Common Saakkih

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Common Saakkih
Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

Common Saakkih is the earliest attested of the Saakkih languages, named so for their urheimat - the Saakkih peninsula in the modern-day Shinsali confederacy. 

General informationEdit

Common Saakkih is a synthetic ergative-absolutive language. It has a relatively small consonant inventory (12 consonants) and a moderately-sized vowel inventory (10 vowels; 5 long and 5 short). 



Bilabial Alveolar Velar Pharyngeal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k
Fricative s ħ
Approximant l w
Trill r
  • Consonant gemination is contrastive and occurs in roots, across morpheme boundaries, and in affixes


Front Back
Close i i: u u:
Close-mid e e: o o:
Open a a:
  • There are five diphthongs: /ai ae ao oi eo/


  • /r/ is tapped before other consonants or word-finally
  • /l/ is velarized in the syllable coda
  • /n/ becomes [ŋ] before /k/ and /w/
  • /i/ is realized as [j] pre- and intervocalically
  • Intervocalic consonant clusters agree in voicing with the final consonant, i.e. -hd- is realized as [ʕd]
  • Two of the same vowels (i.e. /ee/) occurring across morpheme boundaries are realised as a single long vowel ([e:]) and the resulting long vowel may be stressed\
    • An exception is iii which is realized as [ji:]
  • A geminate consonant (for example, /s:/) followed by the same consonant, geminate or non-geminate, across a morpheme boundary will be realized as a single geminate consonant
  • Two different adjacent vowels that do not make up a diphthong are realised as separated by hiatus
  • Vowels become more lax before (not after) the pharyngeal fricative
    • /i/ > [ɪ]
    • /u/ > [ʊ]
    • /o/ > [ɔ]
    • /a/ > [æ]
    • /e/ > [ɛ]

Writing systemEdit

  • Except for below, all sounds are written as in the IPA
    • /ħ/ is written as h
  • Long vowels are written by doubling the vowel
  • Geminate consonants are written by doubling the grapheme


Any syllables derivable from (C)(L)V(C) that do not violate the rules below is permissible, where C is any consonant, L is a liquid, and V is a short or long vowel or a diphthong.

  • Geminate consonants do not occur word initially
  • Two liquids will not occur in a prevocalic consonant cluster
  • A long vowel followed by a long or short vowel of the same quality or vice versa (i.e., and aa or ee and ee) will not occur and is broken up by an intrusive consonant, /n/. This is not true for vowels of different quality, meaning that sequences such as aaioo are allowed.


Stress is very regular and stress positioning is determined by the structures of respective syllables in a root. A syllable is considered light if it has a short vowel and long if it has a long vowel or a diphthong. Stress is characterized by a lengthening of the vowel that is stressed. 

Stress in Common Saakkih follows these rules:

  1. If a word is monosyllabic, it is stressed.
  2. In a multiple-syllable word, stress always falls on either the penultimate or ultimate syllable of a word.
  3. Stress always falls on the penultimate syllable if it is heavy.
  4. If the penultimate syllable is light and the ultimate syllable is heavy, stress falls on the ultimate syllable.
  5. If both final syllables are light, stress falls on the penultimate syllable.
  6. If the vowels in the penultimate and ultimate syllable happen to be the same exact quality and length, the ultimate syllable receives stress


There is a list of historic sound changes to keep in mind when declining nouns or adjectives, conjugating verbs, or when utilising suffixal derivation in Common Saakkih. They are listed in the table below along with when they occur.

Name Sound change Occurrences Example
K-intermedial vowel deletion all unstressed short vowels are deleted between two k plurals of human and nonhuman nouns and adjectives, 2PL.PRS.COND.IPFV in consonantal verbs, the 2PL.PRS.IND.IPFV in vocalic verbs, the suffix -akee the absolutive plural of baik (mother) is baikk instead of the expected baikak
Nasal spirant simplification ns becomes s and preceeding short vowels become long 2SG.PRS.IPFVs in consonantal verbs the 2SG.PRS.IPFV.IND of lainat is laiiso
ieii ie (not iie) is simplified to ii the ergative singular in nouns and adjectives, the 1SG.PRS.IND.IPFV of vocalic verbs the ERG.SG of aleoti is aleotii not aleotie
w-b alteration *g became w and w then became b adjacent to u any verbform with a suffix beginning in -u, the future tense and future participle of vocalic verbs the 1SG.PRS.PFV.IND of sowat is sobutt



Personal pronounsEdit

Personal pronouns are more or less regular and only exhibit irregularities in the ergative, absolutive, genitive, and locative cases and in the dative plural. The genitive personal pronouns are used in a manner of posessive adjectives but do not decline and appear last in the noun phrase.

Singular First person Second person Third person
Human Non-human Inanimate
Ergative alaas kao mas uuhe eelom
Absolutive liu sai isli unu olu
Dative lia saa isla unum olum
Genitive aasan saha inii uun sawoi
Instrumental liula saila islila unula olula
Ablative lioo saoo isloo unoo oloo
Locative iirras hasoib asiim iissai oloomai
Inessive liutii saitii islitii unut olut
Plural First person Second person Third person
Human Non-human Inanimate
Ergative aleok apekke masak orrek olke
Absolutive liwa sirehheb naao obar eelom
Dative liakka saakka islakka unkka okka
Genitive wessi sahak iniik opsiib iisi
Instrumental liukla saikla islikla unukla olla
Ablative liukoo saikoo islikoo unuko laoo
Locative liukai saikai islikai unuka olaai
Inessive liuktii saiktii isliktii unukeet oluat

Demonstrative pronounsEdit

Demonstrative pronouns show a three-way distinction between proximal or first-person, medial or second-person, and distal or third-person. Demonstrative pronouns agree with the animacy class, noun, and case of a noun as well. They are regular and decline as adjectives.

Human Nonhuman Inanimate
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural


ERG tome tomke tome tomke tome tomea
ABS tom tomak tom tomik tom toma
DAT toma tomka tomim tomkim tomim tomam
GEN tomaab tomkaab tomaab tomkaab tomib tomab
INS tomla tomkla tomla tomkla tomla tomala
ABL tomoo tomkoo tomoo tomkoo tomoo tomaoo
LOC tomai tomkai toma tomka tomi tomai
INE tomtii tomaktii tomeet tomkeet tomit tomat
M ERG oikee oikeek oikee oikke oikee oikeae
ABS oike oikk oike oikk oike oikea
DAT oikea oikeka oikem oikkeem oikem oikeam
GEN oikeaab oikkaab oikeaab oikkaab oikeb oikeab
INS oikela oikekla oikela oikkla oikela oikeala
ABL oikoo oikkoo oikoo oikkoo oikeoo oikeaoo
LOC oikai oikkai oikai oikkai oikei oikeai
INE oiketii oikktii oiket oikkeet oiket oikeat
D ERG istoe istoke istoe istoke istoe istoae
ABS isto istok isto istok isto istoa
DAT istoa istoka istom istokeem istom istoam
GEN istoaab istokaab istoaab istokaab istob istoab
INS istola istokla istola istokla istola istoala
ABL istonoo istokoo istonoo istokoo istonoo istoaoo
LOC istai istokai ista istoka istoi istoai
INE istotii istoktii istot istokeet istot istoat

Interrogative pronounsEdit

Interrogative pronouns appear at the beginning of a sentence as opposed to interrogative adverbs, which appear at the end of the sentence following a verb. They are listed in a table below. Inka can be used as a determiner and mihaab is only used as a determiner and they appear before the noun they modify and decline as adjectives. 

Pronoun Meaning
inka what, which
miham who, which
mihaab whose

Nouns Edit

Nouns are made distinct based on semantic animacy, wherein animate is further made distinct into human and non-human, providing for three noun classes: human, animate non-human, and inanimate. Most nouns are classified semantically, but as with any animacy system, there are digressions, and in Common Saakkih, these are reflective of their culture. Nouns that name things in nature, things dealing with astrology, or things dealing with weather, despite being semantically inanimate, commonly are classified under animate human or animate non-human. Noun endings across all three classes are similar, but they are, in fact, declined differently according to their animacy class.

The nominal system is mostly agglutinative, wherein nouns decline for eight cases: ergative, absolutive, dative, genitive, instrumental, ablative, locative, and inessive, and two numbers: singular and plural.  

Human noun declensionEdit

The plural suffix for human animate nouns is -k. There is an intrusive -a between the stem and case/number suffix(es) if the declined noun does not agree with Common Saakkih phonotactics. Below is an example declension of an animate human noun (haam [ħa:m] - man). Suffixes are in bold. 

Singular Plural
Ergative haame haamke
Absolutive haam haamak
Dative haama haamka
Genitive haamaab haamkaab
Instrumental haamla haamkla
Ablative haamoo haamkoo
Locative haamai haamkai
Inessive haamtii haamaktii

Non-human noun declensionEdit

The plural suffix for non-human animate nouns is -k as well. The intrusive vowel, used if suffixing the plural or case endings to a noun, is not -a as with human animate nouns, but -ee. Below is an example declension of an animate non-human noun (aleoti [aleoti] - fire). Suffixes are in bold.

Singular Plural
Ergative aleotii aleotike
Absolutive aleoti aleotik
Dative aleotim aleotikeem
Genitive aleotiaab aleotikaab
Instrumental aleotila aleotikla
Ablative aleotioo aleotikoo
Locative aleotia aleotika
Inessive aleotit aleotikeet

Inanimate noun declensionEdit

The plural suffix for inanimate nouns is -a. If a declined noun would defy Common Saakkih phonotactics, there is an intrusive -i between the stem and case/number suffix(es). Below is an example declension of an inanimate noun (ilabb [ilab:] - piece (of something)). Suffixes are in bold.

Singular Plural
Ergative ilabbe ilabbae
Absolutive ilabb ilabba
Dative ilabbim ilabbam
Genitive ilabbib ilabbab
Instrumental ilabbla ilabbala
Ablative ilabboo ilabbaoo
Locative ilabbi ilabbai
Inessive ilabbit ilabbat


There are two types of verbs in Common Saakkih: consonantal and vocalic. The infinitival suffix is -on vocalic verbs and -at on consonantal verbs. There are a few irregular verbs as well. They conjugate for three tenses: present, past, and future, two aspects: imperfective and perfective, and three moods: indicative, conditional, and imperative. 

Consonantal verbsEdit

Consonantal verbs end in -at in the infinitive and are exactly what they sound like - their stem ends in a consonant. Below is the active verb paradigm for the regular verb addipat [ad:ipat] - to punch. Endings are in bold. 

IND IPFV Present addipe addipso addip addipim addipuuk addipat
Past addipane addipaso addipan addipam addipanuuk addipanat
Future addipawe addipawo addipaw addipawim addipabuuk addipawat
PFV Present addiputt addipeh addipsa addipiik addipeo addipaed
Past addipatt addipah addipaasa addipaniik addipaneo addipaen
Future addipabutt addipaweh addipawsa addipawiik addipaweo addipawaed
COND IPFV Present addipaa addipse addipnu addipaom addipeke addipalet
Past addipanaa addipase addipannu addipanom addipanke addipanlet
Future addipawaa addipawse addipawnu addipawaom addipaweke addipawlet
PFV Present addiprat addipoah addippa addipib addipuli addipilu
Past addipanrat addipanoah addipanpa addipanib addipanuli addipanilu
Future addipawrat addipawoah addipawpa addipawib addipabuli addipawilu
IMP - addipaas - - addiparo -

Vocalic verbsEdit

Vocalic verbs end in -s in the infinitive and are exactly what they sound like - their stem ends in a vowel. Below is an example conjugation of the vocalic verb oiriis [oiri:s] - to swim.

IND IPFV Present oiriie oiriiso oirii oiriim oiriiku oiriit
Past oiriinii oiriiniso oiriini oiriinim oiriinku oiriinit
Future oiriiwe oiriiuso oiriiw oiriibum oiriiwku oiriiwot
PFV Present oiriitt oiriih oiriisa oiriinik oiriilo oiriide
Past oiriinitt oiriinih oiriinisa oiriiniik oiriinlo oiriinde
Future oiriiwett oiriiwah oiriiusa oiriiwik oiriiulo oiriiude
COND IPFV Present oiriiaa oiriise oiriinu oiriiom oiriieke oiriilet
Past oiriiniaa oiriinise oiriinnu oiriiniom oiriinike oiriinlet
Future oiriiwaa oiriiwase oiriiunu oiriiwaom oiriiwake oiriiulet
PFV Present oiriirat oiriiwo oiriipa oiriib oiriiuli oiriinilu
Past oiriinirat oiriiniwo oiriinpa oiriinib oiriinuli oiriiniilu
Future oiriiwarat oiriiwwo oiriiupa oiriiwab oiriiwali oiriiwalu
IMP - oiriis - - oiriira -


The causative mood is formed by a verbal suffix (-ikau) that is applied to the verb stem on both consonantal and vocalic verbs, for example maniikkau (to feed) is derived from the stem of maniikat (to eat). All causative verbs decline as vocalic verbs. Causative infinitives are represented with a final -s

Irregular verbsEdit

There are a few irregular verbs in Common Saakkih, meaning that they deviate from a conjugation slightly or are unpredictable in many of their forms. These include illos - to be, eerat - to do, aorasat - to become, othos - to use, and imbowaas - to want. These are detailed in a separate article:

Common Saakkih/Irregular Verbs

Nonfinite formsEdit

There are three nonfinite verb forms in Common Saakkih: participles, gerunds, and infinitives. The infinitive and the gerund are identical in form, but have different functions. Participles are simple to form and decline as regular adjectives. Their endings, after the infinitive endings are removed, are below.

Consonantal Vocalic
Present participle -att -tt
Past participle -anna -nna
Future participle -awo -wo


Adverbs in Common Saakkih simply follow the verb they modify. The most commonly used adverbs are the negative adverbs and interrogative adverbs, which are listed in a table below.

Adverb Use
piik negates the verb
saa polar question
kosla why
kosi where
kosoo where from
koosiha when
ilnous how


Adjectives follow the noun they modify and agree with case, gender, and number. There are two classes of adjectives - consonantal and vocalic. The consonantal nouns decline exactly the same as the noun they would modify but there are digressions from the nominal declension when declining vocalic nouns.

Consonantal adjectivesEdit

Consonantal adjectives are adjectives that end in a consonant. Below is an example declension of the consonantal adjective appeos [ap:eos] - sad. Endings are in bold. 

Human Nonhuman Inanimate
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Ergative appeose appeoske appeose appeoske appeose appeosae
Absolutive appeos appeosak appeos appeosik appeos appeosa
Dative appeosa appeoska appeosim appeoskim appeosim appeosam
Genitive appeosaab appeoskaab appeosaab appeoskaab appeosib appeosab
Instrumental appeosla appeoskla appeosla appeoskla appeosla appeosala
Ablative appeosoo appeoskoo appeosoo appeoskoo appeosoo appeosaoo
Locative appeosai appeoskai appeosa appeoska appeosi appeosai
Inessive appeostii appeosaktii appeoseet appeoskeet appeosit appeosat

Vocalic adjectivesEdit

Vocalic adjectives are adjectives that end in a vowel. Below is an example declension of the vocalic adjective kiislone [ki:slone] - new. Endings are in bold.

Human Nonhuman Inanimate
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Ergative kiislonee kiisloneke kiislonee kiisloneke kiislonee kiisloneae
Absolutive kiislone kiislonek kiislone kiislonek kiislone kiislonea
Dative kiislonea kiisloneka kiislonem kiislonekeem kiislonem kiisloneam
Genitive kiisloneaab kiislonekaab kiisloneaab kiislonekaab kiisloneb kiisloneab
Instrumental kiislonela kiislonekla kiislonela kiislonekla kiislonela kiisloneala
Ablative kiisloneoo kiislonekoo kiisloneoo kiislonekoo kiisloneoo kiisloneaoo
Locative kiisloneai kiislonekai kiislonea kiisloneka kiislonei kiisloneai
Inessive kiislonetii kiislonektii kiislonet kiislonekeet kiislonet kiisloneat

Comparative and superlative adjectivesEdit

Comparative and superlative adjectives are formed with simple particles that precede the adjective (and follow the head noun). The comparative particle is mio and the superlative particle is imio


Suffix Meaning Example

appended to a verb stem to indicate the result of an action

airappat (to shoot) > airappakee (bullet)
-iita agent suffix, appended to a verb airappat (to shoot) > airappiita (shooter)
-ooro appended to a verb to indicate a tool used to perform the action airappat (to shoot) > airappooro (weapon)
-os appended to a noun to indicate a lacking of something, English -less ookatu (thigh) > ookatuos (thighless)
-n adverb from adjective, takes intrusive vowel of respective noun gender if necessary oddon (near) > oddonn (nearby)
-owe adjective from noun, English -y ikkata (wrinkle) > ikkataowe (wrinkly)


Common Saakkih is a highly synthetic ergative-absolutive language. The word order is almost always EAV (ergative-absolutive-verb). The language is almost 100% head-initial, but there are prepositions. There are no articles but definiteness can be encoded by using a demonstrative pronoun following the head noun. 

Relative clausesEdit

Relative clauses follow the head noun and are always absolutely last in the noun phrase. They are constructed with a relative prounouns that agree with the head noun in gender, number, and case, declining as adjectives. There are three relative pronouns: pihau [pɪħau], which is used in clauses where the relativized element is the subject of the relative clause, olahau [olæħau], which is used in clauses where the relativized element is the direct object of the relative clause, and rinhau [rinħau], which is used in clauses where the relativized element is genitival.

  • Haame pihau liu utasan the man who saw me
  • Haame olahau alaas utase the man whom I saw
  • Haame rinhau baike liu utasan the man whose mother saw me

Subordinate clausesEdit

Subordinate clauses are formed with a subordinating particle, a general one of which is de which demotes an entire clause to an argument of a verb and appears before the clause itself. There are other subordinating particles, which are listed in a table below.

This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.



Here is a complete Common Saakkih dictionary.


Common Saakkih employs a biquinary system. It is highly regular. Numerals are listed in a table below. Ordinal numbers (i.e.first, second) are formed with the suffix -aas. Adverbial numbers (i.e. once, twice) are formed with the suffix -ihi. Fractions are suffixed with -ilod (uttilod - 1/2).

0 piikar (nothing)
1 utt
2 sakii
3 wabo
4 iisio
5 uuron
6 uuronutt
7 uuroosakii
8 uuronwabo
9 uuroniisio
10 pek
11 pek a utt
12 pek a sakii
13 pek a wabo
14 pek a iisio
15 pek a uuron
16 pek a uuronutt
17 pek a uuroosakii
18 pek a uuronwabo
19 pek a uuroniisio
20 sakiipek
21 sakiipek a utt
30 wabopek
40 iisiopek
50 uuronpek
60 uuronuttpek
70 uuroosakiipek
80 uuronwabopek
90 uuroniisiopek
100 utt toonul
101 utt toonul a utt
117 utt toonul a pek a uuroosaki
200 sakii toonul
300 wabo toonul
400 iisio toonul
500 uuron toonul
1000 utt iietal
1969 utt iietal a uuroniisio toonul a uuronuttpek a uuroniisio
10000 pek iietal
100000 utt toonul iietal
1000000 iietalneh

Example textEdit

Ozymandias by Percy Bysse Shelley

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