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Common Nord-Language

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Common Nord-Language
Norðaulkn
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Head-First
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect




The Common Nord-Language( Norðaulkn : Sa Gemyinra Norð-sprekn, also called 'Nordic' ) is a language spoken by the nordic people of Skyrim. The language stems from the Proto-Germanic language with a moderate influence from Old Norse, Dutch, Afrikaans and Old English, thusly creating a language that can reflect the cold and harsh environment of the Nords. The language has approximately 11 different dialects and many smaller dialects spoken among the thugs and bandits of Skyrim. For this article, we will be writing in the dialect of the Winterhold region. Nordic is a fairly inflectional language with 2 genders, 2 numbers and 4 cases.

Reason for the Nordic languageEdit

While playing through Skyrim, I noticed the poor excuse of a conlang called, 'Dragon' Language, I decided that the nords deserve better, thusly the birth of Nordic. The main goal for this conlang is to translate the entire Skyrim dialogue in Nordish - this does not include the loading screens and interface.  


PhonologyEdit

Nordic's consonants are very similar to Proto-Germanic's consonant table, though as result of historical changes, certain consonants merged or changed place of articulation, see Changes from Proto-Germanic

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Labial Glottal
Nasal n
Plosive b p  k g
Fricative v f

ð ¹*θ

s

²*x

h
Affricate
Approximant j w
Trill r
Flap or tap
Lateral l
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y u
Near-close
Close-mid e ø
Mid
Open-mid ɔ
Near-open
Open a a


OrthographyEdit

The orthography of Nordic is based on Icelandic and Old english, with the addition of my own little touch. Most of the vowels and consonants are written exactly like their phonetic equal, albeit there are some exceptions :


[x] : The consonant, [x], is primarily written as a <g> at the begining of the word, for example : guðn [xuðn]. When the consonant [x] is found at the end of the word, it is written as a <ch>, thusly similar to the German <ch>. An example would be : wrachr [wraxr].

[g] : The consonant, [g], is written <g> and is only found between vowels and at the end of words, for example : swelgn [swelgn]. 

[ɔ] : The vowel is written as <o>, for example : eiwo [eiwɔ].

[aː],[eː],[ɔ:] and [iː] : The long vowels are written with an accent diacritic on top of the vowel, for example : þrautlí [θrɑutliː]. 

Consonant ChangesEdit

To ease speech, the ancestors of the a nords merged various consonants :

  • The consonants, [ɸ] and [β] merged into the single consonant, [s]. 
  • The [t̪] and [d̪] was retracted and as result they turned into the consonants, [t] and [d].
  • The gutteral consonants [x] and its allophone (ɣ) merged into the single phoneme, [x].
  • The sound, [ŋ] was simplified into the consonant, [n].

Here is a summary of the Consonant Changes that occured in Nordic : 

[ɸ] (β) →[s]

[t̪] [d̪] → [t] [d] 

[x] (ɣ) → [x]

[ŋ] → [n]

[ʰ] → [Ø]*loss


Vowel ChangesEdit

The nasal vowels of Proto-Germanic were losed completely, and as result the nasal vowels merged with the oral vowels. Some vowels appeared when early I-umlaut and umlaut mutation occured.   

[ĩ] + [ĩː] → [i] + [i:]

[ũ] + [ũː] → [u] + [u:]

[ɔ̃ː] + [ɔ̃ːː] → [ɔ]

[ɛː][ ɛːː] → [æː]

[ɔːː] → [ɔ]

[ɑː] → [a]

Syllabic ChangesEdit

As result of the consonant and verbal changes, easing of speech and the slurring of words; the syllabaries changed.

Final devoicing :

[d] → [t]

[g] → [k]

[w] → [v]


[z] → [s] Final vowels were lost :

skūta → skut


Prothesis before the [m] + clusters, [l] + clusters, [n] + clusters and [r] + clusters by the diphtong [au].

falkan → aulkn


I-umlaut mutation and umlaut mutation:

kuniðr → kyniðr.
wereldiz → werøldr


Slurring of the last syllable caused the second syllable to merge with the first : 

manwaz → manr


Final [z] was replaced by a [r] : ​

aldaz → auldr


Initial [f],[h] and [w] were lost :

Feloz → Elr

GrammarEdit

Nordicis a pro-drop language, thusly the pronouns are used rarely in writing, though can be found in the various dialects of Skyrim. It is considered rude to use pronouns when speaking to strangers or one's superiors, one uses one's name and title instead, for example :

"Mary, the Jarl of Windhelm"

Pronoun Tables

Personal Pronouns Person Nomative Accusative Genitive Dative 1.SG Ek Mik Min Mis 2.SG Þo Þek Þínr Þis 3.SG Ir In Es Im 1.PL Wis Un Unsr Uns 2.PL Jut Aun Aunr Aunwr 3.PL Ír Inr Er Imr


Demonstrative Pronouns

Case Demostrative Nomative ða Accusative ðan Genitive ðas Dative ðam Demonstrative Pronouns have no gender. Examples Þo jaurl bies [θɔ jɑurl bies]

You are a jarl.


Ɖa trollar brinn

[ðɑ trɔllɑr brin]

The troll is burning.

Noun declensionEdit

Nouns in Nordic are declined by case, number and gender. They stem from the *a noun declension, though with a few exceptions. The majority of Nordic's nouns originate from Proto-Germanic, though words for sea faring and warfare originate from Old Norse.



Noun declension

ósn  | hūsan  | house (right)

Case Masculine Affix Feminine Affix Masculine Example Feminine Example Nominative Singular -ar -ræ wulfas [wolf] brauðæ [bread] Accusative Singular -að -æs kyniðað [king] yðæs [wing] Genitive Singular -is -is kvuðis [god] weris [war] Dative Singular -i -i friþi [peace] wrítnflati [scrol] Vocal Singular None -æ broþr [brother] byrdæ [birth] Nomative Plural -ós -í wulfós brauðæ Accusative Plural -ans -ís kyniðans yðís Genitive Plural -ó -iwó kvuðó weriwó Dative Plural -id -á friþamas wrítnflatá Vocal Plural -ós -í broþós byrdí The female declension was replaced by the *i noun declension, as result of the ambiguity between the Nominative, Vocal and Accusative cases. The case, Dative Masculine Plural, was shortend from *amaz to á. The feminine Nominative, Accusative and Vocal were replaced again to reduce ambiguity.

Strong VerbsEdit

Strong vowels occur when a verb's vowels are too far about to pronounce easily, thusly the vowels changed to ease the articulation. Strong vowels are quite regular, making them easy to remember.


Present u Strong Vowels ɔ Strong Vowels ɑ Strong Vowels
1.SG Ek bræt-á [pray] Ek dænn-á [I do] Ek ær-á [to hear]
2.SG Þo børt-es Þo døn-es Þo ør-es
3.SG Ir byrt-i Ir din-i Ir  yr-i
1.PL Wis bært-ar Wis dæn-ar Wis ar-ar
2.PL Jut børd-e Jut døn-e Jut ør-e
3.PL Ír bærd-an Ír dæn-an Ír ar-an


ExamplesEdit

Þo sa drákar køles

[θɔ sɑ draːkɑr køles]  

He kills the dragon.

VocabularyEdit

aurn | hauzijanan | to hear

brauðn | brauðan | bread f

manr | manwaz | man m

ósn | hūsan | house f

kyniðr | kuniŋaz | king .m

kvuðn | γuðán | god .m

bi | bi | to be

sprekn | sprekanan | to speak

byrdr | burdiz | birth.f

baurd | burdiz | to be born

menskr | manniskaz | honour.f

eiðr | aiþaz | oath.m

eiðr | aiþaz | to oath/swore

alðn | halðanan | to hold; to keep abay.

wrakvr | wranɣaz | wrong

friþr | frithuz | peace.m

yr-eiwo | furi aiwo | forever

eihr | faihaz | enemy.f

þrautlí | þrautaz + līkaz | fierce

skaunr | skauniz | beautiful

hrútn | hreutanan | to make a noise, to snore.

segr | segaz | truimph, victory.m

skut | skūta | shout

bleþn | blōþisōnan | a blessing.m | to bless

fregn | fregjanan | to pray, to ask

wrítnflatr | writenanan + flatr | a scroll.f

yrsagn | sagjanan | to fortell

yðn | weingan | wing.f

aulkn | fulkan | folk.m

aldr | aldaz | old.f

elr | feloz | very

skad | skawo | black

kalnn | kalanan | cold

broþr | broþer | brother.m

donn | donan | to do.

werr | werro | confusion | war.f

ban | bano | bane.m

unhr | hunhruz | honger

swelgn | swelganan | to swallow, revel, devour

werøldr | weraldiz | lifetime, worldly existence - the world itself.m

gemyinr | gemainiz | common, the same, average

Example textEdit

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