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|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
The Common Nord-Language( Norðaulkn : Sa Gemyinra Norð-sprekn, also called 'Nordic' ) is a language spoken by the nordic people of Skyrim. The language stems from the Proto-Germanic language with a moderate influence from Old Norse, Dutch, Afrikaans and Old English, thus creating a language that can reflect the cold and harsh environment of the Nords. The language has approximately 11 different dialects and many smaller dialects spoken among the thugs and bandits of Skyrim. For this article, we will be writing in the dialect of the Winterhold region. Nordic is a fairly inflectional language with 2 genders, 2 numbers and 4 cases.
Reason for the Nordic languageEdit
While playing through Skyrim, I noticed the poor excuse of a conlang called, 'Dragon' Language, I decided that the nords deserve better, thus the birth of Nordic. The main goal for this conlang is to translate the entire Skyrim dialogue in Nordish - this does not include the loading screens and interface.
Nordic's consonants are very similar to Proto-Germanic's consonant table, though as result of historical changes, certain consonants merged or changed place of articulation, see Changes from Proto-Germanic
|Plosive||b p||k g|
|Flap or tap|
The orthography of Nordic is based on Icelandic and Old English, with the addition of my own little touch. Most of the vowels and consonants are written exactly like their phonetic equal, albeit there are some exceptions :
[x] : The consonant, [x], is primarily written as a <g> at the begining of the word, for example : guðn [xuðn]. When the consonant [x] is found at the end of the word, it is written as a <ch>, thusly similar to the German <ch>. An example would be : wrachr [wraxr].
[g] : The consonant, [g], is written <g> and is only found between vowels and at the end of words, for example : swelgn [swelgn].
[ɔ] : The vowel is written as <o>, for example : eiwo [eiwɔ].
[aː],[eː],[ɔ:] and [iː] : The long vowels are written with an accent diacritic on top of the vowel, for example : þrautlí [θrɑutliː].
To ease speech, the ancestors of the a nords merged various consonants :
- The consonants, [ɸ] and [β] merged into the single consonant, [s].
- The [t̪] and [d̪] was retracted and as result they turned into the consonants, [t] and [d].
- The guttural consonants [x] and its allophone (ɣ) merged into the single phoneme, [x].
- The sound, [ŋ] was simplified into the consonant, [n].
Here is a summary of the Consonant Changes that occurred in Nordic :
[ɸ] (β) →[s] [t̪] [d̪] → [t] [d] [x] (ɣ) → [x] [ŋ] → [n] [ʰ] → [Ø]*loss
The nasal vowels of Proto-Germanic were lost completely, and as result the nasal vowels merged with the oral vowels. Some vowels appeared when early I-umlaut and umlaut mutation occurred.
[ĩ] + [ĩː] → [i] + [i:] [ũ] + [ũː] → [u] + [u:] [ɔ̃ː] + [ɔ̃ːː] → [ɔ] [ɛː][ ɛːː] → [æː] [ɔːː] → [ɔ] [ɑː] → [a]
As result of the consonant and verbal changes, easing of speech and the slurring of words; the syllabaries changed.
Final devoicing :
[d] → [t] [g] → [k] [w] → [v]
[z] → [s] Final vowels were lost :
skūta → skut
Prothesis before the [m] + clusters, [l] + clusters, [n] + clusters and [r] + clusters by the diphthong [au].
falkan → aulkn
I-umlaut mutation and umlaut mutation:
kuniðr → kyniðr. wereldiz → werøldr
Slurring of the last syllable caused the second syllable to merge with the first :
manwaz → manr
Final [z] was replaced by a [r] :
aldaz → auldr
Initial [f],[h] and [w] were lost :
Feloz → Elr
Nordicis a pro-drop language, thusly the pronouns are used rarely in writing, though can be found in the various dialects of Skyrim. It is considered rude to use pronouns when speaking to strangers or one's superiors, one uses one's name and title instead, for example :
"Mary, the Jarl of Windhelm"
Personal Pronouns Person Nomative Accusative Genitive Dative 1.SG Ek Mik Min Mis 2.SG Þo Þek Þínr Þis 3.SG Ir In Es Im 1.PL Wis Un Unsr Uns 2.PL Jut Aun Aunr Aunwr 3.PL Ír Inr Er Imr
Case Demostrative Nomative ða Accusative ðan Genitive ðas Dative ðam Demonstrative Pronouns have no gender. Examples Þo jaurl bies [θɔ jɑurl bies]
You are a jarl.
Ɖa trollar brinn
[ðɑ trɔllɑr brin]
The troll is burning.
Nouns in Nordic are declined by case, number and gender. They stem from the *a noun declension, though with a few exceptions. The majority of Nordic's nouns originate from Proto-Germanic, though words for sea faring and warfare originate from Old Norse.
ósn | hūsan | house (right)
Case Masculine Affix Feminine Affix Masculine Example Feminine Example Nominative Singular -ar -ræ wulfas [wolf] brauðæ [bread] Accusative Singular -að -æs kyniðað [king] yðæs [wing] Genitive Singular -is -is kvuðis [god] weris [war] Dative Singular -i -i friþi [peace] wrítnflati [scrol] Vocal Singular None -æ broþr [brother] byrdæ [birth] Nomative Plural -ós -í wulfós brauðæ Accusative Plural -ans -ís kyniðans yðís Genitive Plural -ó -iwó kvuðó weriwó Dative Plural -id -á friþamas wrítnflatá Vocal Plural -ós -í broþós byrdí The female declension was replaced by the *i noun declension, as result of the ambiguity between the Nominative, Vocal and Accusative cases. The case, Dative Masculine Plural, was shortend from *amaz to á. The feminine Nominative, Accusative and Vocal were replaced again to reduce ambiguity.
Strong vowels occur when a verb's vowels are too far about to pronounce easily, thus the vowels changed to ease the articulation. Strong vowels are quite regular, making them easy to remember.
|Present||u Strong Vowels||ɔ Strong Vowels||ɑ Strong Vowels|
|1.SG||Ek bræt-á [pray]||Ek dænn-á [I do]||Ek ær-á [to hear]|
|2.SG||Þo børt-es||Þo døn-es||Þo ør-es|
|3.SG||Ir byrt-i||Ir din-i||Ir yr-i|
|1.PL||Wis bært-ar||Wis dæn-ar||Wis ar-ar|
|2.PL||Jut børd-e||Jut døn-e||Jut ør-e|
|3.PL||Ír bærd-an||Ír dæn-an||Ír ar-an|
Þo sa drákar køles
[θɔ sɑ draːkɑr køles]
He kills the dragon.
aurn | hauzijanan | to hear brauðn | brauðan | bread f manr | manwaz | man m ósn | hūsan | house f kyniðr | kuniŋaz | king .m kvuðn | γuðán | god .m bi | bi | to be sprekn | sprekanan | to speak byrdr | burdiz | birth.f baurd | burdiz | to be born menskr | manniskaz | honour.f eiðr | aiþaz | oath.m eiðr | aiþaz | to oath/swore alðn | halðanan | to hold; to keep abay. wrakvr | wranɣaz | wrong friþr | frithuz | peace.m yr-eiwo | furi aiwo | forever eihr | faihaz | enemy.f þrautlí | þrautaz + līkaz | fierce skaunr | skauniz | beautiful hrútn | hreutanan | to make a noise, to snore. segr | segaz | truimph, victory.m skut | skūta | shout bleþn | blōþisōnan | a blessing.m | to bless fregn | fregjanan | to pray, to ask wrítnflatr | writenanan + flatr | a scroll.f yrsagn | sagjanan | to fortell yðn | weingan | wing.f aulkn | fulkan | folk.m aldr | aldaz | old.f elr | feloz | very skad | skawo | black kalnn | kalanan | cold broþr | broþer | brother.m donn | donan | to do. werr | werro | confusion | war.f ban | bano | bane.m unhr | hunhruz | honger swelgn | swelganan | to swallow, revel, devour werøldr | weraldiz | lifetime, worldly existence - the world itself.m gemyinr | gemainiz | common, the same, average