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Dar
Dlej Darho
Type
Synthetic
Alignment
Austronesian
Head direction
right
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


GeneralEdit

Dlej Darho ([ˈtɬe̞ʝ ˈtɑ̘ɻhɯ̽], literally Language of the Dar river) is a language spoken along the Dar river on the planet Aetho.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Postalveolar Palatal Velar Radical
central lateral
Nasal n
Plosive tenuis t k ʔ
aspirated tɬʰ
Fricative voiceless s ɬ ç~x h
voiced z ɮ~l ʝ~ɣ
Approximant ɻ j ɰ
  • The dorsal fricatives are palatal after front vowels and velar after back vowels.
  • /t/ is reduced to a flap intervocalically.

d, dl, g, q, t, tlh, k, s, lh, ch, h, z, l, j, r, y, w

VowelsEdit

Front Back
High i ɯ
Mid ɤ̞
Low ɑ̘
  • When unstressed, /i/, /ɯ/, and /a/ become [ɪ], [ɯ̽], and [ə] respectively.
  • /e/ and /ɤ/ merge with /i/ and /ɯ/ respectively when unstressed.

i, u, e, o, a

Nouns Edit

VerbsEdit

Dar has what is known as a trigger system or an Austronesian alignment. Basically verbs only have one argument (the trigger). Verbs are marked for the function of the trigger (agent, patient, location, benefactor, instrument). Verbs also conjugate for tense (simple, aorist, future).

Voice Edit

Voice is the function of the trigger.

  • Ergative voice: the trigger is the agent, ex. Dlejis kayez "The device talks"
  • Accusative voice: the trigger is the patient, ex. Dlejin kayez "The device is talked to"
  • Locative voice: the trigger is the location, ex. Dlejidl kayez "Talking happens at the device"
  • Benefactive voice: the trigger is the benefactor, ex. Dlejiru kayez "Talking happens for the device"
  • Instrumental voice: the trigger is the instrument. ex. Dlejika kayez "Talking happens with the device"

Tense Edit

The Simple tense is a non-future imperfective (I am/was going). The Aorist is a past perfective (I went/have gone). The Future is a future undefined for perfectiveness (I will go).

ConjugationEdit

Verbs come in one of four classes, three thematic: I, A, and U, and one athematic.

I class verbs, ex. dlejis "talking" Dlejio nogu sa serad. "I have talked to him." Dlejion sera se nogud. "He has been talked to by me."

Simple Future Aorist
ERG dlejis dlejidi dlejio
ACC dlejin dlejidin dlejion
LOC dlejidl dlejidilh dlejiolh
BENE dlejiru dlejidiru dlejioru
INSTR dlejika dlejidiga dlejioga

A class verbs, ex. twachas "biting"

Simple Future Aorist
ERG twachas twachadi twachayo
ACC twachan twachadin twachayon
LOC twachadl twachadilh twachayolh
BENE twacharu twachadiru twachayoru
INSTR twachaka twachadiga twachayoga

U class verbs, ex. zondrus "running"

Simple Future Aorist
ERG zondrus zondrudi zondruyo
ACC zondrun zondrudin zondruyon
LOC zondrudl zondrudilh zondruyolh
BENE zondruru zondrudiru zondruyoru
INSTR zondruka zondrudiga zondruyoga

Athematic verbs, ex. ladz "having" Ladz nogu. "I have it."

Simple Future Aorist
ERG ladz lade lau
ACC la laden lauch
LOC lal ladelh laul
BENE laru laderu lauru
INSTR laka ladega lauga

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