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Classical Wisconsin

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Classical Wisconsin
Type Polysynthetic
Alignment SOV
Head direction Head final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator IHCOYC

Classical Wisconsin (natively: Mascodudûstiquamovem MASCAVA("solid")+DUDUS("milk")+TIQUAM("head")+MOVEM("speech")3sg, of obscure meaning was the classical speech of the Wisconsin Empire, which at its greatest extent in the first century CE extended through most of the northern shores of the Great Lakes through Quebec and into New England.

Classification and DialectsEdit

Classical Wisconsin is an Algonquian trade language. The bulk of the lexicon is Ojibwe, but the language draws on Cree, Natick, and other Algonquian languages of the northeastern Americas.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
plain labial
Plosive voiced b d ɡ
voiceless p t ʦ k
Fricative voiced z
voiceless f s h
Nasal m n ŋ
Rhotic r ɾ
Approximant l j w

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close [iː ɪ] [ʊ uː]
Mid [eː ɛ] ə [ɔ oː]
Open [a aː]

There are two diphthongs, /ai/, written ae, and /aʊ/. written au.

Historical phonologyEdit

The phonology of Classical Wisconsin is fairly simple and sonorous. It generally continues to map well into the source Algonquian languages. But there have been a number of significant changes.

ConsonantsEdit

A chain shift has altered the realization of a number of fricative sounds inherited by the language. Originally, voiced sounds were distinguished from voiceless sounds by strong aspiration and pre-aspiration in addition to voicing. Some of the voiceless aspirated sounds become consonant clusters in Classical Wisconsin.

  1. ʃ > s
  2. ʰs > st*
  3. ʧ > ts*
  4. ʒ > r
  5. ʤ > tr*
  6. ʔ > h or 0

*The outcome of these changes can be altered by rules that require distance between consonant clusters.

Other sound changes include:

  1. Between vowels, b > f
  2. Word-final -n > -m; -in > -em; -on > -um

Classical Wisconsin often preserves proto-Central Algonquian *l where Ojibwe has n. Classical Wisconsin also frequently shows voiceless stops where Ojibwe has voiced stops.

VowelsEdit

The inherited vowels from Proto-Algonquian were short a e i o and long ā ē ī ō. This set is expanded to a full set of both short and long a e i o u in Classical Wisconsin. First, ō > u. Then, all vowels became subject to shortening or lengthening by virtue of the language's one-two prosodic rules, in which vowels in stressed syllables were potentially lengthened and vowels in unstressed syllables were nearly always reduced.

Live phonological processesEdit

Consonant clustersEdit

The following combinations are the permitted consonant clusters in Classical Wisconsin. When the cluster appears different in writing, this is noted in parentheses:

  • bl, br, cl, cn, cr, cs (x), ct, cv (qu), dr, dv, fv, gl, gn, gr, gs, gv (gu), lc, ld, lf, lm, ls, lt, lv. mb, mp, mv, nc, nd, ns, nt, nv, pl, pr, ps, pt, pv, rb, rc, rd, rg, rm, rn, rp, rs, rt, rv, sb, sc, scl, scr, scv (squ) sl, sm, sn, sp, st, str, sv, tc, tl, tr, ts.

Clusters that are otherwise not allowed are simplified; the non-plosive element is often dropped, or the entire cluster is devoiced. Generally, only one consonant cluster can appear in a syllable; a syllable is not permitted to both start and end with an otherwise permitted cluster. Groups with the semivowel v are an exception to this rule.

Word finalsEdit

Consonants appearing word finally are routinely devoiced unless protected by a nasal. The following consonants and clusters can appear word-finally:

  • c, f, h, l, m, p, r, s, t, nd, ns, nt, st. Only invariant words may end in -n,

The groups -im and -om change to -em and -um. -Om may appear in the group -vom.

Prosodic featuresEdit

The stressed syllables of Classical Wisconsin are quite regular and follow metrical principles. Generally speaking, stressed and unstressed syllables alternate, giving each word either an iambic (common) or trochaic (rare) rhythm. For example, the native name of the language follows this pattern:

 x  / ||  x /  ||  x  /  || x /   
Masco || dudûs || tiquam || ovem
mas.ko:  dʊ.dus   tɪ.kʷam   ɔ.wɛm

Bowel length is impacted by these prosodic patterns. Vowels that find themselves in a stressed position are subjected to lengthening, especially if that is also an open syllable. Long vowels in a weak position are invariably shortened.

When in a weakened position:

  1. originally short a is unchanged
  2. originally short e becomes i
  3. originally short i is unchanged
  4. originally short o becomes u
  5. originally short u is unchanged.

The diphthong ae becomes e when shortened by weak position. The diphthong au typically becomes o in any combining position.


Combining rules and internal sandhiEdit

Vowel on vowelEdit
  1. a + a > â if strong, a if weak.
  2. a + e, i > ae /aɪ/ if strong, e if weak
  3. a + o, u > au /aʊ/ if strong, o if weak
  4. au often > o in combinations regardless of syllable strength
  5. e + a, o, u > ia, io, iu.
  6. e + e, i > ê if strong, e if weak
  7. i + a, o, u > ia, io, iu.
  8. i + e, i > î if strong, i if weak
  9. o + a, e, i > va, ve, vi
  10. o + o, u > ô if strong, u if weak
  11. u + a, e, i > va, ve, vi
  12. o + o, u > û if strong, u if weak
Vowel and consonantEdit
  1. Vb + V > VfV
  2. c, t + i > ci, ti - both /ʦɪ/
  3. coV, cuV > quV unless the V is u.
  4. co, cu + u > if strong, cu if weak
Consonant on consonantEdit
  1. c, g + s, z > x
  2. m, n + f > mb
  3. m, n + c, d, g, t > nC
  4. m, when word final, may become n when suffixes are added
Nasal dissimulationEdit

The groups **-VNVN-, where V is one identical vowel and N is one identical nasal n, m or ng, are not allowed. If strings like this arise out of the morphology the nasals are dissimulated. If the group is word final, the closing nasal must be m. In other cases, if the first nasal is from a root the second will be changed to m or n, whichever is absent from the root syllable. The syllable never changes to ng.

Writing SystemEdit

Letter Sound Letter Sound
A a [a] ~ [ə] Â â [a:]
B b [b] C c [k] ~ [ʦ]
D d [d] E e [ɛ]
Ê ê [e:] F f [f]
G g [g] H h [ɦ]
I i [ɪ] ~ [ɨ]; [j] Î î [i:]
L l [l] M m [m]
N n [n], [ŋ] O o [ɔ] ~ [ʌ]
Ô ô [o:] P p [p]
R r [r] ~ [ɾ] S s [s]
T t [t] ~ [ʦ] U u [u]
Û û [u:] V v [w]
X x [ks] Z z [z]

GrammarEdit

Basic grammatical categoriesEdit

Classical Wisconsin words inflect in a number of grammatical categories. Both nouns and verbs inflect for gender, number, and person.

GenderEdit

Classical Wisconsin has two genders: animate and inanimate. Genders are semantic and largely natural rather than grammatical.

  • People, animals, large trees, rivers, astronomical features like the sun and moon, vehicles, and just about anything that moves on its own initiative or power are animate.
  • All other words are inanimate.

Some nouns may switch genders or be ambiguous as to gender. Often, there is a change in meaning. For example, mitiqua can be either animate or inanimate. The animate version means "tree" and has the plural mitiquac; the inanimate version means "wood, timber, lumber" and has the plural mitiqual.

NumberEdit

All Classical Wisconsin nouns are obligately marked for singular or plural.

PersonEdit

Taeocitsitavam
HORSE(tae).WARRIOR(ocitsita).3obv
"Sir Not Appearing In This Film."

Person is a more expansive category in Classical Wisconsin than it is in Indo-European languages.

The first person plural contains exclusive and inclusive forms. The inclusive forms typically combine first and second person forms.

The third person, both singular and plural, contains two forms, an "proximate" form for the narrator or point of view character, and an "obviate" form for other third person characters, or unspecified persons. The proximate and obviate forms are obligatory, and answer the same purpose as do nominative and accusative forms in other language; they are used to specify who acts and who is acted on.

Hierarchy of personsEdit

Transitive verbs may take arguments that specify two persons. When they do, there is a hierarchy that indicates a presumptive order as to who does what to whom; this is the hierarchy of persons. The hierarchy goes:

2 > 1 > 3.prox > 3.obv

This hierarchy takes the place of nominative and accusative marking. In the absence of specific marking, if the arguments of a verb "hit" specify "you" and "me", the hierarchy makes the unmarked form mean "you hit me". To specify "I hit you", a suffix (usuall -ar) is added to indicate that the order presumed by the hierarchy is not being followed.

DeicticsEdit

Animate Inanimate
Singular Plural Obviative Singular Plural
Demonstrative Nearest
.
.
.
Farthest
Here vau
/waʊ/
ancau
/ən.kaʊ/
alau
/ə.laʊ/
ahau
/ə.haʊ/
alau
/ə.laʊ/
Over here vaveti
/wə.we.ʦɪ/
ancautic
/ən.kaʊ.ʦik/
ovetem
/ɔ.we.tɛm/
oveti
/ɔ.we.ti/
ovetem
/ɔ.we.tɛm/
There au
/aʊ/
engio
/ɛŋ.jo/
enio
/ɛn.jo/
eio
/ɛ.jo/
enio
/ɛn.jo/
Over there/Yonder aveti
/ə.we.ʦɪ/
inquetic
/ɪn.kʷe.ʦɪk/
invietem
/ɪn.wi.jɛ.tɛm/
iveti
/ɪn.we.ʦɪ/
invietem
/ɪn.wi.jɛ.tɛm/
Dubitative
SOMEBODY, SOMETHING, SOME KIND OF
avequem
/ə.we.kʷɛm/
avequenac
/ə.we.kʷɛn.ak/
avequalam
/ə.we.kʷɛ.lam/
vetocoquem
/wɛ.to.kɔ.kʷɛm/
vetocoquelam
/wɛ.to.kɔ.kʷe.lam/
Interrogative
WHO, WHAT
avenel
/ə.we.nɛl/
avenelac
/ə.we.nɛl.ak/
avenelam
/ə.we.nɛ.lam/
aveconem
/ə.we.kɔ.nɛm/
aveconelam
/ə.we.kɔ.nɛ.lam/

NounsEdit

All nouns in Classical Wisconsin are marked as being singular or plural. Plural nouns are identified by gender as well as number; the plural suffix for animate nouns is -c (-ac after consonants) and the plural suffix for inanimate nouns is -l (-al after consonants).

PossessivesEdit

The inflexions for possessive nouns resemble those for verbs.

Animate: vos "father"Edit

Number
Singular Plural
Written Gloss Written Gloss
First person singular nivos
nɪ.ˈwos
my father nivosac
nɪ.ˈwos.ək
my fathers
Second person singular civos
ʦɪ.ˈwos
your father civosac
ʦɪ.ˈwos.ək
your fathers
Third person proximate ovos
ɔ.ˈwos
his/her father ovosac
ɔ.ˈwos.ək
his/her fathers
Third person obviate vosem
wɔs.ˈɛm
his/her, somebody's father vosenac
wɔs.ˈɛn.ək
his/her, somebody's fathers
First person plural, exclusive nivosalau
nɪ.ˈwos.ə.laʊ
our father nivosalauc
nɪ.ˈwos.ə.laʊk
our fathers
First person plural, inclusive civosalau
ʦɪ.ˈwos.ə.laʊ
our father civosalauc
ʦɪ.ˈwos.ə.laʊk
our fathers
Second person plural civosio
ʦɪ.ˈwos.ɪ.jo
your father civosioc
ʦɪ.ˈwos.ɪ.jok
your fathers
Third person plural ovosio
ɔ.ˈwos.ɪ.jo
their father ovosioc
ɔ.ˈwos.ɪ.jok
their fathers

Inanimate: maxem "shoe"Edit

Number
Singular Plural
Written Gloss Written Gloss
First person singular nimaxem
ni.ˈmak.səm
my shoe nimaxemal
ni.ˈmak.səm.al
my shoes
Second person singular cimaxem
ʦi.ˈmak.səm
your shoes cimaxemal
ʦi.ˈmak.səm.al
your shoes
Third person proximate omaxem
ɔ.ˈmak.səm
his/her shoe omaxemal
ɔ.ˈmak.səm.al
his/her shoes
Third person obviate maxemem
mək.ˈsɛm.əm
his/her, somebody's shoe maxememal
mək.ˈsɛm.əm.al
his/her, somebody's shoes
First person plural, exclusive nimaxemalo
nɪ.ˈmak.sə.ma.lɔ
our shoe nimaxemalol
nɪ.ˈmak.sə.ma.lɔl
our shoes
First person plural, inclusive cimaxemalo
ʦɪ.ˈmak.sə.ma.lɔ
our shoe cimaxemalol
ʦɪ.ˈmak.sə.ma.lɔl
our shoes
Second person plural cimaxemio
ʦɪ.ˈmak.sə.mi.jɔ
your shoes cimaxemial
ʦɪ.ˈmak.sə.mi.jəl
your shoes
Third person plural omaxemio
ɔ.ˈmak.sə.mi.jɔ
their shoe omaxemial
ɔ.ˈmak.sə.mi.jəl
their shoes

There are several things to note about these paradigms that are generally true throughout the inflectional system of Classical Wisconsin. The main inflections consist of reduced pronouns prefixed to the nouns, and suffixes that complete the specification of person and of number, both of the possessor and the underlying noun.

The personal prefixes do not occur in every form; in subordinated forms they are entirely absent, for example. When they occur, they take the forms:

  1. 1p. ni-, nir- before vowels;
  2. 2p. ci-, cir- before vowels; note also that this prefix is used for the inclusive first person;
  3. 3p. o-, or- before unstressed vowels, v- before initially stressed vowels.

The obviate third person form does not take a pronominal prefix, but takes a suffix marking the noun as obviate. The obviate form serves both for singular and plural third persons.

Because the other possessed forms take prefixes but the obviate does not, casting the noun into the obviate form alters the rhythm (CW givôn, "heartbeat") of the word, and changes the stressed syllables. This is a regular phonological process. The differences between a one syllable root (vos) and a two syllable root (maxem) change the realization of some of the string of suffixes; here, they regularly change -lau- to lo-. All of these processes will reappear throughout the inflections of Classical Wisconsin.

Nouns possessing other nouns appear in apposition: nivos taeanac Ip.FATHER.sg 3p.obv.HORSE.pl "my father's horses."

LocativeEdit

The locative suffix is -ni, after consonants -eni

  • nipi "water" > nipini "by, on, in the water"
  • ciric "sky" > ciriceni "by, on, in the sky"; civosalau ciriceni /ʦɪ.'wo.sə.laʊ ʦɪ.'ri.kɛ.ni/ "Our Father in heaven"

DativeEdit

The dative suffix is -tae, -dae or -itae if none of those will produce a valid combination. Only animate nouns take this construction.

  • ileni "man" > ilenitae "to, for, on behalf of the man"
  • binestem "bird" > binestendae "to, for, on behalf of the bird"
  • namens "fish" > namensitae "to, for, on behalf of the fish"

DiminutiveEdit

Other Classical Wisconsin noun inflections are less complicated. There are diminutives formed by the suffix -ns (-ens after a consonant:

  • maqua "bear" > maquans "little bear"
  • cinefic "snake" > cineficens "little snake"
  • ileni "man" > ilenins "little man"

PejorativeEdit

The pejorative suffix is -is:

  • cetic "knee" > ceticis "good-for-nothing knee"; niceticisac "my good for nothing knees".
  • ileni > ilenis "good for nothing men"

VerbsEdit

The basic structure of a Classical Wisconson verb contains the following parts:

  1. PERSONAL PREFIX. Not present in all tenses or constructions. Usually 0 in the third person.
  2. TENSE MARKER. 0 in the present tense.
  3. MODAL PREFIXES. Optional. May be more than one.
  4. ROOT. May be compound, in which case it may incorporate an object.
  5. Certain MODAL SUFFIXES go here.
  6. ARGUMENT. Specifies the person acting, and the person acted upon.

Verbs fall into four conjugations, defined not by the phonetic shape of the root, but by the arguments they can take:

  1. Intransitive verbs with animate subjects (VIA)
  2. Intransitive verbs with inanimate subjects (VII)
  3. Transitive verbs with animate objects (VTA)
  4. Transitive verbs with inanimate objects (VTI)

The lemma, or citation form, of a Classical Wisconsin verb is the third person proximate singular present. This form typically has no personal prefix and the simplest arguments. Generally speaking the animate verbs have more complex forms than the inanimate verbs, and the transitive verbs have more complex forms than the intransitive ones.

In addition to these four conjugations, verbs exhibit four moods:

  1. An indicative mood, that appears in main clauses;
  2. A subordinate mood, appearing in subordinate clauses;
  3. A negative mood, for negation; and
  4. An imperative mood, for commands.

First conjugation: animate intransitive verbsEdit

These verbs can serve as an introduction to the entire system. Like possessed nouns, first and second persons are noted by a pronominal prefix. The number and obviate status of the subject are shown by a personal ending.

nifa, "he/she sleeps"Edit

nifa, "he/she sleeps"
Written
IPA
Gloss
1p.sing ninifa
nɪ.ˈni.fa
"I sleep"
2p.sing cinifa
ʦɪ.ˈni.fa
"you sleep"
3p.sing.prox nifa
nɪ.ˈfa
"he/she sleeps"
3p.sing.obv nifavant
nɪ.ˈfa.want
"he/she sleeps, somebody sleeps"
1p.plural.exclusive ninifames
nɪ.ˈni.fa.mes
"we (excl) sleep"
1p.plural.inclusive cinifames
ʦɪ.ˈni.fa.mes
"we (incl) sleep"
2p.plural cinifam
ʦɪ.ˈni.fam
"you sleep"
3p.plural nifavac
nɪ.ˈfa.wak
"they sleep"

Second conjugation: intransitive inanimate verbsEdit

These exist only in the third person. This conjugation contains many words relating to colors, weather (gimivant "it.OBV is raining"), time (cirefavant "it.OBV is morning") and similar words. Most of them do not apply to main actors or narrative focus, so the obviate form tends to be frequently encountered.

orausco, "it is yellow"Edit

orausco, "it is yellow"
Written
IPA
Gloss
3p.sing.prox orausco
ɔ.'raʊ.sko
"it is yellow"
3p.sing.obv orauscovant
ɔ.'raʊ.skɔ.want
"it/something is yellow"
3p.plural orauscovac
ɔ.'raʊ.skɔ.wak
"they are yellow"

Third conjugation: inanimate transitive verbsEdit

These are similar to the animate intransitive verbs, and mark the subject by the personal prefixes and endings. They take additional arguments that specify whether the inanimate direct object is obviate or proximate. Third person forms also take a prefix in these verbs, which is o-, or v- if the stem begins with a vowel. The obviate ending is -o and the proximate ending is -am. Since subjects as well as objects can be both proximate or obviate, the third person forms only have the forms for the opposite mode.

onodamo, "he/she brings it" (root: nodam)Edit

nodam, "he/she brings it"
Written
IPA
Gloss
1p.sing ninodamo
ninodanam
"I bring it (obv/prox)"
2p.sing cinodamo
cinodanam
"you bring it"
3p.sing.prox onodamo "he/she brings it/something" (obv)
3p.sing.obv onodamantam
"he/she/somebody brings it (prox)"
1p.plural.exclusive ninodameso
ninodamesam
"we (excl) bring it"
1p.plural.inclusive cinodameso
ciodamesam
"we (incl) bring it"
2p.plural cinodameno
cinodamenam
"you bring it"
3p.plural onodamavaco
onodamavacam
"they bring it"

LexiconEdit


No. English
1Inîn
2you (singular)cîl
3hevîn
4weninavint (excl), cinavint (incl)
5you (plural)cinava
6theyvinava
7thisau
8thativ
9hereomâ
10thereimâ
11whoavên
12whatviconan
13whereenti
14whenafil
15howanil
16notcavil
17allacila
18manylibova
19somealinte
20fewbangi
21otherpalem
22oneberic
23twonîr
24threenista
25fourniu
26fivenalem
27bigcitri-
28longquinori
29widecitripacem
30thickcipaca
31heavycosiquem
32smallacasta
33shortdaqueri
34narrowacastapacem
35thinôsci
36womanisquae
37man (adult male)ileni
38man (human being)avên
39childmimens
40wifeviva
41husbandnilafem
42mothermamâ
43fatherwos
44animalafestem
45fishnamens
46birdbinestem
47dogalimos
48louseiqua
49snakecinefic
50wormmôsta
51treemitiqua
52forestmitiquacem
53sticksiaqua
54fruitmânivem
55seedminicam
56leafanîfis
57rootodrific
58barkvanagec
59flowervâfiquam
60grassmascosiva
61ropebiminaquam
62skintracae
63meatviast
64bloodmisqui
65bonecam
66fatbimide
67eggvaval
68hornescam
69tailrava
70feathermiquam
71hairvîniris
72headtiquam
73eartavac
74eyesciteric
75noseiar
76mouthtûn
77toothvifit
78tonguedilanu
79fingernailscanera
80footrit
81legvicat
82kneecetic
83handnarca
84wingvilinquam
85bellymistat
86gutsnacir
87neckquecam
88backpiquam
89breastdudûsta
90hearttae
91liverquom
92drinkvistini
93eatmistini
94bitetaquam
95suckviquam
96spitsiqui
97vomitracoqui
98blowputar
99breathepacitâno
100laughbâpi
101seevafi
102hearnundam
103knowcenem
104thinkmonendam
105smellbirimam
106fearcosi
107sleepnifâ
108livepimausi
109dielifo
110killnisi
111fightmicâro
112huntcivose
113hitpacite
114cutciscire
115splitdâsqui
116stabparifau
117scratchsausti
118digvanice
119swimcafâsimo
120flypafâmite
121walkpimose
122comeoribâ
123liepemisem
124sitapi
125standnipavi
126turnquepi
127fallpangisem
128givemîr
129holdtacum
130squeezemâgofir
131rubsiquena
132washciristum
133wipecirem
134pullvîcofir
135pushcandem
136throwapagir
137tietacobir
138sewcasquigaso
139countacem
140sayicito
141singlagamo
142playodamino
143floatagomo
144flowpimitigueia
145freezemasquadem
146swellpacisi
147sunquiris
148moontifiquiris
149staralanco
150waternipi
151raingimivem
152riversipi
153lakesacaegam
154seacitrisacaegam
155saltrivit
156stoneasin
157sandlecau
158dustpinqui
159earthaci
160cloudâlacot
161fogavam
162skyciric
163windnûtem
164snowcôn
165icemiquam
166smokepaqueni
167fireiscote
168ashpinqui
169burnracite
170roadmacana
171mountainpiquata
172redmisco
173greenorausco
174yellowosau
175whitevapisco
176blackmacate
177nighttific
178dayciric
179yearcicônovem
180warmâbau
181coldcistinâ
182fullmuscile
183newvosci-
184oldcete-
185goodmilo-
186badmatri-
187rottenbigiscani-
188dirtyvinâd
189straightquaeac
190roundvavaea
191sharpcina
192dullariva
193smoothroscosi
194wetnipivam
195drypasto
196correctquaeac
197nearpeso
198farvâsa
199rightcitrinic
200leftnamatric
201at-ind
202in-ind, pinde
203withvitri-
204andce
205ifcispem
206becauseotri-
207namevir
[1]

Example textEdit

NotesEdit

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