Culliwācatlīnitōtl, īn Tōtl
|Spoken in:||once Culliwācatlīnitl, now scattered|
|Total speakers:||~2 million|
|Language family:|| Cepētl languages|
|Official language of:||once Culliwācatlīnitl, now none|
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. See IPA chart for English for an English-based pronunciation key.|
The Culliwācatlīnitōtl (literally "language of the Green Land", sometimes just īn Tōtl meaning "the language") is a polysynthetic agglutinative language created by Neonlights. The language is influenced by Nāhuatl (language of the Aztecs).
The following history is fictitious.
Before the Tōtl there were people called the Proto-Cepētlians. They lived in clay houses, ate fish, bread and various vegetables and spoke Proto-Cepētl.
|Approximant||*l||*ḷ||*y *ĺ||*wʰ *w|
The phonology is mainly based on Nāhuatl.
The alphabet has 29 symbols (21 monographs and 8 digraphs).
p s a tl qu t u ū ng tz ā i ī c fh h ē hw w m ch e ō o l y n x ky
Culliwācatlīnitōtl has 19 consonants.
The transliteration is similar to Nāhuatl. /c/ is written as <cy> or <ky>, /k/ is written as <c> (or <k> when preceding /e/ or /i/), /kʷ/ is witten as <qu>, /t͡s/ is written as <tz>, /t͡ʃ/ is written as <ch>, /ɸ/ is written as <fh> (or <f> in some texts), /ʃ/ is written as <x>, /ŋ/ is written as <ng>, /j/ is written as <y>, /ʍ/ is written as <wh> and /t͡ɬ/ is written as <tl>.
Double consonants are not ignored: mellētl [mɛllɛːt͡ɬ].
Culliwācatlīnitōtl has ten vowels.
|Close||i iː||u uː|
|Mid-open||ɛ ɛː||ɔ ɔː|
The length is expressed with a macron in writing (ā, ē, ī, ō, ū). The stress falls on the final syllable if the word ends in a consonant and on the penult if it ends in a vowel. If the vowel has an acute accent (á, é, í, ó, ú) over it, the syllable is stressed and the vowel is long.
The Culliwācatlīnitōtl nouns differ in two genders: animate and inanimate. Animate nouns are living being, spirits and gods and inanimate nouns are the rest.
Culliwācatlīnitōtl nouns have four numbers: singular, dual, paucal and plural. Dual expresses two objects and paucal expresses a few of them.
Culliwācatlīnitōtl nouns have only one case: absolutive. It's expressed by a suffix -tli for animate nouns and -tl for inanimate nouns. The nouns always end in a vowel. The absolutive case suffix is removed when the noun is altered and differs from the noun as seen in the dictionary. For example:
- culliwātl = green
- catlīnitl = land
- tōtl = language
To make a compound word, it's necessary to remove the absolutive suffixes. So:
- culliwā―catlīni―tōtl = the Green-Land language
The absolutive suffix must be removed in order to add suffixes.
|Animate||Inanimate||Possessive animate||Possessive inanimate|
- the alternative suffixes are for nouns ending in -u and -ū
Possessive suffixes are added to the word when it's combined with a possessive adjective or pronoun. For example:
- catlīnitl "land", but rācatlīnic "my land"
Possessive pronouns serve as prefixes when describing a word.
|1st pers.||2nd pers.||3rd pers.||4th pers.*|
- used for supernatural beings and gods
Personal pronouns are rarely used since they serve as a suffix in verbs. If they are really necessary, they are formed by adding the -quetl suffix to the possessive equivalents.
Reflexive and reflexive-possessive pronounsEdit
They aren't used as a separate type of pronouns; their equivalents are personal and possessive pronouns.
Interrogative, relative, demonstrative and indefinite pronouns (also called derivation pronouns) follow the same pattern:
|Animate||Inanimate||Possessive animate||Possessive inanimate|
Possessive derivation pronouns (somebody's, anybody's etc.) are declined like adjectives.
The derivation pronouns can be derived from the suffixes by these prefixes:
- interrogative and relative pronouns - -c-
- 1st class demonstrative pronouns (for nearby objects) - tl-
- 2nd class demonstrative pronouns (for a bit distant objects) - x-
- 3rd class demonstrative pronouns (for remote objects) - l-
- collective indefinite pronouns (everybody) - y-
- general indefinite pronouns (somebody) - p-
- indifferent indefinite pronouns (anybody) - m-
- negative indefinite pronouns (nobody) - qu-
Tense, mood and voiceEdit
Culliwācatlīnitōtl verbs have four tenses: the pluperfect, the perfect, the present and the future; six moods: indicative, generic, presumptive, conditional, optative and imperative; and two voices: active and passive.
Verb category agglutinationEdit
Infinitive ends in -ām, -ēm or -īm. The verb form can be made by agglutinating various suffixes to the verb stem (without the infinitive suffix). Scheme of agglutinating: stem―tense―mood (and voice)―number―person.
Number and personEdit
Moods and voicesEdit
- Indicative: normal mood (The boy is in the park.)
- Generic: to express a general fact (Cheetahs are fast.)
- Presumptive: to express a probable fact (They are probably in Spain.)
- Conditional: mostly in dependent clauses (If I were you, I'd write it.)
- Optative: to express wishes, wills, desires or fears (I want to travel the world.)
- Imperative: to express commands (Do it!)
The most common verb form is active indicative present, that is -o-c-. To make an active indicative present just add -oc- and number and person suffixes.
- ochocatlīm = to eat
- ochocatlocar = I'm eating.
- ochocatlocetz = Few of you are eating
- ochocatlēchitlotl = They two wish they were eaten etc.
Imperfective vs. perfectiveEdit
Most of the verbs are imperfective. To make a perfective verb, just add the prefix ō- to the stem. Example:
- meselēcitlutl = They moved (constantly, from time to time)
- ōmeselēcitlutl = They moved (at once, instantly, no duration)
The negative form is created by adding the tōl- prefix to the verb.
- ochocatlocar = I'm eating.; tōlochocatlocar = I'm not eating etc.
The archaic interrogative form is created by switching the tense-mood-voice suffixes with the number-person ones.
- ochocatlocar = I'm eating.; ochocatlaroc = Am I eating?
- ochocatlēchitlotl = They two wish they were eaten.; ochocatlotlēchitl = Do they wish they were eaten? etc.
The contemporary form is created by adding various prefixes and suffixes to the verb, such as cēl-, wōn-, whōn-, lōwen-, tlōm-, -achō, -alōtl etc.
- ochocatlocar = I'm eating.; cēlchocatlocar = Am I eating?
- ochocatlēchitlotl = They two wish they were eaten.; ochocatlēchitlotlachō = Do they wish they were eaten? etc.
Adjectives are placed after the word they describe. They can also merge (agglutinate) with the noun and make a compound word. For example:
- culliwā(tl) + kyēlō(tl) = kyēlōtl culliwātl, or
- culliwā(tl) + kyēlō(tl) = culliwākyēlōtl (lit. green + stone = emerald)
Adverbs are simply formed by adding the -tlec suffix to the adjective. Most of them end in -ec, like tewārec "tomorrow" or tlīyec "here"
- 0 mīlicītl
- 1 ētl
- 2 ēlētl
- 3 amōtl
- 4 amētl
- 5 alātl
- 6 alētl
- 7 angātl
- 8 angētl
- 9 angōtl
- 10 cātzītl
- 100 cētzētl
- 1000 cāxītl
- 1000000 cēxētl
- 1000000000 angōmītl
- infinity (∞) tōltlecenōtl (tōl "no", tlecenōtl "end")
Other cardinal numbers are made by agglutinating. If the vowel is next to a vowel, insert -t-. For example:
- 17 (seventeen) - cātzītangātl
- 69 (sixty-nine) - alēcātzītangōtl
- 341 (three hundred and forty-one) - amōcētzētamēcātzītētl
Numbers are placed before the noun and after adjectives. They decline like adjectives.
Ordinal numbers are formed by adding the -mōtl/-mōtlā suffix. They decline like adjectives.
Just like in Latin, Culliwācatlīnitōtl has adverbial numbers (once, twice, thrice, four times etc.). They're formed by adding -wūtlec to the stem. (Wū means "times" and -tlec is the suffix for adverbs.)
Here are some example texts.
Babel Text of Bible (Pāpeletl ā Pipliyātl)Edit
Book of Genesis, 11:1-9
1 Xōlomistzētl pitlēratl ētōtl iy ēlelemātl.
2 Lē catolōmi meselēcitlutl ā wesatl, wengēyēcutl ēcatlīnitl nēmec Xinārātl; ōmeselēcitlutl līyec.
(to be continued)
1 And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech.
2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there.
3 And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them thoroughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar.
4 And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.
5 And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children built.
6 And the Lord said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do; and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do.
7 Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech.
8 So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city.
9 Therefore, is the name of it called Babel; because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the Lord scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.