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Kosovar
Cosoveàn
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Two
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 3%
Statistics
Nouns 2%
Verbs 6%
Adjectives 2%
Syntax 1%
Words of 1500
Creator Fachir04

Kosovar (natively Cosoveàn [kɔsɔvɛ'an]) is a romance language spoken by approximately 90.000.000 people in the Republic of Kosovo (Respublica Cosovi).

General information Edit

Kosovar has a fusional grammar not too different from the one of other romance languages, except that it has a complete case system, with 5 cases and 3 declensions, inherited from latin, which have been simplified through the time.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Denti-alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s ʃ ʒ x ɣ2
Affricate t͡s d͡z1 t͡ʃ
Approximant j w
Trill r
Lateral l ʎ

1 t͡s d͡z are both indicated with z, t͡s is generally found between vowels or after voiceless consonants, d͡z after voiced consonants.

2 x ɣ are bot indicated with h, x is found before or after voiceless consonants, ɣ between vowels and before or after voiced consonants.

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i u
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

Vowel length is not distinctive in Cosoveàn, but usually, vowels in stressed syllables are long.

Diphthongs Edit

Falling Falling
ai̯ au̯ ja wa
ɛi̯ ɛu̯
wi
ɔi̯
ui̯ ju wu

Only the falling ones are real diphthong, with the rising ones being composed of a semivowel + vowel. Despite this, hiatus can become diphthongs in unstressed syllables, especially far from the stress.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Kosovejanu has three genders (feminine, masculine and neuter). There're four declensions: first declension nouns are feminine, second and third ones are masculine and forth one are neuter. The gender is also determined by the ending of the word: if a word ends in "-a" is feminine, if it ends in a consonant, in "-o" or "-u" is masculine, if it ends in "-e" is neuter. There are five cases: Nominative (subject), Genitive (possession), Dative (term), Accusative (direct object) and Ablative (with prepositions it forms all the other complements).

First Declension Edit

As said before, first declension nouns end in "-a" and are mostly feminine. Here's an example of the first declension noun doma "house"

Singular Plural
Nominative doma dome
Genitive domas domes
Dative domjat domet
Accusative domam domas
Ablative domja domje

Second Declension Edit

Second declension nouns end in consonant and are mostly masculine. Here's the second declension noun puel "boy"

Singular Plural
Nominative puel pueli
Genitive pueli puelis
Dative puelat puelit
Accusative puelum puelos
Ablative pueljo pueli

Third Declension Edit

The third declension nouns are only masculine. Third declension is dived in two groups: the first group nouns end in "-o", second ones end in "-u".

First Group Edit

Here's the first group noun omo "man"

Singular Plural
Nominative omo omi
Genitive omos omer
Dative omo omis
Accusative omem omes
Ablative ome omis
Second group Edit

Here's the second group noun didu "finger"

Singular Plural
Nominative didu didi
Genitive didus didur
Dative didu didis
Accusative didem dides
Ablative dide didis

Fourth Declension Edit

Fourth Declension nouns end in "-e" and are mostly neuter and are mostly inanimate objects and abstract concept. Here's the fourth declension noun anime "mind"

Singular Plural
Nominative anime animi

Genitive

anima animeu
Dative anima animu
Accusative animei animeus
Ablative animes animin

Adjectives Edit

Like nouns, adjectives have three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter). Unlike nouns, they don't have cases and they must agree with the noun only in gender and number.

Declension Edit

Unlike the other genders, masculine has three different endings for the singular form, but not all the adjectives have the three forms. Most adjectives that end in a consonant have only the basic consonant ending, while most adjectives that end in a vowel have the two vowel endings. These three endings are: "-ø", "-o" and "-u".

Singular Plural
Masculine -ø, -o, -u -i
Feminine -a -e
Neuter -e -i

The masculine endings depend on the declension of the noun:

  • The ending is good for all the masculine names
  • If the adjective has only the -u and the -o endings it follows determinate rules: the -u go with every masculine noun, the -o only go with the 3rd declension first group nouns

Negation Edit

You can negate almost every adjectives by adding the -nje suffix: bel > belnje "not beautiful". The difference between this two sentences, "Ne seas bel" and "Seas belnje", is basically the emphasis, because they both mean "You are not beautiful", but NOT "You are ugly", this structure, in fact, only negate the adjectives, but it doesn't form the opposite of it.

Adverbs Edit

Most adjectives can be turned into adverbs by adding the -(j)e suffix to the basic form of the adjective. If it ends in a vowel, switch the vowel with -e: velos "fast" > velose "quickly".

VerbsEdit

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

See Kosovejanu/Lexicon

Example textEdit

Universal declaration of human rights, article 1 Edit

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Universa omos dretis declaratia, articulo 1 Edit

Toti omos seri nasen libri de igali en dinitija de dreti. Li tenon rationam de consetiam de tenon aktar une pre otrum en fratias spritjo.