Lingua Korono is the language spoken by the inhabitants of Karinol, a nation in a conworld called Eshraval. Grammar is as follows:
Like English, except -
- C is like Sh in Shine
- Dj is like J in Judge
- J is like S in Measure
- Q is like H in Huge
- Tc is like Ch in Church
- A is like A in Apple
- Á is like A in (London Dialect) Far
- E is like A in Ago
- É is like E in End
- I is like I in Pin between two consanants
- I is like Y in You before a vowel
- I is like Ea in East after a vowel and at the end of word or before start of new word.
- Í is like Ea in East
- O is like O in On
- Ó is like Aw in Awful
- U is like U in Put in London Dialect between two consanants
- U is like W in When before a vowel
- U is like Oo in Food after a vowel and at the end of word or before start of new word.
- Ú is like Oo in Food
Always falls on penultimate syllable.
Word order is Subject-Object-Verb, Noun-Adjective(s)-determiners/articles-prepositions, Verb-Adverbs.
- Me - Ma
- You - Ta (singular informal)
- It - Sa
- He - Isla
- She - Isra
- They (singular - British English) - Isa
- Us - Mas
- You - Tas (Plural or formal)
- They - Sas (inanimate)
- They - Isas (Animate-mixed gender)
- They - Islas (Animate-male)
- They - Isras (Animate-female)
Nouns end in an A, always. To make a plural add an S. Nouns have no gender. Eg-
- Bala o - a ball
- Balas do - some balls
The definite article (the) is Lo, and never changes. The indefinite article (a) is O, and in the plural changes to Do (some). All articles always follow the noun and all adjectives describing it-
- Bala rújo lo - The red ball
- Balas rújo lo - The red balls
- Bala rújo o - A red ball
- Balas rújo do - Some red balls
There aren't really cases in Lingua Corono. For direct and inderect objects, see Direct and inderect objects.
For possesion, the word du is used like this -
- Bala rújo ma du - My red ball
- Balas rújo sas du - Their red balls
- Balas rújo homa lo du - The man's ball
Adjectives always end in O and come after the nouns that they describe eg-
- Homa rapido lo - The fast man.
To say "more" add r to the adjective eg-
- Homa rapidor lo - The fastest man
To say "most" add l to the adjective eg-
- Homa rapidol lo - The fastest man
To say "Quite" add c to the adjective eg-
- Homa rapidoc lo - The quite fast man
To say "Very" add n to the adjective eg-
- Homa rapidon lo - The very fast man
To negate verbs change the o to malo eg-
- Homa rapidmalon lo - The very slow man
In the infinitive verbs end in Ém. This is the form you get in a dictionary. eg-
- Ém - To be
- Hém - to have
- Dém - to give
- Lém - to go
- Vidém - to see
- Mortém - to die
In the present tense the M is dropped and an S added eg-
- Ma bala lo hés - I have the ball.
- Ma lés - I am going.
Notice the word order is strictly SOV, and simply SV for intransitive verbs. The present tense has no distinction between "I go" and "I am going".
In the past tense, the M is dropped and an P added eg-
- Isra mortép - She died.
In the future tense, the M is dropped and an F added eg-
- Ma isla vidéf - I will see him.
In the Conditional tense, the M is dropped and an C added eg-
- Ma isla vidéc - I would see him.
There isn't a passive tense. Na, which literally means "one", is used, like French on or German man.
- Na sa ma ju dép - It was given to me.
Coupla, Must should, can and couldEdit
Coupla verbs work like this -
- Ma lép acété - I went shopping.
- Ma més lé - I must go.
- Ma méc lé - I should go. (lit: I would have to go.)
- Ma pés lé - I can go.
- Ma péc lé - I could go. (lit: I would be able to go.)
- (Mém=to have to, Pém=to be able to)
Note that for "should", the conditional of must is used and for "could", the conditional of can is used.
Direct and inderect objectsEdit
Worksusing the word ju which means like "to", like this-
- Ma sa Isas ju dep - I gave it to them.
To negate a verb, put ni after it, eg-
- Ma maisona ta du ju lép ni. - I didn't go to your house
- Ma maisona ta du ju pés lé ni - I can not go to your house (i.e. It is possible for me not to go to your house)
- Ma maisona ta du ju pés ni lé ni - I can't not go to your house
- Ma maisona ta du ju pés ni lé - I can't go to your house
NB- All of the above have different meanings, so don't confuse them.
To make a adjective from an adjective, change the O ending to an I.
To form nouns, adjectives and adverbs from verbs-
- Tiúém - To kill
- Tiú'sa - Killing
- Tiú'sra - Killer
- Tiú'sda - Killed thing
- Arakna tiú'sro - Killer spider
- Arakna tiú'sdo - Killed spider
- Tiú'sri - Killingly
- Tiú'sdi - Killedly
To form Nouns and adverbs from adjectives-
- Rapida - Quick
- Rapidi - Quickly
- Rapidém- To be quick
- Rapidio- Someone/thing who is quick
- This - tco
- This! - tca
- This place. itca
- Now - tco pa
- Here - tco la
- This way. - tci
- That - vo
- That! - va
- That place. iva
- Then - vo pa
- There - vo la
- That way. - vi
- Which - ko
- What! - ka
- Who ika
- When - ko pa
- Where - ko la
- How - ki
- All - ro
- All! - ra
- Everyone ira
- All Things - ro pa
- Everywhere - ro la
- All ways. - ri
- Some - do
- Some! - da
- Someone ida
- Some time - do pa
- Somewhere - do la
- Somehow - di
- no - no
- None! - na
- No-one - ina
- No time - no pa
- Nowhere-no la No w. - ni
Note - ni means "not" as well as "in no way", ka is used for both "what" and "who", and "Why" is ko vu which literrally means "because of what", pa literally means "time", la literally means "place".
Question-words are dealt with above. To ask a Yes/no question, simply add alwi to after the verb. Questions do not end in question-marks and the voice does not rise at the end of the Question. There is no word for yes or no, like in Gaelic. To say no, use ni. To say yes, respond with the verb.
- Ta ka és. - Who are you?
- Ma Sarra és. - I am Sarah.
- Ko ta cupép. - Who hit you?
- Ta ko cupép. - Who did you hit?
- Ta marta lo ju lés alwi. - Are you going to the Shop?
- Ma lés. - Yes. (lit: I go.)
- Ma lés Ni. - No. (lit: I'm not going.)
- (Marta = shop, cupém = to hit)
Connectives follow the phrases they connect, and end in U.
- Ma marta lo ju aimép lé, ma pés ni vu. - I wanted to go to the shop, but I couldn't.
- Ma villa ju lép, ma pulla o novo acétép ku. - I went to town and bought a new jumper.
- Ma pulla, cemisas kuino, pana so ku acétép. I bought a jumper, five shirts and some bread.
- (vu = but, aimém = to like, ku = and, pulla = jumper, novo = new, cemisas = Shirt, Kuina = five, pana = some)
Una 1 Dosa 2 Tresa 3 Kuatra 4 Kuina 5 Sisa 6 Septa 7 Okta 8 Nova 9 Deka 10 Dekuna 11 Dosdeka 20 Dosdekuna 21 Tcenta 100 Tcentuna 101 Tcentdeka 110 Unliona 1,000 Doliona 1,000,000 Treliona 1,000,000,000 Kualiona 1,000,000,000,000
- Ma cemisas kuino acétép. - I bought 5 shirts.
- Sisa kuara ku deka és. - 6 and 4 are 10.
- Sa jora enmalo unio ma du és. This is my first day out.
- (jora: Day; eno -in)
Numbers are only used ending with A if they are alone. To put nd on the end, replace the a with io. To give a number of something, e.g. five shirts, replace the a with an o.