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Dalmatica
Delmeces'k ⰄⰅⰎⰏⰅⰜⰅⰞⰍ
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-accusative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 50%
Statistics
Nouns 50%
Verbs 50%
Adjectives 50%
Adverbs 10%
Syntax 20%
Words about 220 of 2000
Creator http://conlang.wikia.com/wiki/User:Basileus74

Context Edit

The language is assumed to be spoken at "present" in an alt-historical setting. Among several other changes, this world has a tech level of about 1850 AD, with several centers of development (not only Europe, but southern and eastern Asia etc), still has Byzantium (the one true "Romania", albeit Greek-speaking) as an existing political reality of a certain geopolitical weight; and several Romance-speaking nations non-existing in our timeline (OTL).

I built it up as mashup of several linguistic influences: a strong Illyrian-Albanian sostrate, Rumanian, Old Dalmatian, even Friulian, with Greek and Slavic-influenced vocabulary. And presumably an Italian adstrate (Venetian, Apulian) related to navigation, trade, law etc.

"Dalmatia" is a two-century old independent polity, with its capital in Yeshpelc (OTL Split), albeit with an important ancestor state centuries before whose legendary doomed struggle for freedom against Constantinople rooted a national conscience. The language itself, profoundly innovative in sound but archaic in many other respects, came from the interior where this earlier kingdom had flourished, superseding and quickly replacing in the XVI-XVIIth centuries of the Christian Era a more Latinate-sounding cousin previously spoken along the coast and in the islands. This was due to intense immigration from the interior, coupled with lively emigration from the coast for trade/settlement elsewhere. Small communities in eastern and southern Italy still speak Old Dalmatian dialects.

The country is mostly Uniate Catholic, with relevant Orthodox presence; the language is indifferently written with the traditional Glagolitic script ("Ayëgrafyë", lit. Holy Writing), massively preferred in the interior, or with a clear Latin transliteration ("Vuarcë", in general parlance: the "orthodox", correct, modern writing) definitely fixed a couple centuries "ago" and in general use in cities.

Classification and DialectsEdit

*Aryan-Italic-NeoLatin-*IllyroLatin

"Aryan" languages are those we'd call Indo-European. *Here* India never was linguistically colonized by IE speakers, remaining broadly divided between Dravidian and Austroasiatic influence. The term "Aryan" *here* has no unsavory political characterization, this world having seen no Nazis. "IllyroLatin" is the definition used by linguists for the dialects that gave birth to the modern language, by contrast with "DacoLatin" for Megavlach (OTL Rumanian) and the dubious, possibly political insertion of Old Dalmatian into the "RhaetoLatin" phylum.

The dialects are noteworthy if not else for their variety. The core area from which the modern language emerged can be broadly defined along the axis of OTL Sarajevo to Podgorica. There are found the most archaic forms of the speech, also showing a more definite Slavic influence. The coastal dialects, in particular in the innumerable islands, still show significant trace of the old and more clearly Latinate Dalmatian language (that in turn ITTL still survives, ironically, as a local dialect in the Kvarner Islands of Merania, OUTSIDE of the Dalmatian republic's borders). Of peculiar relevance is the dialect of the southern metropolis of Rauzyë (Ragusa), strongly influenced by Venetian and Byzantine Greek, and the only one to have gemination of liquids and other phonetically Albanian traits. Obviously ITTL there's no Slavic admixture there: "Dubrovnik" it's a completely unknown placename.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-

alveolar

Palatal Velar Uvular Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n n'
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s z s' x h
Affricate c [ts] c' d'
Approximant y u [w]
Trill
Flap or tap r
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l l'
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i u
Near-high
High-mid o
Mid ë [ə]
Low-mid e [ɛ]
Near-low
Low a

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

VerbsEdit

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Basic Numbers

1 Vuyën
2 Dvai
3 Tria
4 Tehër
5 Pyenc
6 Hëi
7 Hëp
8 Vuaic
9 Nuaiv
10 Zekë

Swadesh list Edit

No. English

Dalmatica

1I Yav (m.) / Yai (fem.)
2[javascript:void(0) you (singular)]Cu (m.) / Ci (fem.) / Zu (familiar and affectionate, used with children and/or love partners)
3he Yel (formal, literary), L'i (colloquial), Yeip ("himself")
4we Naun (m. dual) / Nani (f. dual); Nieltër (m. plur))/Nieltrë (f.plur.)
5[javascript:void(0) you (plural)]Vaun (m., also formal polite address) / Vuai (f.)
6they Avën (generic e m.) / Auni (f.)
7this Yas't
8that Yal
9here Fai
10there Loi
11who Koi
12what C'ë, Kauz (southern, dial.)
13where Kaimb? (interr.), Yenvoi
14when Kven? (interr.), Koin ("as, just as, while, during")
15how Kvam? (interr.), Muat (compar.)
16not Nai
17all Toic'
18many S'oir
19some Daihë (standard), Myerkë (southern dial.)
20few Pevël
21other Yeltër
22one Vuyën
23two Dvai
24three Tria
25four Tehër
26five Pyenc
27big Megai
28long Luand'
29wide Lec
30thick Kruas't
31heavy Grev
32small Perv (standard), Pevël (arch., northern dialectal)
33short Yes'koirt (standard), Paicël (northern, dialectal)
34narrow Yenvois't
35thin Fualë
36woman Xen'ë ("female adult"), Davn'ë ("lady")
37[javascript:void(0) man (adult male)]Fuan'
38[javascript:void(0) man (human being)]Neir
39child Fair ("a son"); Bëbëi (an infant, newborn); Benvain (kid)
40wife Muayë
41husband Haizex, Meraic
42mother Merë (standard, formal), Maike (general use), Mamë (familiar)
43father Petër (formal, archaic), Ec, Veip (familiar)
44animal D'uavën (standard), Kevs'i (southern, dialect.)
45fish Pës't
46bird Pehër
47dog Kein (m.) / Ken'ë (f.)
48louse Hir
49snake Hyarpën
50worm Vyarm
51tree Yervër (literary, archaic), D'ërv
52forest Hairvë (literary, archaic), S'oimë
53stick Lain'
54fruit Roic
55seed Hemënc
56leaf Xilëc
57root Raizë (standard, seabord dialects), Kvaryë (mountain dialects)
58bark S'kvarcë
59flower S'oyër
60grass Vyarp
61rope Vainkël
62skin Kvayër, Pyal ("human skin")
63meat Kren (literary, archaic, figurative), Mës'ë (current, colloquial)
64blood Yem
65bone Vuac
66fat Yazëp (noun), Kres't/Yazpau (adj.)
67egg Vuap
68horn Kvarn
69tail Kvad'
70feather Pën (bird feather), S'oimë (also "writing pen")
71hair Kuamë, Kevëi
72head Kauk
73ear Vraic'
74eye Vuac'
75nose N'eh
76mouth S'tuoma, Voikë
77tooth Daunc
78tongue Lainvë (organ), Yes'k (language, colloq.), L'end'ë (arch., literary)
79fingernail Vun'ë
80foot Pyaiz
81leg Nuagë
82knee Zënoir
83hand Xair
84wing Krexë
85belly Vryentë (literary, archaic), S'tomax (med.), Penc'ë (colloq.)
86guts Boircë, Kvarcë
87neck Kaul
88back Cerg
89breast Pyec'
90heart Kerd'
91liver Hikuc, Yekar (arch., fig. for "bravery")
92drink Ye pëivye
93eat Ye membye
94bite Ye muardye
95suck Ye hois'tye
96spit Ye s'poye
97vomit Ye (ye)vuamye
98blow Ye s'uaye
99breathe Ye s'pairye, ye nëvmye
100laugh Ye raizye
101see Ye vaizye
102hear Ye avzye
103know Ye n'us'tye
104think Ye kus'tye
105smell Ye hëncye
106fear Ye mëcye
107sleep Ye dvarmye
108live Ye vaivye
109die Ye mauzrye
110kill Ye oic'ezye
111fight Ye poin'e
112hunt Ye vëneye
113hit Ye poirs'e
114cut Ye kvarcye
115split Ye s'aimbye
116stab Ye trexic'e
117scratch Ye zgarye
118dig Ye xoizye
119swim Ye naidye
120fly Ye s'ucye
121walk Ye yanvlacye
122come Ye vën'e
123lie Ye koicye
124sit Ye hëzye
125stand Ye kauns'tye
126turn Ye cvarn'e
127fall Ye kazye
128give Ye dvaye
129hold Ye can'e (also: "to have, to possess")
130squeeze Ye s'trën'e
131rub Ye xëgraye
132wash Ye s'prëlaye
133wipe Ye s'tërye
134pull Ye cëraye
135push Ye (yem)pois'e
136throw Ye yaic'e
137tie Ye cen'e, ye leye
138sew Ye kavs'e
139count Ye kauncye
140say Ye zec'e
141sing Ye kencye
142play Ye yavc'e
143float Ye s'oitërye
144flow Ye s'oye
145freeze Ye yen'ecye
146swell Ye yens'ëye
147sun Haur (standard), S'uar (dialect., "sunlight" in standard dictionary)
148moon Loinë
149star Yes'tër (stand.), S'tyarë (north., regional dialectal)
150water Yapë
151rain Yauvë
152river S'oyëm (standard, "major river"), Rai ("stream, creek")
153lake Lei
154sea Mer(ë)
155salt Her
156stone Pyairë (standard, general), Hes't ("small stone")
157sand Hevyë (also "gravel"), Jernë ("fine sand")
158dust Puarvë (stand.), Praxt (colloq.)
159earth Permënc ("ground, soil, floor"), Tarë ("planet earth")
160cloud N'oivlë
161fog N'evyë
162sky Cër
163wind Vuara (colloq.), Vënc (lit., formal)
164snow S'n'ei
165ice Yevc
166smoke Xoim
167fire Xuak
168ash Kenaizë
169burn Ye voirëye
170road Roigë (stand.), Kalë ("lane")
171mountain Mal, Pran'ë ("range"), Muainc (arch., poetic)
172red Rois't
173green Presën (standard), Vjard', Zyenë (dialect.)
174yellow Kaitrë
175white Levkë (brilliant white), Yerb ("dull" white, also "colorless")
176black Nayër
177night Nuac'
178day Mërë (standard), D'aur (arch,. interior dialects)
179year Yen'
180warm Kert
181cold Raic'
182full L'iun
183new N'oiv
184old Vyec'
185good D'avbër, Baun (arch., literary)
186bad Kex
187rotten Podrëd'
188dirty Soic
189straight Raic'
190round Arcoimb
191sharp Akoic
192dull Avcoi
193smooth L'ën
194wet Fumë, Van'ac
195dry Hirk, Cer
196correct Yois't
197near Apruapë
198far Diluand'
199right Vres'të
200left Ares'të
201at Ai
202in En
203with Koin, -ku (clitic)
204and Ye, -pë (clitic)
205if D'ehi
206because Parkei
207name Vuan'e (colloq.), Nuam (literary, arch.)

Example textsEdit

Toic' nercër nes'tyen laivrët yekvertpë zë dain'ëcë zëpë draic. Avënhyet c'anen raugos' ye kauns'tyancën ye zëvyen ye hyezye vuyën yeltur n'aumku yezelpi.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Petër nieltrëm fo cëri yas', ayëxyas'tër Nuam Coi. Vën'ec ves'ail'ë Coi. Xaic vuancë Coi haik tari oic cëri. Dvaini haimërë pen'ën nieltrëm vuan'ezyes'ken, yas'koiznipë zëvyëtëz haik yas'koiznom zëvyëtvarz nieltri, nuzazaivinipë taindec'aunën, vaicë yelaivrini ekexi. Hëmb Coi yës't ves'ail'ë, Cuyë pus'të, Cuyë daus'ë, vuan'ayauni. Amën.

Our Father who art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us, and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen.

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  • Dalmatica : Lë vuan'i herë pracërën pre fo yervës'ti
  • Latin : Illa Claudit semper fenestram antequam cenat.
  • Spanish : Ella siempre cierra la ventana antes de cenar.
  • Portuguese : Ela Fecha sempre a janela antes de jantar.
  • French : Elle ferme toujours la fenêtre avant de dîner/souper.
  • Italian : Lei chiude sempre la finestra prima di cenare.
  • Romanian : Ea închide totdeauna fereastra înainte de cină.
  • Catalan : Ella sempre tanca la finestra abans de sopar.
  • English : She always closes the window before dining.

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