
Plosive [p]
(p)
[b]
(b)
[t]
(t)
[d]
(d)
[k]
(k)
[g]
(g)
[ʔ]
(y)[2]
Fricative [s]
(s, z)
[ʃ]
(x)
[h]
(h)
Affricate [ts]
(tz)
[tʃ]
(c)
[dʒ]
(j)
Tap [ɾ]
(r)
Approximant [l]
(l)
[j]
(y)
[w]
(w)

Vowels and diphtongs Edit

Anterior Central Posterior
Close
i
(i)
u
(u)
Open
a
(a)
———— a i u
a ——
ɑɪ
(ai, "e")
ɑw
(au, "o")
i
ja
(ya)
ji
(yi)
ju
(yu)
u
wa
(wa)
wi
(wi)
wu
(wu)

Syllabic stress Edit

Syllabic stress is put at the penultimate syllable of the root. When affixes is combinated with roots, tonic accent (an acute accent) is put in the vowel which is accentuated.

Grammar Edit

Declensions Edit

Noun's declentions
Case Affix
Genitive — sa
Accusative — as
Dative — pa
Benefactive — pal
Ablative — ku
Equative ti —

Remarks :

  • All noun inflections are regular
  • There are not plural inflections.
  • There are not articles which defines or undefines nouns.
  • Accentuation must be marked if and only if ambiguity is possible.
Adjective's declensions
Case Affix
Genitive — yusa
Accusative — yuwas
Dative — yupa
Benefactive — yupal
Ablative — yuku
Equative ti — yu

Remarks :

  • Adjective roots declines like nouns
  • There are not plural inflections.
  • There are not articles which defines or undefines nouns.
  • Accentuation must be marked if and only if ambiguity is possible.
declensions of nouns from adjective roots
Case Affix
Genitive — yutsa
Accusative — yutas
Dative — yutpa
Benefactive — yutpal
Ablative — yutku
Equative ti — yut

Remarks :

  • There are not plural inflections.
  • There are not articles which defines or undefines nouns.
  • Accentuation must be marked if and only if ambiguity is possible.

Syntax Edit

Nouns Edit

Aka uses bisyllabic roots to form nouns. They declines according to declensions tables indicated at the section "declensions".

They are three types of roots : adverb, adjective and noun.

The transition from a type to another one is realized by affixes.

Pronoun Edit

Pronouns are bisyllabic and doesn't have any declension.

Affix transition is not marked.

Personal pronouns
Subject Root Meaning
wa —
arak
1st person sing.
ma —
arau
2nd person sing.
i —
adang
3rd person sing.
di —
atza
1st person plur.
ki —
junda
2nd person plur.
gi —
antza
3rd person plur.

Notae :

  • Subject personal pronouns are prefixes and must be put with the verb and cannot be separated from it.
  • Pronouns does not have declensions, and can not take accusative marks for this reason.

Qualificative adjectives Edit

Affix transitions

Adjectives formed from noun roots must be marked with the prefix — yu

Adjectives formed from adverb roots must be marked with the prefix — yau

Adverbs Edit

Adverbs formed from nouns and adjectives must be marked with the affix — us.

Verbs Edit

Verbs declines according to tense and according to persons ; There is only participle as mood ; it for this reason that :

  • Conditional is expressed by the future tense
  • Imperative is expressed by the present with the particle pu after infinitive mark
  • Subjunctive can be expressed by the present or past tense.
Tense Tense
Marks
Present/
Infinitive
Participle
Present — a* — ak — ang
Past — i* — ik — ing
Future — u* — uk — ung
Vocal harmony

Romanized Aka doesn't contain apostrophs, it is for this reason that some verbs ends with -yak, -yik or -yuk instead of -ak, -ik or -uk. In this case he y is a glottal stop.

Writing system Edit

Aka language cans use many writing systems ; starting from cyrillic to Arabic script via Indic scripts (devanagari, bengali, tamil, telugu) ; but latin script is preferred due to its diffusion across the world.

Modern latin alphabet Edit

Romanized Aka differenciates Lower and Upper cases. Acute accent is used when there is ambiguity in one word but never systematically. They aren't part of the alphabet.

He currently use 23 letters, which are a, b, c, d, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, ng, p, r, s, t, tz, u, w, x, y and z

Simplified aka spelling Edit

Simplified spelling separates affixes and roots of a difficult word by a dash, which eases pronunciation and reading.

Arabic script Edit

Consonants in use are : ب ت غ ح ج چ د ذ ر ز س ش پ ق ي و ا

Vowel indication Edit

We don't know intermediates vowels. We just have to guess initial or final vowels by indications given below :

  • An ا (alap) indicates that the words starts by a vowels which can be a, i or u.
  • A ى (alap mansuyu) indicates that the word ends by the wovel a.
  • A ي (maksur) indicates that the words ends by a diphtong (ya, yi, yu).
  • A و (walam) indicates that the words ends by a diphtong (wa, wi, wu).

Written Aka Edit

Examples of text :

Latin Aka Arabic Aka English

Inyu unang lippu atzal igauyu baki atzal jingi lawikak. Adang tanangas atzal tsayiwias saruak, Atzal waktayak antzipan alaupan mantitak anuk wikta pati.

اني انق لپپو اصل اعوي بكي اصل جقي لوكك. ادق تنقس اصل صيواس سروك، اصل وكتيك انصپن الوپن منتتك انك وكت پت

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. http://conworld.wikia.com/wiki/Republic_of_the_Ponant Details in conworlds
  2. See the section "verbs

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