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Daara Sunta

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Daara Sunta
Misdaara
Type
Agglutinating
Alignment
Tripartite
Head direction
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
no
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n

ŋ

Plosive p  b  p' t  d  t' k  g  k' ʔ
Fricative v s  z

ʃ  

h
Affricate
Approximant ts  dz

tʃ dƷ

j ks  kʃ
Trill
Flap or tap

ɾ

Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap
  • /ʔ/ is an archaic sound that is never pronounced anymore, but is still written, and still counts as a consonant phonotactically
  • /v/ can only be used in loan words 
  • consonants can not be geminated 
  • ty is pronounced /tʃ/

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid

ɔ 

Near-open
Open
  • All vowels can be geminated

DiphthongsEdit

The only permissible diphthongs are /ei/ and /ai/, written ei and ai, respectively. Diphthongs may not be geminated.

AlphabetEdit

Sound Written Sound Written Sound Written
/a/ A, a /b/ B, b /w/ W, w
/i/ I, i /d/ D, d /l/ L, l
/u/ U, u /g/ G, g /j/ Y, y
/e/ E, e /p'/ Pp, pp /ɾ/ R, r
/o/ O, o /t'/ Tt, tt /ts/ Ts, ts
/ɔ/ Eo, eo /k'/ Kk, kk /dz/ Dz, dz
/m/ M, m /ʔ/ Q, q /tʃ/ Tx, tx
/n/ N, n /s/ S, s /dƷ/ Dj, j
/ŋ/ Ng, ng /ʃ/ X, x /ks/ Ks, ks
/p/ P, p /h/ H, h /kʃ/ Kx, kx
/t/ T, t /v/ V, v
/k/ K, k /z/ Z, z

PhonotacticsEdit

C(w,y)V(V)(m,n,s,l) are the possible syllables. Words may not start with a consonant cluster, though any consonant may be followed by the approximants w or y. The only codas allowed are m, n, s or l. 

Consonant Clusters that are allowed are:  a nasal (m or n) followed by a plosive or a nasal, s followed by a plosive or fricative, and l followed by a plosive or nasal. When a consonant cluster is made of:

  • two nasals, the second nasal's place of articulation will assimilate to that of the first nasal's, and the sound is geminated.
  • a nasal followed by a plosive, the nasal's place of articulation will assimilate to that of the plosive's.
  • a fricative followed by a plosive, the fricative's voicing will assimilate to that of the plosive's.
  • two fricatives, the second fricative's place of articulation will assimilate to that of the first fricative's, and it becomes geminated.
  • When a prefix's coda is attached to a noun beginning with an affricative, the coda is dropped both phonologically and graphically.
  • any vowel preceded by i causes i to change to /j/
  • any vowel preceded by u causes u to change to /w/

ToneEdit

Daara Sunta uses a 3 tone register system in which the three tones are High, Mid and Low. High is marked by an acute accent, Mid is unmarked, and Low is marked by a grave accent. Tone markings are often left out, but generally only the first syllable, excluding any prefixes, is marked for tone. 

  • Prefixes are usually High tone.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes No Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No Yes No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

Nouns in Daara Sunta are declined for case and plurality, and number classifiers are used when counting. Certain inflections are added onto nouns through suffixes, but most use prefixes. Aug/Dim stands for Augmentative or Diminutive suffixes. Class stands for classifier, and Num for number.

Negation Case Root Plural Aug/Dim Definite Class Num

CasesEdit

There are 13 Cases in Daara Sunta, which are shown through the use of prefixes.

Gloss Name Function Prefix
ERG Ergative Agent of a transitive verb Mam-
ABS Absolutive Patient of an intransitive verb Jum-
ACC Accusative Object of a transitive verb Jal-
GEN Genitive Possessor of another noun Mis-
DAT Dative Indirect object Rem-
VOC Vocative Indicates an addressee Qyii-
LOC Locative Indicates a location (at, by, near) Nol-
LAT Lative Indicates motion to a location Kkin-
ABL Ablative Indicates motion away from a location Qyaan-
COM Comitative Indicates accompaniment Laang-
INS Instrumental How something is done Suul-
CAU Causal Indicates a cause Xwem-
CMP Comparative Compares one thing to another, e.g. He is cat-like

Ttong-

DefinitenessEdit

Definiteness is shown with the particle o, which is placed directly after a noun.

PluralityEdit

A noun can be made plural through reduplication of the last syllable.

Diminutives, AugmentativesEdit

Diminutives are formed by either replacing the last vowel with the suffix -yii (if there's no coda), or just adding the suffix -yii (if there is a coda). Augmentatives are formed the same way as diminutives, but the suffix is -weo.

ClassifiersEdit

When counting objects in Daara Sunta, classifiers are used in addition to the plural suffix. These particles are placed after a definite particle (if there is one), and before the number.


Classifier Example Used to Count:
Ho Mother, Student Humans
Reo Cat, Flower Animals, Plants
Pya Mud, Smoke Liquids, Gases
Djil Paper, book Flat things
Qwum Ball, Head Round things
Txi Pen, Arm Long, cylindrical things
Kxu House, Box Cube-ish things
Dzim Idea, Generation Ideas

NegationEdit

Nouns are negated through the prefix Ngwu-, which comes before the Case prefix.

PronounsEdit

Pronouns are decined for case, number (singular and plural), and 4 persons (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th). Case particles are added as prefixes to the pronouns just as they would be for regular nouns. 

Personal PronounsEdit

4th person pronouns are indefinite pronouns.

Singular Plural
1st person Ha Haha
2nd person Qye Qyeqye
3rd person Tsu Tsusu
4th person Xu Xuxu

Possessive PronounsEdit

Possessive pronouns are created by taking the genitive prefix and adding it to the personal pronouns as a suffix. 

Interrogative PronounsEdit

These are made by adding the interrogative prefix Rim- to any pronoun. It can also be added to nouns, to inquire about the state of that word in particular.

VerbsEdit

Verbs' infinitives look like any other word, and they only become functional verbs with the circumfix a> <ni.They conjugate for four tenses (Present, Future, Recent Past, Distant Past), four aspects (Perfect, Imperfect, Inchoative, Cessative), five moods (Optative, Necessative, Subjunctive, Conditional, Imperative). Verbs do not carry any information about person or number. 

TenseEdit

Tense is formed by altering the first vowel of the verb's infinitive. The first vowel in a verb's infinitive is always a. Examples will use kame (to go).

Tense Vowel Change Example
Present a  >  a akameni (I go)
Future a  >  i akimeni (I will go)
Recent Past a  >  o akomeni (I went)
Distant Past a  >  eo akeomeni (I went a long time ago)

AspectsEdit

Aspects are changed by altering the last vowel in the verbal circumfix a> <ni. The tense in the examples will always be Present.

Aspect Vowel Change Example
Perfect ni  >  ni akameni (I go)
Imperfect ni  >  nii akamenii (I'm going)
Inchoative ni  >  na akamena (I start to go)
Cessative ni  >  no akameno (I stop going)

MoodsEdit

Moods are formed by adding a particle to the beginning of a verb phrase. The absence of a particle implies the Declarative Mood. Examples will be in the present tense, perfect aspect.

Mood Particle Example
Optative Sunta sunta akameni (I want to go)
Necessative Sani sani akameni (I must go)
Subjunctive Sono sono akameni (I would go)
Conditional Sente sente akameni (I might go)
Imperative Saqyo saqyo akameni (Go!)

NegationEdit

Any and all verbs can be negated through the addition of ng- to a verb's circumfix.

Sunta ngakameni - I don't want to go.

SupinesEdit

Supines in Daara Sunta are formed by adding the particle kkoha after the first, conjugated verb, and before the second verb, which is left in its infinitive.

          Akomeni ha kkimasul kkoha mate.Edit
          go. PST 1PS  LAT.house SPN eat.INFEdit
          I went home in order to eat.Edit

GerundsEdit

To make a verb into a noun, a case prefix, whichever one is approprite, is added to the verb's infinitive, and it is treated as a noun in syntax.

GerundiveEdit

To make a verb into an adjective, the adjectival suffix -na is added, and it is then treated as an adjective in syntax.

Adjectives, AdverbsEdit

Adjectives and adverbs both have a root form to which a suffix is added, to determine whether it is an adjective or adverb. The vowels in parentheses are only added when it would be phonotactically incorrect not to do so.

Type Suffix Explanation Examples
Simple Adjectives (i)tyeo Used for adjectives which can be experienced through the five senses, and are considered facts Yellow, soft, spicy
Compex Adjectives na Used for adjectives which are considered subjective, or opinion-based Pretty, loud, easy
Adverbs (a)kyan Used for all adverbs Well, quickly

Comparatives, SuperlativesEdit

The prefix beo- is added to an adjective after the case prefix to make it comparative. To make it superlative, the prefix is beobeo-.

SyntaxEdit

The most common word order by far is VSO, though SOV and OSV are also possible. The last two would likely be used to de-emphasie the verb and topicalize either the subject or object of the sentence. 

VoiceEdit

Active Voice follows the general rules stated above, as long as it's generic and isn't trying to highlight any other part of the sentence.

Passive Voice is shown through moving the object to the front of the clause, making that clause's word order either OVS or VOS. The Object is kept in the Accusative case, but the Ergative noun is changed to the Absolutive.

Antipassive Voice is shown through moving the subject to the front of the clause, making the word order either SVO or VSO. The Ergative noun is kept, but the Accusative noun changes to the Instrumental case. 

Noun and Verb PhrasesEdit

Noun phrases are all head-initial without exception. Verb phrases are head initial when they come before the subject or object, but when they come anywhere after the subject or the object, they become head-final. 

Relative Clauses and Indirect StatementsEdit

Relative clauses and indirect statements are both formed with the subordinating particle 'pika'. Word order in these types of clauses is as free as it would normally be.

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IHa
2you (singular)Qye
3heTsu
4weHaha
5you (plural)Qyeqye
6theyTsusu
7thisNgatta
8thatNgokko
9here
10there
11whoRimdwamu
12whatRimbwabu
13whereRimgwamu
14whenRimgwalu
15howRimdwalu
16not
17all
18many
19some
20fewQitsimakyan
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27bigHatsumna
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32smallQitsimna
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)Daara
39childDaaryii
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animalHunde
45fishTsun
46birdTajidu
47dogBaku
48louse
49snakeSaxis
50worm
51treeTsura
52forest
53stick
54fruitTtunde
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flowerKsetatsel
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meatMatsunga
64bloodQukujides
65boneDzeelu
66fat
67eggQaetsu
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wingKkonoe
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drinkMajo
93eatMate
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breatheKaseo
100laugh
101see
102hearBaltas
103knowDaraa
104thinkTama
105smellNgali
106fearPpyanii
107sleepKxaro
108liveIsana
109dieTtandu
110kill
111fight
112huntZaleo
113hitTtakan
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swimSakki
120flyKkanoe (birds), Vali (airplanes)
121walkKame
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128giveHaxi
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132washSamus
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140sayTxaga
141sing
142playRabai
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149starHoxi
150waterSiukan
151rainSiurem
152river
153lakeTaekamyii
154seaTaekame
155salt
156stoneDzoku
157sandXwasul
158dust
159earth
160cloudHejon
161fogKseosuli
162skyReman
163windRemi
164snowBeomus
165ice
166smoke
167fireTtingwo
168ash
169burn
170roadKsuleo
171mountainGeodoppu
172redQadaxi
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177nightKuneoo
178dayQire
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185goodZuna
186badDatse
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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