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Culliwācatlīnitōtl

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Culliwācatlīnitōtl
Culliwācatlīnitōtl, īn Tōtl 
Pronunciation: IPA: [kulliwaːkat͡ɬiːniˈtɔːt͡ɬ]
Spoken in: once Culliwācatlīnitl, now scattered
Total speakers: ~2 million
Language family: Cepētl languages
 Southern Cepētl
  Totlo-Mawatean
   Totlan languages
    Culliwācatlīnitōtl 
Official status
Official language of: once Culliwācatlīnitl, now none
Regulated by:
Language codes
ISO 639-1: cw
ISO 639-2: cwc
ISO 639-3: cwc


The Culliwācatlīnitōtl (literally "language of the Green Land", sometimes just īn Tōtl meaning "the language") is a polysynthetic agglutinative language created by Neonlights. The language is influenced by Nāhuatl (language of the Aztecs).

HistoryEdit

The following history is fictitious.

Proto-CepētlEdit

Before the Tōtl there were people called the Proto-Cepētlians. They lived in clay houses, ate fish, bread and various vegetables and spoke Proto-Cepētl.

Proto-Cepētl phonologyEdit

  Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Labiovelar Glottal
Unaspirated plosive *p *t   *ṭ *ḱ *k *kʷ *h́
Aspirated plosive *pʰ *tʰ   *ṭʰ *ḱʰ *kʰ *kʷʰ  
Unaspirated affricate   *tz          
Aspirated affricate   *tzʰ *čʰ          
Fricative *f *s *ṣ   *ḫ *ḫʷ *h
Nasal *m *n     *nʷ    
Approximant   *l   *ḷ *y *ĺ   *wʰ *w  
Lateral affricate   *tl   *ṭḷ        
Trill   *r            

Proto-Totlo-Mawatean phonologyEdit

PhonologyEdit

The phonology is mainly based on Nāhuatl.

AlphabetEdit

The alphabet has 29 symbols (21 monographs and 8 digraphs).

p s a tl qu t u ū ng tz ā i ī c fh h ē hw w m ch e ō o l y n x ky

ConsonantsEdit

Culliwācatlīnitōtl has 19 consonants.

  Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Labiovelar Glottal
Plosive p t   c k  
Affricate   t͡s t͡ʃ        
Fricative ɸ s ʃ       h
Nasal m n     ŋ    
Approximant   l   j   ʍ w  
Lateral affricate   t͡ɬ          

The transliteration is similar to Nāhuatl. /c/ is written as <cy> or <ky>, /k/ is written as <c> (or <k> when preceding /e/ or /i/), /kʷ/ is witten as <qu>, /t͡s/ is written as <tz>, /t͡ʃ/ is written as <ch>, /ɸ/ is written as <fh> (or <f> in some texts), /ʃ/ is written as <x>, /ŋ/ is written as <ng>, /j/ is written as <y>, /ʍ/ is written as <wh> and /t͡ɬ/ is written as <tl>.

Double consonants are not ignored: mellētl [mɛllɛːt͡ɬ].

VowelsEdit

Culliwācatlīnitōtl has ten vowels.

  Front Central Back
Close i iː   u uː
Mid-open ɛ ɛː   ɔ ɔː
Open   a aː  

The length is expressed with a macron in writing (ā, ē, ī, ō, ū). The stress falls on the final syllable if the word ends in a consonant and on the penult if it ends in a vowel. If the vowel has an acute accent (á, é, í, ó, ú) over it, the syllable is stressed and the vowel is long.

MorphologyEdit

NounsEdit

GenderEdit

The Culliwācatlīnitōtl nouns differ in two genders: animate and inanimate. Animate nouns are living being, spirits and gods and inanimate nouns are the rest.

NumberEdit

Culliwācatlīnitōtl nouns have four numbers: singular, dual, paucal and plural. Dual expresses two objects and paucal expresses a few of them.

CaseEdit

Culliwācatlīnitōtl nouns have only one case: absolutive. It's expressed by a suffix -tli for animate nouns and -tl for inanimate nouns. The nouns always end in a vowel. The absolutive case suffix is removed when the noun is altered and differs from the noun as seen in the dictionary. For example:

  • culliwātl = green
  • catlīnitl = land
  • tōtl = language

To make a compound word, it's necessary to remove the absolutive suffixes. So:

  • culliwā―catlīni―tōtl = the Green-Land language

DeclensionEdit

The absolutive suffix must be removed in order to add suffixes.

  Animate Inanimate Possessive animate Possessive inanimate
Singular -tli/-li* -tl/-l* -ci -c
Dual -tzoli -tzol -co -cos
Paucal -xechi -xech -cechi -cech
Plural -mi/-te* -ni/-ne* -mici -nic
  • the alternative suffixes are for nouns ending in -u and

Possessive suffixes are added to the word when it's combined with a possessive adjective or pronoun. For example:

  • catlīnitl "land", but catlīnic "my land"

PronounsEdit

Possessive pronounsEdit

Possessive pronouns serve as prefixes when describing a word.

  1st pers. 2nd pers. 3rd pers. 4th pers.*
Singular rā- tzī- tlē- xēce-
Dual rō- tzō- tlō- xōce-
Paucal rēye- tzē- tlēye- xēye-
Plural mē- wē- tlū- fhēye-
  • used for supernatural beings and gods

Personal pronounsEdit

Personal pronouns are rarely used since they serve as a suffix in verbs. If they are really necessary, they are formed by adding the -quetl suffix to the possessive equivalents.

Reflexive and reflexive-possessive pronounsEdit

They aren't used as a separate type of pronouns; their equivalents are personal and possessive pronouns.

Pronoun derivationEdit

Interrogative, relative, demonstrative and indefinite pronouns (also called derivation pronouns) follow the same pattern:

  Animate Inanimate Possessive animate Possessive inanimate
Singular -úit -úcitl -ēcetl
Dual -ēle -ōcōtl ēlecetl
Paucal -úal -ēlet -úatl -ēletl
Plural -ōni -ēne -ōnitl -ēnetl

Possessive derivation pronouns (somebody's, anybody's etc.) are declined like adjectives.

The derivation pronouns can be derived from the suffixes by these prefixes:

  • interrogative and relative pronouns - -c-
  • 1st class demonstrative pronouns (for nearby objects) - tl-
  • 2nd class demonstrative pronouns (for a bit distant objects) - x-
  • 3rd class demonstrative pronouns (for remote objects) - l-
  • collective indefinite pronouns (everybody) - y-
  • general indefinite pronouns (somebody) - p-
  • indifferent indefinite pronouns (anybody) - m-
  • negative indefinite pronouns (nobody) - qu-

VerbsEdit

Tense, mood and voiceEdit

Culliwācatlīnitōtl verbs have four tenses: the pluperfect, the perfect, the present and the future; six moods: indicative, generic, presumptive, conditional, optative and imperative; and two voices: active and passive.

Verb category agglutinationEdit

Infinitive ends in -ām, -ēm or -īm. The verb form can be made by agglutinating various suffixes to the verb stem (without the infinitive suffix). Scheme of agglutinating: stem―tense―mood (and voice)―number―person.

Number and personEdit

  Suffix
Singular -a
Dual -o
Paucal -e
Plural -u
  Suffix
1st person -r
2nd person -tz
3rd person -tl
4th person -x

TensesEdit

  Infix
Pluperfect -ā-
Perfect -ē-
Present -o-
Future -ī-

Moods and voicesEdit

  • Indicative: normal mood (The boy is in the park.)
  • Generic: to express a general fact (Cheetahs are fast.)
  • Presumptive: to express a probable fact (They are probably in Spain.)
  • Conditional: mostly in dependent clauses (If I were you, I'd write it.)
  • Optative: to express wishes, wills, desires or fears (I want to travel the world.)
  • Imperative: to express commands (Do it!)
  Indicative Generic Presumptive Conditional Optative Imperative
Active -c- -r- -w- -fh- -ch- -x-
Passive -citl- -tz- -witl- -fhitl- -chitl- (none)

ExampleEdit

The most common verb form is active indicative present, that is -o-c-. To make an active indicative present just add -oc- and number and person suffixes.

  • ochocatlīm = to eat
  • ochocatlocar = I'm eating.
  • ochocatlocetz = Few of you are eating
  • ochocatlēchitlotl = They two wish they were eaten etc.

Imperfective vs. perfectiveEdit

Most of the verbs are imperfective. To make a perfective verb, just add the prefix ō- to the stem. Example:

  • meselēcitlutl = They moved (constantly, from time to time)
  • ōmeselēcitlutl = They moved (at once, instantly, no duration)

Negative formEdit

The negative form is created by adding the tōl- prefix to the verb.

  • ochocatlocar = I'm eating.; tōlochocatlocar = I'm not eating etc.

Interrogative formEdit

The archaic interrogative form is created by switching the tense-mood-voice suffixes with the number-person ones.

  • ochocatlocar = I'm eating.; ochocatlaroc = Am I eating?
  • ochocatlēchitlotl = They two wish they were eaten.; ochocatlotlēchitl = Do they wish they were eaten? etc.

The contemporary form is created by adding various prefixes and suffixes to the verb, such as cēl-, wōn-, whōn-, lōwen-, tlōm-, -achō, -alōtl etc.

  • ochocatlocar = I'm eating.; cēlchocatlocar = Am I eating?
  • ochocatlēchitlotl = They two wish they were eaten.; ochocatlēchitlotlachō = Do they wish they were eaten? etc.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjective declensionEdit

  Animate Inanimate
Singular -tlā -tl
Dual -tzō -tzō
Paucal -xē -xētl
Plural -mē -nā

Adjectives are placed after the word they describe. They can also merge (agglutinate) with the noun and make a compound word. For example:

  • culliwā(tl) + kyēlō(tl) = kyēlōtl culliwātl, or
  • culliwā(tl) + kyēlō(tl) = culliwākyēlōtl (lit. green + stone = emerald)

AdverbsEdit

Adverbs are simply formed by adding the -tlec suffix to the adjective. Most of them end in -ec, like tewārec "tomorrow" or tlīyec "here"

NumbersEdit

Cardinal numbersEdit

0 mīlicītl
1 ētl
2 ēlētl
3 amōtl
4 amētl
5 alātl
6 alētl
7 angātl
8 angētl
9 angōtl
10 cātzītl
100 cētzētl
1000 cāxītl
1000000 cēxētl
1000000000 angōmītl
infinity (∞) tōltlecenōtl (tōl "no", tlecenōtl "end")

Other cardinal numbers are made by agglutinating. If the vowel is next to a vowel, insert -t-. For example:

  • 17 (seventeen) - cātzītangātl
  • 69 (sixty-nine) - alēcātzītangōtl
  • 341 (three hundred and forty-one) - amōcētzētamēcātzītētl

Numbers are placed before the noun and after adjectives. They decline like adjectives.

Ordinal numbersEdit

Ordinal numbers are formed by adding the -mōtl/-mōtlā suffix. They decline like adjectives.

Adverbial numbersEdit

Just like in Latin, Culliwācatlīnitōtl has adverbial numbers (once, twice, thrice, four times etc.). They're formed by adding -wūtlec to the stem. ( means "times" and -tlec is the suffix for adverbs.)

Example textsEdit

Here are some example texts.

Babel Text of Bible (Pāpeletl ā Pipliyātl)Edit

Book of Genesis, 11:1-9

Culliwācatlīnitōtl

1 Xōlomistzētl pitlēratl ētōtl iy ēlelemātl.

2 Lē catolōmi meselēcitlutl ā wesatl, wengēyēcutl ēcatlīnitl nēmec Xinārātl; ōmeselēcitlutl līyec.

(to be continued)

English

1 And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech.

2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there.

3 And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them thoroughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar.

4 And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.

5 And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children built.

6 And the Lord said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do; and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do.

7 Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech.

8 So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city.

9 Therefore, is the name of it called Babel; because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the Lord scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.

See alsoEdit

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