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Emersol

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Cyclarchal
Type Fusional-Agglutinative
Alignment Split ergativity
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 5
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Slavonicus

General infoEdit

Introduction Edit

Cyclarchal is a language that used by race of human-beholder hybrids - Cyclarchons. Psychology of this creatures caused a grammar of the language to be egocentric and very depending on evidentiality.

History of language Edit

Classification and DialectsEdit

Genealogy of language Edit

High Speech Edit

Low Speech Edit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Dental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Laryngeal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop p b t̪ d̪ c ɟ k kᶹ g ʔ̮
Sibilant affricate t̪͡s d̪͡z t̪͡ʃ d̪͡ʒ
Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ
Non-sibilant fricative f v ð θ x ɣ h hᶹ
Approximant ʋ j ɥ̹ ɰ ʕ̞
Trill r
Lateral fric. ɮ
Lateral app. ʎ ʟː
Clic ʘ̬

VowelsEdit

Short vowels
Front Central Back
Close i y ɨ ʉ ɯ u
Close-mid e ø

(e˞ ø˞ ẽ ø̃)

ɤ o

(ɤ̃ õ)

Open a ɶ

(a˞ ɶ˞)

Long vowels
Front

Near-front

Central Back

Near-back

Close ɪː ɪ̈ː ʊː
Open-mid ɛː ɔː
Open ɑː

PhonotacticsEdit

PronunciationEdit

Writing SystemEdit

AlphabetEdit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
120 Letter Aa Āā Ҁҁ Ââ Bb Cc Чч Dd Δδ Ɉɉ Qq
Sound a ɑː ʕ̞ ɶ b t͡s t͡ʃ ð ɟ kᶹ
121 Letter Ee Ēē Êê Gg Γγ Hh Ƕƕ Ii Īī Ьь Îî
Sound e ɛː ø g ɣ h hᶹ i ɪː j y
122 Letter Kk Ll Λλ Ļļ Łł Mm Nn Ŋŋ Ɲɲ Rr Ππ
Sound k l ʎ ɮ ʟː m n ŋ ɲ r p
123 Letter Oo Ōō Ôô Ss Tt Þþ Ћћ Uu Ūū Ъъ Ûû
Sound o ɔː ɤ s θ c u ʊː ɰ ɯ
124 Letter Ff Vv Ƿƿ Xx Шш Yy Ȳȳ Ȝȝ Ŷŷ Zz Жж
Sound f v ʋ x ʃ ɨ ɪ̈ː ɥ̹ ʉ z ʒ

Also, apostrophe (') is used for extra-short glottal stop - ʔ̮, but not considered as letter, because have only one rule in words - hiatus prevention.

Digraphs Edit

Following digraphs are used: dz [d̪͡z], [d̪͡ʒ] and bƿ [ʘ̬].

Letters' history Edit

Letters' names and history
Letter

(or digraph)

Name Pronunciation

(IPA)

Meaning Origin
Aa 'aλeþ 'ʔ̮aʎeθ Cattle Borrowed from Latin script, name was adopted to mean 'cattle' and referring to Phoenician letter's origin: ʾālep - bull.
Āā 'aleþ aguzolt 'ʔ̮aʎeθ a'guzolt Long 'aλeþ Aa with macron, that marks long vowel.
Ҁҁ Ҁopcyr ʕ̞opt͡s'ɨr sickle Name is derived from contraction of "Qop a'cyrilumc" (nat. Cyrillic Coppa). Form of Cyrillic letter was borrowed because of it close resemblance to phonetic sign ʕ̞. Because of letter's form, it's name was adopted for sickle. Other proposed alternatives, such as Ăă, were refused by Language Council.
Ââ 'aλeþ asuγolt 'ʔ̮aʎeθ a'suɣolt labialized 'aλeþ Aa with circumflex, that marks vowel with opposite labialization.
Bb Bett 'betː apartment Borrowed from Latin script, name was adopted for 'apartment' and referring to Phoenician letter's origin: bēt - house.
Cc Cyml 'cɨml camel Borrowed from Latin script. Latin Cc developed from Greek Γγ 'gamma'. Greek Gamma developed from Phoenician Gīml, who's name means 'camel', this name was borrowed by Language Council because of absence of word for camel in language, to refer to Phoenician origin.
Чч Чеrvades 't͡ʃe˞rvaɟes fisherman Borrowed from Cyrillic script. Name is constructed from old Cyrillic name of letter - червь ['t͡ʃervʲ] which means 'worm', and it's ancestor - Phoenician çādē which means 'hunt'. Word was adopted for fisherman, the one 'who hunts with worm'.
Dd Daλt 'daʎt front door, main entrance Borrowed from Latin script, name was adopted for 'main entrance' and referring to Phoenician letter's origin: dālet - door.
Δδ Δalit 'ðalit back door Borrowed from Latin script, name was adopted for 'back door' and referring to Phoenician letter's origin: dālet - door.
Ɉɉ Ɉodelt 'ɟodelt door handle Borrowed from Latin sript, it's form is referring to IPA symbol of its sound - ɟ, while name was adopted for 'door handle' and referring to two related Phoenician letters: dālet - door and yōd - hand.
Qq Qop 'kᶹop spearhead Borrowed from Latin script, name was adopted for 'spearhead' and referring to Phoenician letter's origin: qōp - 'needle head'.

PunctuationEdit

GrammarEdit

General information Edit

NounsEdit

In Cyclarchal noun root always start and end with consonant. Nouns have following grammatical features: number, case, definiteness, proximity, affect and nominal class. Nouns is inflected with use circumfix. Prefix part of circumfix contains information about nominal class and part of information about number, while postfix contains information about grammatical case and part of information about number. Affect and definiteness combined with proximity is defined by article. Also special grammatical cases are derived from those that marked with prefix by using two types of ablaut of stressed vowel.

Nominal class Edit

Nominal classes in this language are very peculiar. More correct expression for this inflexion parameter would be 'possessiveness deixis degree': the nominal class in this language marks possessiveness-usefulness relation of noun with speaker. Any noun can take any nominal class, however this feature is partly lexical - every noun have his own default noun class, this why this grammatical considered as nominal class and not like deixis. In its default class and singular number type noun has zero (empty) prefix, while in others it has different prefixes. There are five nominal classes:

  • Nominal class I - inalienable belongings of a speaker. This class is default for:
    • First person pronoun.
    • Body parts.
    • Words for emotions, feelings and psychological and biological states and processes.
    • Words for body parameters.
    • Words for relatives.
    • Words for beloved one.
    • Words for native location, motherland and etc.
    • Words for language, intellectual property and other cognitive objects.
  • Nominal class II - alienable belongings of a speaker. This class is default for:
    • Words for real estate including any buildings and different type of possessable areas.
    • Words for vehicles and mounts.
    • Words for domestic animals.
    • Words for money and currency
    • Word for wealth and its synonyms.
    • Words for food and drinks and its kinds, excluding water and its kinds.
  • Nominal class III - non belongings of speaker, that are useful to him. This class is default for:
    • Second person pronoun.
    • Word for water and its kinds.
    • Words for agricultural species of animals and plants and their breeds.
    • Eatable wild plants, animals and mushrooms.
    • Words for mineral resources and their direct products.
    • Words for life important substances.
    • Words for socially beneficial professions, such us doctor, police officer, firefighter and etc.
    • Words for friends and allies.
    • Words for social organizations and authorities.
    • Words for safety, warmth, friendliness and others abstract conceptions that are useful for everyone.
  • Nominal class IV - non belongings of speaker, that are useless to him. This class is default for:
    • Third person pronoun.
    • Words for socially inactive groups.
    • Words for parasites.
    • WordS for illnesses.
    • Words for crimes and criminals.
    • Words for war and derived concepts.
    • Words for death and derived conceptions.
    • Words for enemies and their synonyms.
    • Words for laziness and other vices.
    • Words for celestial bodies and different astronomical objects.
    • Words for evil power and related conception.
    • Word for weight and related conceptions.
  • Nominal class V - abstract conceptions. This class is default for all nouns that don't belong to other four classes. Most of the nouns have this class as default.

Number Edit

Cyclarchal has 10 grammatical numbers. In this language, what is unique, numbers systemized into two number groups and five number types. Type denotes the common sense of the grammatical number, while group complete it's full meaning. Type marked in prefix, while group marked in postfix. Some of Cyclarchal numbers considered not as inflexions, but as derived forms in other languages, however in Cyclarchal they are not, because this forms are not grammatically independent here.

Prefix
Number group Number type
Single Partitive Collective Minor Major
United Singular


One
Used with single objects.

One half of double object.
Used with functional not attachable half of double object, examples in English: ocular of glasses, gate leaf, scissors blade.

Default for uncountable.
This number's prefixes are default for uncountable nouns.

Singulative


One portion of
Used with mass noun to denote single portion of it.

One member of
Used with collective nouns for organizations and groups to indicate single member of it.

One part of
Used to denote single part of a countable noun.

Collective


One group/collection of
Used for countable nouns to denote one group/collection or any other kind of gathering of this nouns, without denoting exact structure of such gathering.

All _ of the world
In past mostly poetic, but now widespread construction. It purposed to denote whole amount of uncountable noun that present in existence.

Minoritive


Minority of
Purposed to denote minority of previously mentioned countable nouns in plural or in collective form. If noun wasn't mentioned in context previously this number is used in general statement.

Minor part of
With mass nouns this number is used to denote minor part of certain portion.

Majoritive


Majority of
Purposed to denote majorative of previously mentioned countable nouns in plural or in collective form. If noun wasn't mentioned in context previously, this number is used in general statement.

Major part of
With mass nouns this number is used to denote major part of certain portion.

Multiple Dual


double structure of
Used with countable nouns that represent double object or functional/indivisible pair. English examples: glasses, scissors, gates, trousers, shorts and etc.

all... in this place In past mostly poetic, but now widespread construction. Developed to denote a amount of mass noun that stored in one place or located belonging of one individual/group. For example in translation of expression 'glass of water' into Cyclorchal noun 'water' would be in singulative number, while in translation of 'storage of water' it would be marked with dual.

Plurative


Plural portions of
Used with mass noun to denote more than one portion of it.

Plural members of
Used with collective nouns for organizations and groups to denote more than one member of it.

Plural parts of
Used to denote more than one part of a countable noun.

Plural collective


Plural groups/collections of
Used for countable nouns to denote more than one group/collection or any other kind of gathering of this nouns, without denoting exact structure of such gatherings.

Whole amount of all sorts of _ in the world
Previously, mostly poetic, but now widespread construction. It purposed to denote whole amount of all kinds of certain uncountable noun that present in existence. Global diversity total amount.

Paucal


Few (less than twelve)
This number indicates more than one, but less then twelve countable objects. Marginally used to denote amount of countable nouns in amount less then enough depending on context.

Assortment of
This number denote certain assortment, when used with uncountable noun.

Plural


Many (more than twelve)
This number indicates more than then twelve countable objects.

Diversity of
This number denote diversity of sorts, when used with uncountable noun.

Note:

bold code style - number's name, bold - English approximation words, plain text - description.

Case Edit

Grammatical case Subcase marked by
Stressed

vowel extension

Stressed vowel

roundedness switch

Nominative Vocative Absolutive
Genetive Creative Possessive
Casual Benefective
Comparative Equative Identical
Dative
Accusative
Ergative Pegative
Instrumental Instructive
Comitative Ornative Conominative
Abessive Aversive Repositive
Initiative Elative Delative
Vialis Perlative Prolativ
Terminative Illative Sublative
Case Question (example) Role Example Prepositions
Nominal Who/what do it? Sentence subject No prepositions
Vocative Call/subject of imperative sentence No prepositions
Absolutive Who is receiving action? Patient of action in ergative sentences.
Genetive Of who? Of what? Classifies related word
Creative Who its creator? Marks creator of related word's object
Possesive Who own it? Marks owner of related word's object

Declension Edit

Prefix
Number

type

Nominal class
I II III IV V
Singular u/∅- a/∅- ho/∅- hi/∅- he/∅-
Partitive cu- ca- чo- чi- чe-
Collective nu- na- ŋo- ŋi- ŋe-
Minor du- da- δo- δi- δe-
Major gu- ga- γo- γi- γe-
Postfix
Gramm. case Number group
United Multiple
Nom.-Abs. -∅ -y
Genitive -eɲi -eɲom
Casual -eλa -adzi
Comparative -abno -avny
Dative -ome -umam
Accusative -iɉu -iɉ
Ergative -ovoj -ovami
Instrumental -eπu -eπami
Comitative -iћu -iћmi
Abessive -eƕa -eхvu
Initiative -ace -acyk
Vialis -ykɲu -ykɲe
Terminative -ukɉe -ukɉax

Article Edit

Definiteness

Proximity

Affect
Neut. Laud. Augmen. Dimin. Pejor.
Indefinite akla isшe ik eŋa
Medial ona onakla oɲisшe onik oɲeŋa
Distal ta dakla ћisшe tik ћeŋa
Proximal sa zakla шisчe sik шeŋa

Adjectives Edit

Adjectives declined to reduced number of cases, type, comparison degree and evidentiality.

Prefix
Comparison degree Type
Qualitative Relative Possesive
I a- i- e-
II (less) amâ- imî- emê-
III (more) aļâ- iļî- eļê-
IV (most) anшâ- inшî- enшê-
Postfix
Evedinetiality Case
Nominative/

Absolutive

Accusative/

Ergative

All

other cases

Visually observable -irdy -irδa
Indirectly observable -olt -olty -olþa
Abstract -umc -umcy -umsa

VerbsEdit

Prefix
Aspect Voice
Active Passive Reflexive

SNC

Reflexive

PNC

Reciprocal
Gnomic xal ls los al
Habitual b xub bs bos ub
Frequentive v xiv vs vos iv
Progressive ŋ xiŋ ŋs ŋos
Perfect Progressive ɉ hyɉ ɉs ɉos
Perfect d xed dz doz ed
Momentane h xah hs hos ah
Postfix
Person Evidentiality
Visual

observation

Indirect

observation

Retold Hypothetical
First ƕu ru ļu
Second dis ƕis ris ļis
Third dzit ƕit rit ļit
Participle postfix
Comparison

degree

Type
Adjective Adverbal
Observed Not obs.
I ka xa mo
II kap xap mop
III kan xan mon
IV

Root-changing verbs Edit

Be
Mood Tense
Past Present Future
Indicative ylo ese ude
Conditional ylobi esebi udebi
Subjunctive ŷlgo êsga ûdge
Optative odylo odese odude
Hortative

paradigm

Hortative esa udi
Imperative esā udī
Prohibitive ensā undī
Do
Mood Tense
Past Present Future
Indicative ela erшi olni
Conditional elabi erшibi olnibi
Subjunctive êlga êrшigi ôlnigi
Optative odela oderшi odolni
Hortative

paradigm

Hortative erшa olne
Imperative erшā olnē
Prohibitive enirшā onilnē
Can
Mood Tense
Past Present Future
Indicative oћo uжe avi
Conditional оћоbi uжеbi avibi
Subjunctive ôћgo ûжge âvgi
Optative odoћo oduже odavi
Hortative

paradigm

Hortative uжi ava
Imperative uжī avā
Prohibitive unжī anvā
Able
Mood Tense
Past Present Future
Indicative obe oλi ume
Conditional obebi oλibi umebi
Subjunctive ôbge ôλgi ûmge
Optative odobe odoλi odume
Hortative

paradigm

Hortative oλa umy
Imperative oλā umȳ
Prohibitive onλā unmȳ


Have
Mood Tense
Past Present Future
Indicative ade ime aqu
Conditional adebi imebi aqubi
Subjunctive âdge îmge âqgu
Optative odade odime odaqu
Hortative

paradigm

Hortative imi aqa
Imperative imī aqā
Prohibitive inmī anqā
Must
Mood Tense
Past Present Future
Indicative aza yļe eŋu
Conditional azabi yļebi eŋubi
Subjunctive âzga ŷļge êŋgu
Optative odaza odyļe odeŋu
Hortative

paradigm

Hortative yļy eŋo
Imperative yļȳ eŋō
Prohibitive ynļȳ enŋō

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Swadesh list Edit

  1. I - m;
  2. You - z;
  3. We - gumy;
  4. This - sa n;
  5. That - ta n;
  6. Who - ƕâm;
  7. What - mhec;
  8. Not - ŋam;
  9. All - heλman;
  10. Many - meш;
  11. One - saγ;
  12. Two - miń;
  13. Big (bigness) - gurr;
  14. Long (length) - guz;
  15. Small (smallness) - giļ;
  16. Woman - ŋiń;
  17. Man - kerim;
  18. Person - siƿamuλ;
  19. Fish - qah;
  20. Bird - musen;
  21. Dog - ƿurh;
  22. Louse - foћ;
  23. Tree - ŋis;
  24. Seed - muπ;
  25. Leaf - ƿac;
  26. Root - taƕ;
  27. Bark - cvoł;
  28. Skin - barh;
  29. Flesh - qozun;
  30. Blood - hurid;
  31. Bone - sent;
  32. Grease - hef;
  33. Egg - nuz:
  34. Horn - siþ;
  35. Tail - kun;
  36. Feather - dal;
  37. Hair - suƕur;
  38. Head - sag;
  39. Ear - γestug;
  40. Eye - ƕiγik;
  41. Nose - kiriŋ;
  42. Mouth - kaƿ;
  43. Tooth - zuþ;
  44. Tongue - ƕemez;
  45. Claw - ƕur;
  46. Foot - fedzes;
  47. Knee - dug;
  48. Hand - kiшib;
  49. Belly - xaш;
  50. Neck - kux;
  51. Breast - gabat;
  52. Heart - sarh;
  53. Liver - baƿr

Nouns Edit

Verbs Edit

Example textEdit

Lord's prayer Edit

Onakla Uhabumoła numińi eseka ina onakla nunanekɉe. Onakla honamoła Ez oderшi azałidzit. Onakla Hosarkuroła Hozińi odudedzit ina ona hokitekɉe kima ina onakla nunanekɉe. Onakla Hozoła erша hubadis.

The Universal Declaration of the humans’ rights and freedoms Edit

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