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Classical Saretic

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Progress 52%
Saretic
Aithnut Saret
Type
Analytic.
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
None.
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Classical Saretic is highly artificial language, created mainly for liturgical purposes on the basis of Old Colloquial Saretic about thousand years ago after long discussions of grammarians and theologians, who carefully purged all the "undignified" or inaccurate forms. Although the highest form of language is very difficult to understand for Modern Colloquial Saretic speakers, the clergy prefers to use Classical Saretic even in the colloquial discourse, as a mark of their priestly dignity. 

The language has a rather unusual structure. All grammatical categories of the sentence, tense and the numbers of both subject and object, are incorporated in one word, called morphosyntactical marker (called 'face of the sentence', in fact a paradigmatized time adverbs of Old Colloquial Saretic). In the rest of the sentence, OSV syntax is used. Cases are reatined (-ëth with possessive meaning, -i with locative meaning), attributes follow the word.  

Its phonology uses, except for g, only unvoiced consonants, some of them rather rare, including nasal fricatives (in more conservative pronunciation). It is generally not a tonal language, but tones can occur in conservative pronunciation. 

Conlang should evoke a dark, mystical atmosphere of cruel, abominable cult. Some features are inspired by Tai-Kadai languages, others by Sanskrit (nonsensical discussions of grammarians).  

Phonology Edit

Classical Saretic has 19 consonant phonemes and six vocal phonemes.

Stress falls on the first syllable of the word, monosyllabic words are proclitic and do not have separate stress (tahn nëtaph cähi thnrhäthnähthëth > 'tahn nëtaph 'cähi 'thnrhäthnähthëth). Stress is very weak and should not be exaggerated, it is considered extremely disgusting. Some grammarians prefer to not stress at all. Sentences should be as monotonous as possible. Slow, careful pronunciation is considered to be more dignified.

Consonants

Bilabial Labio-dental Interdental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal n
Plosive t k g
Fricative f θ s ʂ x
Affricate
Nasal fricative fn θn̥ sn ʂn xn
Trill r ʀ
Lateral l
Lateral fric. ɮ

In Classical language, nasal fricative was required in pronunciation: [f̃, s̃, θ̃, ʂ̃, ]. Nowadays, separate pronunciation of fricative with correspondent nasal is more used, as described in the table. This pronunciation is often considered undesirable or even irreverent in the more conservative circles.

Similarly, in more conservative circles [q] is used instead of [g], the latter, however, is not attested in classical sources and is probably a hypercorrection, based on the fact that all the other consonants are unvoiced. (Voiced consonants were common in Old Colloquial Saretic, but were purged during the reform as undignified.)

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i ɯ
Near-close
Close-mid e
Mid
Open-mid ɜ
Near-open æ
Open a

All vowels are to be pronounced unvoiced. The phoneme <e> is preferred in modern speech, however, more conservative circles prefere to pronounce it like <ɜ> with falling tone. The correctness of such pronunciation is a matter of discussions.

The <ɯ> phoneme does not appear anywhere except for the morphosyntactical word.

AlphabetEdit

In this article, IPA is used to represent Saretic texts.

If it is necessary to write Saretic in Latin alphabet, these letters are used:

[n, t, s, r, l, g] = <n, t, s, r, l, g>

[k, f, θ, ʂ, x, ʀ, ɮ] = <c, ph, th, sh, h, rh, ls>

[fɱ, θn̥, sn,ʂɳ̊, xn] = <phn, thn, sn, shn, hn>

[a, æ, e, ɜ, i, ɯ] = <a, ä, e, ë, i, u>

Morphosyntactical word θɯθ, for example, would be written thuth in Saretic Latin.

 Among Sarets, use of Latin alphabet is considered to be extremely decadent and irreverent, sometimes even blasphemic. However, many non-Sarets living in Saret environment use it for private purposes, finding classical script to difficult.  

Phonotactics

 Possible combinations are: CVCV, CVCVC, CCVCVCC, CVCCVC. All common words have two syllabes, monosyllabic word is used only as a morphosyntstical word. However, consonantic cluster must contain <r, ʀ, l, ɮ>.  

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Morphosyntactical wordEdit

Every sentence begins with the morphosyntactical word, which describes all the morphosyntactical categories of the sentence. The word is called face of the sentence by grammarians.  

First element describes the grammatical number of the subject. If the subject is in the singular, it is <t>, if in the dual, it is <θ>, if in the plural, it is <n>.

In the earliest texts, the sequence is reversed: the second element describes the subject, whereas the first element the object (so that, for example, nɯx would not mean plural subject and singular object, but plural object and singular subject). This form is thought to be more natural and elegant by some grammarians, classical form being the newer development.

Sedond element describes the grammatical number of the object. If it is in the singular or dual, it is <ɯ>, if it is in the plural, it is <a>. If the sentence has no object, it is counted as plural.

Third element describes the tense. Four tenses are used in Classical Saretic: past, marked with <x>, future, marked with <g>. Element <ʂ> is used for general truths, always valid, <θ> is used for present.

There are following possibilities: 

Past:

tɯx - I ate two apples (singular subject, singular object, past)

tax - I ate more than two apples (singular subject, plural object, past)

θɯx - We two ate two apples (dual subject, singular object, past)

θax - We two ate more than two apples (dual subject, plural object, past)

nɯx - We, many, ate two apples (plural subject, singular object, past)

nax - We, many, ate more than two apples. (dual object, singular subject, past)

Future

tɯg - I will eat two apples (singular subject, singular object, future)

tag - I will eat more than two apples (singular subject, plural object, future)

θɯg - We two will eat two apples (dual subject, singular object, future)

θag - We two will eat more than two apples (dual subject, plural object, future)

nɯg - We, many, will eat two apples (plural subject, singular object, future)

nag - We, many, will eat more than two apples. (dual object, singular subject, future)

General time

tɯʂ - I regularly eat two apples (singular subject, singular object, general)

taʂ - I regularly eat more than two apples (singular subject, plural object, general)

θɯʂ - We two regularly eat two apples (dual subject, singular object, general)

θaʂ - We two regularly eat more than two apples (dual subject, plural object, general)

nɯʂ - We, many, regularly eat two apples (plural subject, singular object, general)

naʂ - We, many, regularly eat more than two apples. (dual object, singular subject, general)

Right now

tɯθ - I am eating two apples (singular subject, singular object, right now)

taθ - I am eating more than two apples (singular subject, plural object, right now)

θɯθ - We two are eating two apples (dual subject, singular object, right now)

θaθ - We two are eating more than two apples (dual subject, plural object, right now)

nɯθ - We, many, are eating two apples (plural subject, singular object, right now)

naθ - We, many, are eating more than two apples. (dual object, singular subject, right now)

In the subjunctive mood, which can be used as an imperative or as a conditional, the last consonant is nasalised. <G> changes into <x> in this case, merging past with future.

If several consequent sentences would have a same morphosyntactical word, it does not need to be repeated always, but it should be repeated at least in every third sentence (one sentence with a morphosyntactical word, two sentences without). However, such omitting, even if justifiable, is considered very awkward, except in poetry.

Pronouns Edit

Saretic personal pronouns of the first and second person have two variants used according to the social precedence of the speakers.

When a Saret male talks to a person superior, he uses word θaʀeg (originally meaning "a slave", but not used as a noun in Classical Saretic), referring to himself, and word tasne (lord, master) referring to the other one. This form is called "humble" form in Saret grammars. 

When a Saret male talks to a person inferior, he uses the same word, tasne, referring to himself, and the word θaʀeg referring to the other one. This form is called proud.

In the third person, word taxa is used in both variants. Talking about gods or highest clergy, pronouns are never used and their names or appropriate titles must be repeated always. When Classical Saretic is used colloquially, titles or names are preferred instead of tasne.

Humble form Proud form
"I, we" θaʀeg  tasne
"thou, you" tasne θaʀeg 
"he, she, it, they" taxa taxa
As a rule, women, lepers and non-Sarets use humble forms always, regardless to their social position.

(Some grammarians think that when two non-Saret males talk to each other, the use of "proud" pronouns can be justifiable when one of them has considerably high position in Saret society, the other being a notable enemy of Sarets and a leper at the same time, but only enmity or only leprosy would not give him such a privilege.)

The situation where two male Saret speakers are equal is rather theoretical in highly structured Saret society. Classical grammars leave this question undecided, assuming that such a situation can never happen. Some modern grammarians usually think that if both are healthy Saret males, both should use proud form (because humble form would be used by women, lepers or non-Sarets). Other authors think that they should use their names instead of pronouns, but it is considered to be too respectful by some. Another authors propose several special neologistic pronouns for such situation, none of them has been ever used in natural speech.

The pronouns have no number, because it is already expressed with the morphosyntactical marcer. 

VerbsEdit

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit


No. English Classical Saretic
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherθnʀæθnæx
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killkræʂag
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comenɜtaf
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128givenaɮa
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthθɜʂnan
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayθnæʂn
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204and-aʂxi
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becausenæni
207namenɮæθɜg

</s>

Example textEdit

Our Father Edit

Text and commentary Edit

1. taʂn nɮæθɜg θnʀæθnæxθɜθ saʂɳ̊æs θaʀegɜθ θn̥isæ

always one thing may do many things - name  - of the father - of (us) servants  - bless

"Always blessed be a name of the Father heavenly of us, servants."

2. taxn kæxi nɜtaf θnʀæθnæxɜθ

in future one thing may do many things - come - kingdom - of the father

"In future, come Kingdom of the father."

3. taʂn fnlæʂærn θnʀæθnæxɜθ tafɜ saʂɳ̊æsi θɜʂnaniaʂxi

always one thing may do many things - fulfill (be fulfilled) - will - of the father

"Always be fulfilled will of the Father, in heaven and in earth."

4. tɯθn xnɜfax θaʀegɜθ θnʀæθnæx naɮa θaʀegi θnæʂnæ

right now one thing may do one thing - bread - of us servants - Father - give - in us, among us ("usly") - daily

"Now, may Father give our bread in us daily."

5. taθn tinat θaʀegɜθ θnʀæθnæx ʂɳ̊anæ

 right now one thing may do many thing - debts - of us servants - Father - forgive 

"Now, may Father forgive debts of us, servants."

6. naθn næni tinat tinatfiɜθ θaʀegɜθ θaʀeg ʂɳ̊anæ

 right now many things may do many things - because - debts - of debtors - of us - we, servants - forgive

"For now we, servants, forgive the debts of our debtors."

7. taxn θɮɜθɜʀk θaʀegɜθ θnʀæθnæx sɜxæ

in future one thing may do many things - temptations - of us - Father - hinder 

"Then, may Father hinder our temptations."

8. tɯxn gæxna θaʀegɜθ θnʀæθnæx kræʂag

 in future one thing may do one thing - evil - of us - Father - destroy 

"Then, may father destroy our evil."

More conservative pronunciation Edit

[taʂ̃ nɮæθɜq θ̃ʀæθ̃æxθɜθ saʂ̃æs θaʀɜ̂qɜθ θ̃isæ

tax̃ kæxi nɜtaf θ̃ʀæθ̃æxɜθ

taʂ̃ f̃læʂærn θ̃ʀæθ̃æxɜθ tafɜ saʂ̃æsi θɜʂ̃aniaʂxi

tɯθ̃ x̃fax θaʀɜ̂qɜθ θ̃ʀæθ̃æx naɮa θaʀɜ̂qi θ̃æʂ̃æ

taθ̃ tinat θaʀɜ̂qɜθ θ̃ʀæθ̃æx ʂ̃anæ 

naθ̃ næni tinat tinatfiɜθ θaʀɜ̂qɜθ θaʀɜ̂q ʂ̃anæ 

tax̃ θɮɜθɜʀk θaʀɜ̂qɜθ θ̃ʀæθ̃æx sɜxæ  

tɯx̃ qæx̃a θaʀɜ̂qɜθ θ̃ʀæθ̃æx kræʂaq]

Latin script version

Tashn thnisä nlsäthëg thnrhäthnähthëth sashnäs thärhegëth,

tahn nëtaph cähi thnrhäthnähthëth,

tashn tafë phnläshärn thnrhäthnähthëth sashnäsi theshnaniashhi,

tuthn hnëphah tharhegeth thnrhäthnäh nalsa tharhegi thnäshnä,

tathn tinat tharhegëth thnrhäthnäh shnanä,

nathn näni tinat tinatfiëth tharhegeth tharheg shnanä,

tahn thlsëthërhc tharegeth thnrhäthnäh sëhä,

tuhn gähna tharegeth thnrhäthnäh cräshag.

  /Note: This translation is created only as an example. For Sarets, whose religion is very strict and cruel, our Christian prayer would be an uttermost blasphemy. They would never call God Merciful Father, rather Unmerciful Tyrant, they would not ask for forgiveness, but for the strictest punishment of all the sins./

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