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Coxirat

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Coxirat (coh - HEE - raht) is a language that draws some influence from a number of languages, including, but not limited to, Romance languages, German, English, and possibly some Dutch.

PhonologyEdit

Coming soon

NounsEdit

CasesEdit

Coxirat has eight noun cases.

Nominative caseEdit

Nominative case is used for the subject or predicate nominative of a sentence.

EXAMPLE:

He walks to school slowly.
Us ad lúdum marnitú.

Genitive caseEdit

Genitive case is used to identify the declension of the noun as well as to indicate possession, amount, or characteristics of a person or thing.

EXAMPLE:

abos magis dragiliá
A man of great stupidity

Dative caseEdit

Dative case is used for indirect objects.

EXAMPLE:

I gave the old woman a cat.
daxe lá abá cáná thendam.

Accusative caseEdit

Accusative case is used for the objects of verbs and prepositions that take the accusative case.

EXAMPLE

Her (male) cousin found a wolf.
prémos áus lúpum twìkset.

Ablative caseEdit

Ablative case is used for objects of prepositions that take the ablative case.

EXAMPLE

There is a cat in the tree.
est thenda in là hilionì.

It can also be used for comparison instead of "cujam [noun]":

EXAMPLE

I am cleverer than you.
egó sum malidior te.

Vocative caseEdit

This case is used when addressing somebody or something directly.

For nouns ending in -os, the -os becomes .

Example: lúpè! = wolf!

For nouns ending in -ios, the -ios becomes .

Locative caseEdit

This case is used to denote that something is at or in a particular place.

DeclensionsEdit

Coxirat has five noun declensions.

First declensionEdit

cora, á
song f.
Singular Plural
Nominative cora –a corá –á
Genitive corá corarum -arum
Dative corá corábus -ábus
Accusative coram –am corás –ás
Ablative corà –à coràbus –àbus
Locative coràm -àm coràmbus -àmbus

Second declensionEdit

MasculineEdit

lúpos, í
wolf m.
Singular Plural
Nominative lúpos –os lúpí –í
Genitive lúpí lúporum -orum
Dative lúpó lúpóbus -óbus
Accusative lúpum –um lúpós –ós
Ablative lúpò –ò lúpòbus –òbus
Vocative lúpè lúpí
Locative lúpùm -ùm lúpùmbus -ùmbus

NeuterEdit

glérum, í
rum n.
Singular Plural
Nominative glérum –um gléra –a
Genitive glérí glérorum -orum
Dative gléró gléróbus -óbus
Accusative glérum –um gléra –a
Ablative glérò –ò gléròbus –òbus
Locative glérùm -ùm glérùmbus -ùmbus


Third declensionEdit

Masculine and feminineEdit

docthor, docthoris
teacher m.
Singular Plural
Nominative docthor ~ docthorés –és
Genitive docthoris -is docthorgum -gum
Dative docthoré docthorébus -ébus
Accusative docthorìm –ìm docthorés –és
Ablative docthorì –ì docthorìbus –ìbus
Locative docthorèm -èm docthorèmbus -èmbus
majulthriks, majulthrikis
woman who poisons f.
Singular Plural
Nominative majulthriks ~ majulthrikés –és
Genitive majulthrikis -is majulthrikìgum -ìgum*
Dative majulthriké majulthrikébus -ébus
Accusative majulthrikìm –ìm majulthrikés –és
Ablative majulthrikì –ì majulthrikìbus –ìbus
Locative majulthrikèm -èm majulthrikèmbus -èmbus
  • This has nothing to do with the gender of the noun; it is actually because of an i-stem rule.

NeuterEdit

laggìn, laggìnis
paper, piece, composition n.
Singular Plural
Nominative laggìn ~ laggìna –a
Genitive laggìnis -is laggìngum -gum
Dative laggìné laggìnébus -ébus
Accusative laggìn ~ laggìna –a
Ablative laggìnì –ì laggìnìbus –ìbus
Locative laggìnèm -èm laggìnèmbus -èmbus

3rd Declension RulesEdit

Certain third declension neuter nouns have i-stems, meaning that their nominative and accusative plural ending is -ia rather than -a. This rule applies if:

  • The genitive singular has two consonants before the -is ending.
  • The genitive singular has the same number of syllables as the nominative singular.
  • The nominative singular ends in -al or -ar.

These other rules cause the genitive plural to be "-ìgum" rather than "gum", regardless of gender:

  • The stem ends in "c".
  • The stem ends in "k".

Also, when the stem ends in "m", the genitive plural changes it to an "n".

EXAMPLES:

The town of towns
fracs fracìgum
From fracs, fracis f. - town
Of the (female) givers
dathrikìgum
From dathriks, dathrikis f. - female giver
The farm of farms
parme parngum
From parme, parmis m. - farm


Distinguishing Genders in 3rd DeclensionEdit

  • Nouns ending in -or, -e, -ol, -o (NOT -io), -oi, -z (except for -úz), -es (stem increasing and NOT "er"), or -er are usually masculine.
  • Nouns ending in -ks, -cs, -is, -io, -il, -ad, -úz, -es (stem not increasing), or -irl are usually feminine.
  • Nouns ending in -ur, -al, -ar, -us, -os, -n, or -es ("er" stem) are usually neuter.

Fourth declensionEdit

MasculineEdit

gardus, ús
heart (organ) m.
Singular Plural
Nominative gardus -us gardú –ú
Genitive gardús -ús gardurum -urum
Dative gardú gardúbus -úbus
Accusative gardum –um gardús –ús
Ablative gardù –ù gardùbus –ùbus
Locative gardùm -ùm gardùmbus -ùmbus


NeuterEdit

hagwud, ús
bath n.
Singular Plural
Nominative hagwud -ud hagwua –ua
Genitive hagwús -ús hagwurum -urum
Dative hagwú hagwúbus -úbus
Accusative hagwud –ud hagwua –ua
Ablative hagwù –ù hagwùbus –ùbus
Locative hagwùm -ùm hagwùmbus -ùmbus

Fifth declensionEdit

FeminineEdit

ajé, ajéí
eye f.
Singular Plural
Nominative ajé ajés –és
Genitive ajéí -éí ajerum -erum
Dative ajé ajébus -ébus
Accusative ajem –em ajés –és
Ablative ajè –è ajèbus –èbus
Locative ajèm -èm ajèmbus -èmbus

NeuterEdit

rúnè, rúnéí
clock n.
Singular Plural
Nominative rúnè rúnea –ea
Genitive rúnéí -éí rúnerum -erum
Dative rúné rúnébus -ébus
Accusative rúnè –è rúnea –ea
Ablative rúnè –è rúnèbus –èbus
Locative rúnèm -èm rúnèmbus -èmbus

DiminutivesEdit

Diminutives are used to give the impression that something is small or young.

Forming a DiminutiveEdit

To form a diminutive, simply add ul before the last vowel in the noun.

EXAMPLE: 
lúpos = wolf
lúpulos= wolf cub, little wolf

The formation of a diminutive has no effect on the declension of the noun:

I showed you the little boy who is my brother.
egó tejé quaglaxe abululum, quíc bradros meos est.

You cannot form diminutives with pronouns.

PronounsEdit

I and weEdit

I and we
Singular Plural
Nominative egó nós
Genitive meos/a/um nóstros/a/um
Dative mejé nobébus
Accusative me nós
Ablative me nobèbus
Locative mejìm nobìmbus

YouEdit

You
Singular Plural
Nominative wós
Genitive túos/a/um wèstros/a/um
Dative tejé wobébus
Accusative te wós
Ablative te wobèbus
Locative tújìm wobìmbus

Emphatic pronounsEdit

SingularEdit

Himself, herself, itself, the very
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative àgsos àgsa àgsum
Genitive àgsjis àgsjis àgsjis
Dative àgsó àgsá àgsó
Accusative àgsum àgsam àgsum
Ablative àgsò àgsà àgsò
Locative àgsùm àgsàm àgsùm

PluralEdit

Themselves, the very
Masculine Feminine Neuter Mixed Genders
Nominative àgsí àgsá àgsa àgsú
Genitive àgsorum àgsarum àgsorum àgsurum
Dative àgsóbus àgsábus àgsóbus àgsúbus
Accusative àgsós àgsás àgsa àgsús
Ablative àgsòbus àgsàbus àgsòbus àgsùbus
Locative àgsùmbus àgsàmbus àgsùmbus àgsùmbus


EXAMPLE:

I see it in your very eyes.
wìdèm id in ajèbus tuàbus àgsàbus.

ReflexiveEdit

Reflexive pronouns in Coxirat are the same in singular and plural.

Himself, herself, itself, themselves
Masculine Feminine Neuter Mixed genders
Nominative -- -- -- --
Genitive soje saje soje súje
Dative sejé sejé sejé sejé
Accusative se se se se
Ablative se se se se
Locative sejìm sejìm sejìm sejìm

He, she, it Edit

SingularEdit

He, she, it
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative us eja id
Genitive áus áus áus
Dative ejá
Accusative eum ejam id
Ablative ejà
Locative eùm ejàm eùm

PluralEdit

They
Masculine Feminine Neuter Mixed genders
Nominative ejí ejá eja
Genitive eorum ejarum eorum eurum
Dative eóbus ejábus ejóbus eúbus
Accusative eós ejás eja eús
Ablative eòbus ejàbus eòbus eùbus
Locative eùmbus ejàmbus eùmbus eùmbus

Demonstrative Pronouns: This and ThatEdit

Demonstrative pronouns in Coxirat can also be used as demonstrative adjectives.

ThisEdit

This
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Mixed genders
Nominative hoc hac hid hac
Genitive hujis hujis hujis horum harum horum hurum
Dative hóc hác hóc hóbus hábus hóbus húbus
Accusative hum ham hid hós hás hac hús
Ablative hòc hàc hòc hòbus hàbus hòbus hùbus
Locative hùm hàm hùm hùmbus hàmbus hùmbus hùmbus


ThatEdit

That
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Mixed genders
Nominative ilos ila ilud ilí ilá ila ilú
Genitive iljis iljis iljis ilorum ilarum ilorum ilurum
Dative iló ilá iló ilóbus ilábus ilóbus ilúbus
Accusative ilum ilam ilud ilós ilás ila ilús
Ablative ilò ilà ilò ilòbus ilàbus ilòbus ilùbus
Locative ilùm ilàm ilùm ilùmbus ilàmbus ilùmbus ilùmbus


Relative PronounsEdit

Who, What, Which
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Mixed genders
Nominative quíc quác quud quí quá quác quú
Genitive cujis cujis cujis quorum quarum quorum quurum
Dative quó quá quó quóbus quábus quóbus quúbus
Accusative cujim cujam quud cuiós cujás quàc cuiús
Ablative quò quà quò quòbus quàbus quòbus quùbus
Locative quùm quàm quùm quùmbus quàmbus quùmbus quùmbus


"The Same" PronounsEdit

The Same ________
Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter Mixed genders
Nominative udèm ejadèm idèm ejídèm ejádèm ejadèm eúdèm
Genitive áusdèm áusdèm áusdèm eorumdèm ejarumdèm eorumdèm eurumdèm
Dative eódèm ejádèm eódèm eóbusdèm ejábusdèm eóbusdèm eúbusdèm
Accusative eundèm ejandèm idèm eósdèm ejásdèm ejadèm eúsdèm
Ablative eòdèm ejàdèm eòdèm eòbusdèm ejàbusdèm eòbusdèm eùbusdèm
Locative eùndèm ejàndèm eùndèm eùmbusdèm ejàmbusdèm eùmbusdèm eùmbusdèm

Interrogative Pronouns, Adjectives, and AdverbsEdit

Interrogative Pronouns
Singular Plural
Who quus quí
What quud quác
Where pàgé --
When parsù --
Why pur --
How quò radò --
How big partos/a/um partí/á/a
How much/many parlos/a/um parlí/á/a

Unlike relative pronouns, interrogative pronouns disregard gender.

The interrogative adjectives partos/partí (how big) and parlos/parlí (how much/many) changes according to gender.

ArticlesEdit

The only articles in Coxirat are definite articles. They all translate "the". In a Coxirat language book, you may find an article next to a word to denote its gender (for example: los abulos would show that "boy" is a masculine noun).

SingularEdit

The
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative los la lid
Genitive
Dative
Accusative lum lam lid
Ablative
Locative lùm làm lùm


PluralEdit

The
Masculine Feminine Neuter Mixed Genders
Nominative la
Genitive lorum larum lorum lurum
Dative lóbus lábus lóbus lúbus
Accusative lós lás la lús
Ablative lòbus làbus lòbus lúbus
Locative lùmbus làmbus lùmbus lùmbus

AdjectivesEdit

Comparison of AdjectivesEdit

When comparing with adjectives, do it like this:

Formation calsmos, -a, -um
smart, intelligent
Comparison
stem + -issim + 1st/2nd declension endings calsmissimos, -a, -um smartest, very smart
stem + -ior, -iiks, -iur + 3rd declension endings calsmior, -iiks, -iur smarter
~ calsmos, -a, -um smart
Add nón before adjective nón calsmos, -a, -um not smart
stem + -er + 1st/2nd declension endings calsmer, -era, -erum less smart, not as smart
stem + -errim + 1st/2nd declension endings calsmerrimos, -a, -um least smart
  • For "-er, -era, -erum", don't add anything other than "er" to the stem if it is masculine nominative.

EXAMPLES:

She thinks that she is very smart.
pútast se calsmissimam eßə.
The girls think that they are smarter than the boys.
lá abulá pútant se calsmiikés lòbus abulòbus eßə.
The teacher is really the only smart person.
los docthor werú est lonos pargis calsmos.
One girl says that everyone is not smart.
úna abula décèst vévìndús nón calsmús eßə.
They (mixed genders) think that girls are less smart than boys.
eú putant abulás calsmerás abulòbus eßə.
The least smart person at the school is the principal!
los pargis calsmerrimos lúdùm est fèllultor!
  • For plural with mixed genders of (-ior, iiks, iur), use the stem and add 4th declension plural endings.

VerbsEdit

First through Fourth Conjugation in Present, Imperfect, and Future Active IndicativeEdit

First conjugation: a stem Second conjugation: i stem Third conjugation: o stem Fourth conjugation: u stem

Present TenseEdit

For present tense, simply remove the "brə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive) and add these endings:

dam, dabrə, daxe, dathum
to give
Singular Plural
First Person dam -m damus –mus
Second Person das -s dastis -stis
Third Person dast -st dant -nt

The present tense translates "is verbing", "verbs", or "does verb".

Imperfect TenseEdit

For imperfect tense, remove the "brə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive), make the stem vowel short (add a grave ` on top of it), and add the same personal endings.

The imperfect tense translates "was verbing" or "used to verb".

dam, dabrə, daxe, dathum
to give
Singular Plural
First Person dàm -m dàmus –mus
Second Person dàs -s dàstis -stis
Third Person dàst -st dànt -nt


Future TenseEdit

For future tense, remove the "brə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive), make the stem vowel long (add a fada ´ on top of it), and add the same personal endings.

The future tense translates "is going to verb", "will verb" or "is about to verb".

dam, dabrə, daxe, dathum
to give
Singular Plural
First Person dám -m dámus –mus
Second Person dás -s dástis -stis
Third Person dást -st dánt -nt


Fifth Conjugation in Present, Imperfect, and Future Active IndicativeEdit

5th conjugation: ə stem

Present TenseEdit

For present tense, remove the "əbrə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive) and add these endings:

décèm, décəbrə, déxe, décthum
to say
Singular Plural
First Person décèm -èm décèmus –èmus
Second Person décès -ès décèstis -èstis
Third Person décèst -èst décunt -unt

The present tense translates "is verbing", "verbs", or "does verb".

Imperfect TenseEdit

For imperfect tense, remove the "əbrə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive) and add the endings below.

The imperfect tense translates "was verbing" or "used to verb".

décèm, décəbrə, déxe, décthum
to say
Singular Plural
First Person décìm -ìm décìmus –ìmus
Second Person décìs -ìs décìstis -ìstis
Third Person décìst -ìst décìnt -ìnt


Future TenseEdit

For future tense, remove the "əbrə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive) and add the endings below.

The future tense translates "is going to verb", "will verb" or "is about to verb".

décèm, décəbrə, déxe, décthum
to say
Singular Plural
First Person décém -ém décémus –émus
Second Person décés -és décéstis -éstis
Third Person décést -ést décént -ént


Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Tenses in Active IndicativeEdit

These three tenses remain practically the same for all verbs.

Perfect TenseEdit

The perfect tense translates "has verbed", "did verb", or "verbed".

For perfect tense, take the third principal part of the verb, remove the "e", and add these endings:

décèm, décəbrə, déxe, décthum
to say
Singular Plural
First Person déxe -e déxemus –es
Second Person déxiste -iste déxistes -istes
Third Person déxet -et déxent -ent


Pluperfect TenseEdit

The pluperfect tense translates "had verbed".

For pluperfect tense, take the third principal part of the verb, remove the "e", and add these endings:

décèm, décəbrə, déxe, décthum
to say
Singular Plural
First Person déxì déxìmus –ìmus
Second Person déxistì -istì déxistìs -istìs
Third Person déxìt -ìt déxìnt -ìnt

Future Perfect TenseEdit

The future perfect tense translates "will have verbed".

For future perfect tense, take the third principal part of the verb, remove the "e", and add these endings:

décèm, décəbrə, déxe, décthum
to say
Singular Plural
First Person déxé déxémus –émus
Second Person déxisté -isté déxistés -istés
Third Person déxét -ét déxént -ént


Exception to Future Perfect TenseEdit

The exception is in érə (to go).

décèm, décəbrə, déxe, décthum
to say
Singular Plural
First Person éjé -jé éjémus –jémus
Second Person éisté -isté éistés -istés
Third Person éjét -jét éjént -jént


Present, Imperfect, and Future Passive IndicativeEdit

Present TenseEdit

The present tense translates "is verbed" or "is being verbed".

For present tense in first through fourth conjugation, simply remove the "brə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive) and add these endings:

dam, dabrə, daxe, dathum
to give
Singular Plural
First Person dar -r damur –mur
Second Person dares -res dastìné -stìné
Third Person dastur -stur dantur -ntur


For fifth conjugation, remove "əbrə" from the infinitive and add these endings.

décèm, décəbrə, déxe, décthum
to say
Singular Plural
First Person décèr -èr décèmur –èmur
Second Person décères -ères décèstìné -èstìné
Third Person décèstur -èstur décuntur -untur


Imperfect TenseEdit

The imperfect tense translates "was being verbed" or "used to be verbed".

First ConjugationEdit

Remove the "abrə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive) and add these endings:


dam, dabrə, daxe, dathum
to give
Singular Plural
First Person darà -arà dàmur –àmur
Second Person darìs -arìs dàstìné -àstìné
Third Person dàstur -àstur dàntur -àntur


Second ConjugationEdit

Remove the "ibrə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive) and add these endings:

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum
to stab
Singular Plural
First Person lakirì -irì lakìmur –ìmur
Second Person lakirìs -irìs lakìstìné -ìstìné
Third Person lakìstur -ìstur lakìntur -ìntur


Third ConjugationEdit

Remove the "obrə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive) and add these endings:

xagom, xagobrə, xagose, xagothum
to bite
Singular Plural
First Person xagorò -orò xagòmur –òmur
Second Person xagorìs -orìs xagòstìné -òstìné
Third Person xagòstur -òstur xagòntur -òntur


Fourth ConjugationEdit

Remove the "ubrə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive) and add these endings:

majum, majubrə, majulse, majulthum
to poison
Singular Plural
First Person majurù -urù majùmur –ùmur
Second Person majurìs -urìs majùstìné -ùstìné
Third Person majùstur -ùstur majùntur -ùntur


Fifth ConjugationEdit

Remove the "əbrə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive) and add these endings:

décèm, décəbrə, déxe, décthum
to say
Singular Plural
First Person décèrì -èrì décìmur –ìmur
Second Person décèrìs -èrìs décìstìné -ìstìné
Third Person décìstur -ìstur décìntur -ìntur


Future TenseEdit

The future tense translates "will be verbed", "is going to be verbed", or "is about to be verbed".

First ConjugationEdit

Remove the "abrə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive) and add these endings:


dam, dabrə, daxe, dathum
to give
Singular Plural
First Person dará -ará dámur –ámur
Second Person darés -arés dástìné -ástìné
Third Person dástur -ástur dántur -ántur


Second ConjugationEdit

Remove the "ibrə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive) and add these endings:

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum
to stab
Singular Plural
First Person lakirí -irí lakímur –ímur
Second Person lakirés -irés lakístìné -ístìné
Third Person lakístur -ístur lakíntur -íntur


Third ConjugationEdit

Remove the "obrə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive) and add these endings:

xagom, xagobrə, xagose, xagothum
to bite
Singular Plural
First Person xagoró -oró xagómur –ómur
Second Person xagorés -orés xagóstìné -óstìné
Third Person xagóstur -óstur xagóntur -óntur


Fourth ConjugationEdit

Remove the "ubrə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive) and add these endings:

majum, majubrə, majulse, majulthum
to poison
Singular Plural
First Person majurú -urú majúmur -úmur
Second Person majurés -urés majústìné -ústìné
Third Person majústur -ústur majúntur -úntur


Fifth ConjugationEdit

Remove the "əbrə" from the second principal part (the present active infinitive) and add these endings:

décèm, décəbrə, déxe, décthum
to say
Singular Plural
First Person décèré -èré décémur –émur
Second Person décèrés -èrés décéstìné -éstìné
Third Person décéstur -éstur décéntur -éntur


Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Passive IndicativeEdit

Perfect Passive IndicativeEdit

Take the fourth principal part of the verb and add a present indicative form of "to be". The principal part will change according to gender and number.

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
First Person lakithos/a/um sum Singular + sum lakithí/á/a sumus Plural + sumus
Second Person lakithos/a/um es Singular + es lakithí/á/a estis Plural + estis
Third Person lakithos/a/um est Singular + est lakithí/á/a sunt Plural + sunt


Pluperfect Passive IndicativeEdit

Take the fourth principal part of the verb and add an imperfect indicative form of "to be". The principal part will change according to gender and number.

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
First Person lakithos/a/um sìm Singular + sìm lakithí/á/a sìmus Plural + sìmus
Second Person lakithos/a/um sìs Singular + sìs lakithí/á/a sìstis Plural + sìstis
Third Person lakithos/a/um sìst Singular + sìst lakithí/á/a sìnt Plural + sìnt

Future Perfect Passive IndicativeEdit

Take the fourth principal part of the verb and add a future indicative form of "to be". The principal part will change according to gender and number.

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
First Person lakithos/a/um sím Singular + sím lakithí/á/a símus Plural + símus
Second Person lakithos/a/um sís Singular + sís lakithí/á/a sístis Plural + sístis
Third Person lakithos/a/um síst Singular + síst lakithí/á/a sínt Plural + sínt

Present Active SubjunctiveEdit

MnemonicEdit

1. THE

2. BIASED

3. OATMEAL

4. ACCENTUATION

5. PASSED

The boldfaced letters are the ones that replace the stem vowels of the second principal part when forming a present subjunctive verb.

Forming a Present Active SubjunctiveEdit

Take the second principal part of the verb, obtain the stem by removing the "brə", replace the stem vowel (for first conjugation, replace "a" with "e"; second, "i" with "ia"; third, "o" with "oa"; fourth, "u" with "ua"; fifth, "ə" with "a") and add personal endings -m, -s, -st, -mus, -stis, -nt.

First ConjugationEdit

dam, dabrə, daxe, dathum
to give
Singular Plural
First Person dem -m demus -mus
Second Person des -s destis -stis
Third Person dest -st dent -nt


Second ConjugationEdit

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
First Person lakiam -m lakiamus -mus
Second Person lakias -s lakiastis -stis
Third Person lakiast -st lakiant -nt


Third ConjugationEdit

kibom, kibobrə, kibose, kibothum


to suffer

Singular Plural
First Person kiboam -m kiboamus -mus
Second Person kiboas -s kiboastis -stis
Third Person kiboast -st kiboant -nt


Fourth ConjugationEdit

majum, majubrə, majulse, majulthum


to poison

Singular Plural
First Person majuam -m majuamus -mus
Second Person majuas -s majuastis -stis
Third Person majuast -st majuant -nt


Fifth ConjugationEdit

décèm, décəbrə, déxe, décthum


to say

Singular Plural
First Person décam -m décamus -mus
Second Person décas -s décastis -stis
Third Person décast -st décant -nt


Imperfect Active SubjunctiveEdit

Forming an Imperfect Active SubjunctiveEdit

Take the second principal part of the verb, remove the "ə", and add 5th conjugation present active indicative endings.

In 5th conjugation, change the stem vowel to "è", as well.

First ConjugationEdit

dam, dabrə, daxe, dathum


to give

Singular Plural
First Person dabrèm -èm dabrèmus -èmus
Second Person dabrès -ès dabrèstis -èstis
Third Person dabrèst -èst dabrunt -unt


Second ConjugationEdit

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
First Person lakibrèm -èm lakibrèmus -èmus
Second Person lakibrès -ès lakibrèstis -èstis
Third Person lakibrèst -èst lakibrunt -unt


Third ConjugationEdit

xogom, xogobrə, xogose, xogothum


to bite

Singular Plural
First Person xogobrèm -èm xogobrèmus -èmus
Second Person xogobrès -ès xogobrèstis -èstis
Third Person xogobrèst -èst xogobrunt -unt


Fourth ConjugationEdit

majum, majubrə, majulse, majulthum


to poison

Singular Plural
First Person majubrèm -èm majubrèmus -èmus
Second Person majubrès -ès majubrèstis -èstis
Third Person majubrèst -èst majubrunt -unt


Fifth ConjugationEdit

décèm, décəbrə, déxe, décthum


to say

Singular Plural
First Person décèbrèm -èm décèbrèmus -èmus
Second Person décèbrès -ès décèbrèstis -èstis
Third Person décèbrèst -èst décèbrunt -unt


Perfect Active SubjunctiveEdit

Forming a Perfect Active SubjunctiveEdit

Take the third principal part of the verb, remove the "e", and add these endings:

dam, dabrə, daxe, dathum


to give

Singular Plural
First Person daxí daxímus -ímus
Second Person daxís -ís daxístis -ístis
Third Person daxíst -íst daxínt -ínt

Pluperfect Active SubjunctiveEdit

Forming a Pluperfect Active SubjunctiveEdit

Take the third principal part of the verb, remove the "e", and add these endings:

dam, dabrə, daxe, dathum


to give

Singular Plural
First Person daxìßem -ìßem daxìßemus -ìßemus
Second Person daxìßes -ìßes daxìßestis -ìßestis
Third Person daxìßest -ìßest daxìßent -ìßent

Present Passive SubjunctiveEdit

MnemonicEdit

1. THE

2. BIASED

3. OATMEAL

4. ACCENTUATION

5. PASSED

The boldfaced letters are the ones that replace the stem vowels of the second principal part when forming a present subjunctive verb.

Forming a Present Passive SubjunctiveEdit

Take the second principal part of the verb, obtain the stem by removing the "brə", replace the stem vowel (for first conjugation, replace "a" with "e"; second, "i" with "ia"; third, "o" with "oa"; fourth, "u" with "ua"; fifth, "ə" with "a") and add personal endings -r, -res, -stur, -mur, -stìné, -ntur.

First ConjugationEdit

dam, dabrə, daxe, dathum
to give
Singular Plural
First Person der -r demur -mur
Second Person deres -res destìné -stìné
Third Person destur -stur dentur -ntur


Second ConjugationEdit

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
First Person lakiar -r lakiamur -mur
Second Person lakiares -res lakiastìné -stìné
Third Person lakiastur -stur lakiantur -ntur


Third ConjugationEdit

kibom, kibobrə, kibose, kibothum


to suffer

Singular Plural
First Person kiboar -r kiboamur -mur
Second Person kiboares -res kiboastìné -stìné
Third Person kiboastur -stur kiboantur -ntur


Fourth ConjugationEdit

majum, majubrə, majulse, majulthum


to poison

Singular Plural
First Person majuar -r majuamur -mur
Second Person majuares -res majuastìné -stìné
Third Person majuastur -stur majuantur -ntur


Fifth ConjugationEdit

décèm, décəbrə, déxe, décthum


to say

Singular Plural
First Person décar -r décamur -mur
Second Person décares -res décastìné -stìné
Third Person décastur -stur décantur -ntur


Imperfect Passive SubjunctiveEdit

Forming an Imperfect Passive SubjunctiveEdit

Take the second principal part of the verb, remove the "ə", and add 5th conjugation present passive indicative endings.

In 5th conjugation, change the stem vowel to "è", as well.

First ConjugationEdit

dam, dabrə, daxe, dathum


to give

Singular Plural
First Person dabrèr -èr dabrèmur -èmur
Second Person dabrèris -èris dabrèstìné -èstìné
Third Person dabrèstur -èstur dabruntur -untur


Second ConjugationEdit

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
First Person lakibrèr -èr lakibrèmur -èmur
Second Person lakibrèris -èris lakibrèstìné -èstìné
Third Person lakibrèstur -èstur lakibruntur -untur


Third ConjugationEdit

xogom, xogobrə, xogose, xogothum


to bite

Singular Plural
First Person xogobrèr -èr xogobrèmur -èmur
Second Person xogobrèris -èris xogobrèstìné -èstìné
Third Person xogobrèstur -èstur xogobruntur -untur


Fourth ConjugationEdit

majum, majubrə, majulse, majulthum


to poison

Singular Plural
First Person majubrèr -èr majubrèmur -èmur
Second Person majubrèris -èris majubrèstìné -èstìné
Third Person majubrèstur -èstur majubruntur -untur

Fifth ConjugationEdit

décèm, décəbrə, déxe, décthum


to say

Singular Plural
First Person décèbrèr -èr décèbrèmur -èmur
Second Person décèbrèris -èris décèbrèstis -èstìné
Third Person décèbrèstur -èstur décèbruntur -untur


Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Passive IndicativeEdit

Perfect Passive SubjunctiveEdit

Take the fourth principal part of the verb and add a present subjunctive form of "to be". The principal part will change according to gender and number.

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
First Person lakithos/a/um suam Singular + suam lakithí/á/a suamus Plural + suamus
Second Person lakithos/a/um suas Singular + suas lakithí/á/a suastis Plural + suastis
Third Person lakithos/a/um suast Singular + suast lakithí/á/a suant Plural + suant


Pluperfect Passive SubjunctiveEdit

Take the fourth principal part of the verb and add an imperfect subjunctive form of "to be". The principal part will change according to gender and number.

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
First Person lakithos/a/um eßèm Singular + eßèm lakithí/á/a eßèmus Plural + eßèmus
Second Person lakithos/a/um eßès Singular + eßès lakithí/á/a eßèstis Plural + eßèstis
Third Person lakithos/a/um eßèst Singular + eßèst lakithí/á/a eßunt Plural + eßunt

Imperative VerbsEdit

Imperative verbs in Coxirat are verbs that give commands.

Present Active ImperativesEdit

Present active imperatives are simply saying, for instance, "give!" or "say!"

Regular ImperativesEdit

Simply remove the "brə" from the second principal part for singular imperatives. For plural, replace the "brə" with "tá".

For fifth conjugation, replace the schwa with "è" for singular and with an "ì" for plural.


lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
Imperative laki! lakitá!


Negative ImperativesEdit

For singular, use nolblè plus an infinitive. For plural, use nolblìtá plus an infinitive.

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
Imperative nolblè lakibrə! nolblìtá lakibrə!


Second Person Future Active ImperativesEdit

Regular ImperativesEdit

Find the stem of the infinitive and add stó for singular. For plural, add stótá. Be sure to make it clear via the context that you are giving a direct command to somebody else.

For fifth conjugation, change the schwa in the stem to "è".

They translate "you are to verb".

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
Imperative lakistó lakistótá


Negative ImperativesEdit

Find the stem of the infinitive and add stó for singular. For plural, add stótá. Be sure to make it clear via the context that you are giving a direct command to somebody else.

For fifth conjugation, change the schwa in the stem to "è".

Then, put "non" in front of the imperative you have formed.

They translate "you are not to verb".

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
Imperative non lakistó non lakistótá


Third Person Future Active ImperativesEdit

Regular ImperativesEdit

Find the stem of the infinitive and add stó for singular. For plural, add ntó.

For fifth conjugation, change the schwa in the stem to "è" for singular and to "u" for plural.

They translate "is/are to verb".

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
Imperative lakistó lakintó


Negative ImperativesEdit

Find the stem of the infinitive and add stó for singular. For plural, add ntó.

For fifth conjugation, change the schwa in the stem to "è" for singular and to "u" for plural.

Then, add "non" before the imperative you have formed.

They translate "is/are not to verb".

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
Imperative non lakistó non lakintó


Present Passive ImperativesEdit

Present passive imperatives are simply saying, for instance, "be given!" or "be hanged!"

Regular ImperativesEdit

For singular, imply take the second principal part of the verb, changing the "ə" to "ó". For plural, use the 2nd person plural present passive indicative form of the verb.

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
Imperative lakibró! lakistìné!

Negative ImperativesEdit

For singular, use "nolblè" plus the present passive infinitive. For plural, use "nolblìtá" plus the present passive infinitive.

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
Imperative nolblè lakibré! nolblitá lakibré!


Second Person Future Passive ImperativesEdit

Regular ImperativesEdit

Find the stem of the infinitive and add stor for singular. For plural, add stortá. Be sure to make it clear via the context that you are giving a direct command to somebody else.

For fifth conjugation, change the schwa in the stem to "è".

They translate "you are to be verbed".

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
Imperative lakistor lakistortá


Negative ImperativesEdit

Find the stem of the infinitive and add stor for singular. For plural, add stortá. Be sure to make it clear via the context that you are giving a direct command to somebody else.

For fifth conjugation, change the schwa in the stem to "è".

Then, put "non" in front of the imperative you have formed.

They translate "you are not to be verbed".

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
Imperative non lakistor non lakistortá


Third Person Future Passive ImperativesEdit

Regular ImperativesEdit

Find the stem of the infinitive and add stor for singular. For plural, add ntor.

For fifth conjugation, change the schwa in the stem to "è" for singular and to "u" for plural.

They translate "is/are to verb".

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
Imperative lakistor lakintor


Negative ImperativesEdit

Find the stem of the infinitive and add stor for singular. For plural, add ntor.

For fifth conjugation, change the schwa in the stem to "è" for singular and to "u" for plural.

Then, add "non" before the imperative you have formed.

They translate "is/are not to verb".

lakim, lakibrə, lakiwe, lakithum


to stab

Singular Plural
Imperative non lakistor non lakintor

Irregular VerbsEdit

fermEdit

imEdit

vulmEdit

nulmEdit

malmEdit

sumEdit

ParticiplesEdit

sum, eßə, fue, futhurum


to be

Participle
Present Active eßèns
Perfect Active futhé, -é, -è
Future Active futhuros, -a, -um

Indicative InflectionEdit

kràßumEdit

ParticiplesEdit

Participles are verbal adjectives.

Present ActiveEdit

To form a present active participle:

  • Add "ns" to the 2nd principal part stem of the verb.
  • Change "ns" to "nt" and add 3rd declension endings when the participle is not nominative singular.
  • For fifth conjugation, change the schwa to "è" before forming a participle.
EXAMPLE: dans = giving

Present PassiveEdit

To form a present passive participle:

  • Add "f" to the 2nd principal part stem of the verb.
  • Change "f" to "v" and add 3rd declension endings when the participle is not nominative singular.
  • For fifth conjugation, change the schwa to "è" before forming a participle.
EXAMPLE: daf = being given

Perfect ActiveEdit

To form a perfect active participle:

  • Obtain the 4th principal part stem
  • Add 5th declension endings to the stem.
EXAMPLE: dathé = having given

Perfect PassiveEdit

To form a perfect passive participle:

  • Obtain the 4th principal part stem
  • Add 1st or 2nd declension endings depending on gender.
MASCULINE: abulos dathos = the boy having been given
FEMININE: ajé datha = the eye having been given
NEUTER: hagwud dathum = the bath having been given

Future ActiveEdit

To form a future active participle:

  • Take the 4th principal part stem
  • Add "ur" and 5th declension endings.
EXAMPLE: dathuré = about to give

GerundivesEdit

To form a gerundive:

  • Take the 4th principal part stem
  • Add "ur" and 1st or 2nd declension endings depending on gender.
MASCULINE: abos dathuros = the man to be given 
FEMININE: abula dathura = the girl to be given 
NEUTER: glérum dathurum = the rum to be given

If a gerundive is coupled with a form of "to be", it translates "must verb".

AgentsEdit

Agents are people or things that perform verbs. They translate "verber". or "thing that verbs".

Forming an AgentEdit

Masculine AgentsEdit

To form a masculine agent:

  • Go to the 4th principal part
  • Obtain the stem
  • Add -or for nominative singular.
  • Add -or and 3rd declension endings for other forms.
EXAMPLE: docthor = [male] teacher (from docəbrə, to teach)

Feminine AgentsEdit

To form a feminine agent:

  • Go to the 4th principal part
  • Obtain the stem
  • Add -riks for nominative singular.
  • Add -rik and 3rd declension endings for other forms.
EXAMPLE: docthriks = [female] teacher (from docəbrə, to teach)

Neuter AgentsEdit

To form a neuter agent:

  • Go to the 4th principal part
  • Obtain the stem
  • Add -ur for nominative singular.
  • Add -ur and 3rd declension endings for other forms.
EXAMPLE: docthur = thing that teaches (from docəbrə, to teach)

Mixed Gender AgentsEdit

If you are talking about agents of mixed genders:

  • Go to the 4th principal part
  • Add -r and 4th declension plural endings.
EXAMPLE: docthrú = teachers

GerundsEdit

Gerunds are verbal nouns.

A Gerund Referring to an Innumerable Act or Act Happening at the Time NarratedEdit

These can be tricky to form.

Go to the fourth principal part, and add a "uo" after the second consonant following the first vowel. If there is no second consonant following the first vowel, then just replace the "os" with "uo".

EXAMPLE:

haio, haiabrə, haiaxe, haiathos - to shout
haiathuo - shouting (that is going on currently or at the time narrated)

Sixth DeclensionEdit

These gerunds decline their own way, with their own declension, 6th declension.

dathuo, dathuós
giving m.
Singular
Nominative dathuo –uo
Genitive dathuós -uós
Dative dathuó -uó
Accusative dathuom –uom
Ablative dathuò –uò
Locative dathuòm -uòm

A Gerund Referring to a Countable ActEdit

Take the fourth principal part and use 4th declension endings.

EXAMPLE:

haio, haiabrə, haiaxe, haiathos - to shout
haiathus, haiathús m. - shout

Forming a Gerund Referring to a ConceptEdit

To form a gerund that refers to something as a concept or a subject, take the 2nd principal part stem of the verb. If the verb belongs to the fifth conjugation, replace the schwa in the resulting stem to "è".

Then, add -ks for nominative singular. For the other forms, add -kt and 3rd declension endings.

All gerunds are neuter.

EXAMPLE: Megèks cinum est. = Reading is good.
EXAMPLE: Currèks me worthum fexe. = Running made me tired.
EXAMPLE: Lós abulós worèst sìpèktis. = The boys are tired of writing.

Example textEdit

Once, I found a black fish swimming in the ocean. This fish was so strange that I watched it for a long time. Perhaps it became tired of my staring, because it swam away from me. Afterwards, I never saw that fish again.

monèm, egó nivrum lángum marbantìm in oceà twìkse. hoc lángus sìt ta skébos ké eum spectaxí brégú. Fliktagì us facthos est woros meí vérsuós, gèd marbaxet e me. pèscujam, nùcujam vilulse ilum lángum jurnéum.

Coxirat NamesEdit

SurnamesEdit

Amaf = loved, being loved.

Condros = friend.

Dans = giving.

Lupos = wolf.

DictionaryEdit

NounsEdit

Cóxiránia, Cóxirániá f. - Coxirania

Cóxirat, Cóxirat c. - Person from Coxirania (indeclinable)

gèndoi, gèndoinis m. - male bird

gèndió, gèndiónis f. - female bird

saskoi, saskoinis m. - male frog

saskió, saskiónis f. - female frog

lángus, lángús m. - male fish

lánga, lángá f. - female fish

thendos, thendí m. - male cat

thenda, thendá f. - female cat

moros, morí m. - male dog

mora, morá f. - female dog

vertad, vertadis f. - truth, reality

saluad, saluadis f. - health, safety

voz, vosis m. - voice

lez, lesis m. - law

pontifez, pontifesis m. - priest

quintessèntia, quintessèntiá f. - epitome, quintessence

sècúritad, sècúritadis f. - security, safety

dèmòcrasad, dèmòcrasadis f. - democracy

mélez, mélesis m. - army (not to be confused with méles, mélitis m. - soldier)

cornud, cornús n. - horn

gènud, gènús n. - knee

lájud, lájús n. - game

késcus, késcús m. - oak tree

fles, fleris n. - kind, sort, type

crúz, crúsis f. - cross

júventuad, júventuadis f. - youth

larzad, larzadis f. - slavery (from larzam - I serve)


mátriks, mátrikis f. - matrix

mes, meris n. - right (ex. mera húmana = human rights)

arbol, arbolis m. - tree

labol, labolis m. - work, labor

amol, amolis m. - love

terrol, terrolis m. - terror

horrol, horrolis m. - horror

candol, candolis m. - candor

armol, armolis m. - armor

pavol, pavolis m. - panic

véga, végá M. - year

VerbsEdit

langim, langibrə, langive, langithos - condemn

dam, dabrə, daxe, dathos - give

fèllum, fèllubrə, fèllulse, fèllultos - lead

bulam, bulabrə, bulaxe, bulathos - walk

currèm, currəbrə, cucurre, cursos - run

megèm, megəbrə, mekse, mekthos - read

jumim, jumibrə, jumive, jumithos - sleep

bangom, bangobrə, bangose, bangothos - live

edum, edubrə, edulse, edulthos - eat

lágam, lágabrə, lágaxe, lágathos - sit

mégam, mégabrə, mégaxe, mégathos - stand

spectam, spectabrə, spectaxe, spectathos - watch

adpunim, adpunibrə, adpunixe, adpunithos - attack

punim, punibrə, punixe, punithos - fight

strèkèm, strèkəbrə, strèkse, strèkthos - punish

ladom, ladobrə, ladose, ladothos - speak

agitam, agitabrə, agitaxe, agitathos - hunt

mallim, mallibrə, mallixe, mallithos - laugh

vidum, vidubrə, vidulse, vidulthos - to see

docèm, docəbrə, docue, docthos - to teach

docèm, docəbrə, docue, docthos - to teach

worèst, worəbrə, woruet - to make tired (impersonal verb)

bornast, bornabrə, bornaxet - to rain (impersonal verb)

krábust, krábubrə, krábulset - to snow (impersonal verb)

clovèst, clov ∂br∂ , clovuet - to embarrass (impersonal verb)

púrkast, púrkabr∂, púrkaxet - to disgust, to gross out (impersonal verb)

vidur, vidubré, vidulthos sum - to seem (DEPONENT)

sedor, sedobré, sedothos sum, sedothoios - to follow (DEPONENT)

lahèr, lahé, laktos sum - to grow (DEPONENT)

hànur, hànubré, hàntos sum - to fall (DEPONENT)

tértèr, térté, térßos sum, térßoios - to send (DEPONENT)

wègor, wègobré, wègothos sum, wègothoios - to touch (DEPONENT)

mentir, mentibré, mentithos sum, mentithoios - to lie (DEPONENT)

'ode', osos - to hate (DEFECTIVE, IRR.)

mèmìne - to remember (DEFECTIVE, IRR.)

coipe, coipthos - to have begun (DEFECTIVE)

AdjectivesEdit

cinos, -a, -um - good


gilior, -iiks, -iur - better


ìjémos, -a, -um - very good, best, excellent


malidos, -a, -um - smart (more "clever" or "cunning")


calsmos, -a, -um - smart (more "intelligent")


culvos, -a, -um - smart (more "wise" or "knowledgeable")


jazos, -a, -um - bad


pidior, -iiks, -iur - worse


pasémos, -a, -um - very bad, terrible, worst


faros, -a, -um - fat


vévìndos, -a, -um - all


jole, -is, -ìm - young


mikile, -is, -ìm - thin


cános, -a, -um - old


dragile, -is, ìm - stupid


mage, -is, -ìm - large, great


maior, -iiks, -iur - larger, greater


maksemos, -a, -um - largest, greatest, very large, very great


ralos, -a, -um - small, little


bènior, -iiks, -iur - smaller


bènemos, -a, -um - smallest, very small


audaz, audaz, audaz (gen. audasis) - bold


feroz, feroz, feroz (gen. ferosis) - fierce


oiger, oigra, oigrum - ill, sick


saluz, saluz, saluz (gen. salusis) - well, healthy


mendaz, mendaz, mendaz (gen. mendasis) - deceitful

PronounsEdit

AdverbsEdit

cujam - (1) how; (2) than

héc - at this place

hénc - from this place

húc - to this place

iléc - at that place

illénc - from that place

illúc - to that place

InterjectionsEdit

Coxirat Interjections


English Coxirat
Hey! hey! há!
Look! look! aki!
Oh no! oh no! ónù!
Ugh! ugh! haah!
OK! OK! cínú!
Hurray! hurray! iúwa!
Darn! Darn! langi!
Aww! aww! ò!
Oh! oh! ó!
Um… um… èn…

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