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nDaráhca

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Darahti
nDaráhca
Type
Agglutinating, Fusional
Alignment
Marked Nominative
Head direction
inconsistent, initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
7
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Darahti (native, nom. "nDaráhca") is a language spoken on the outer fringes of the Eastern Swamps. Its closest neighbours are the Eastern Wargs (of the Wargish language family) and as such, Darahti has acquired a moderate amount of Wargish morphological, syntactical and phonological elements. It is a member of a mostly-defunct language family once spoken across a wide strip of the eastern shore that has mostly been supplanted and/or suppressed by Wargish tongues. Nowadays, it only has a small handful of living relatives, all of which nearly extinct; Darahti is the most widely-spoken member of its family.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

/p b t d c ɟ k ɡ/ <p b t d c j k g>
/f θ s h/ <f þ s h>
/m n ɳ ŋ/ <m n ñ ŋ>
/w r j ɰ/ <v r y x>

VowelsEdit

/a a: e e: ø ø: ɨ ɨ: ʉ ʉ: ɜ ɜ: ɞ ɞ: ɤ ɤ: o o:/
<a á e é ø ǿ i í u ú ę ę́ ǫ ǫ́ w ẃ o ó>

AllophonyEdit

Non-initial voiced plosives become fricatives: {/b d ɟ g/} > {[β ð ʝ ɣ]} / V_V
Voiced plosives coming after nasals are realised as plosives: {/b d ɟ g/} > {[b d ɟ g]} / N_
Sonorants assimilate in place of articulation to a plosive if one is present in the cluster: /L/ > [ɑPOA] / P[ɑPOA]_; _P[ɑPOA]

The phoneme /h/ is pronounced as [xʲ] before front vowels and [x] otherwise, unless it undergoes a particular kind of assimilation when before plosives: {/hp ht hc hk/} > {[fp θt ɕtɕ xk]}

PhonotacticsEdit

In Darahti, there are very few clusters permitted; a consonant cluster must consist of either a homorganic combination of fricative or nasal and a voiceless plosive (with the exception of /h/ as noted in the allophony section, and /ŋ/ which doesn't require homorganic clusters), or of an obstruent-sonorant or sonorant-sonorant combination. Syllables can be either open or closed. Two consonants belonging to different syllables are not counted as parts of a cluster.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

A Darahti noun can belong to one of seven "genders" or more accurately noun classes. Each noun is straightforwardly assigned a class based on semantic criteria. The seven classes are straightforwardly analysed and labelled.

Label Marking Example
Male human I g-, ŋ(b)-, v- ŋgasti (son)
Female human II y-, ry-, ñ- yóhya (daughter)
Domestic animal III þ-, iþ-, uþ- uþna (dog)
Body part IV mw-, ntw- ntwtẃ (eye)
Fruit, mushroom V ę-, yę-, yę́- ęxet (cherry)
Communication VI ǫ/ø-, xǫ/xø-, n- nDaráhca
General VII u-, hcw-, \varnothing- uté (branch)

Darahti also features a simplistic noun inflection, where nouns inflect for three cases and two numbers. There are two marginally different inflection patterns for nouns that end in consonants and vowels:

ntwtẃ- (eye)
Singulative Plurative
Accusative ntwtẃ ntwtẃ-m
Nominative-Oblique ntwtẃ-rí-t ntwtẃ-rí
Dative ntwtẃ-s-ot ntwtẃ-s
ęxet- (cherry)
Singulative Plurative
Accusative ęxet ęxet-am
Nominative-Oblique ęxet-erí-t ęxet-erí
Dative ęxet-os-ot ęxet-os

Prepositions go with either the nominative or dative; no preposition goes with the accusative.

VerbsEdit

Darahti verbs are rather peculiar; while they agree in number and person, they also agree for noun class. All of this is done in rather baroque ways: intransitive verbs agree with the person and class of the nominative while transitive verbs agree with the person of the accusative argument and either its class or the class of the nominative. This marking split is indicated morphologically. Such marking has strong ergative tendencies.

A Darahti verb is made up of the following components linearly strung together:

Darahti Verb Pattern
Name Class Prefix Stem Aspect
Mood
Tense Person
General Gloss c= <s> -am -t -p

The only obligatory parts of the verb are the stem and class prefix; person inflection can be left to context and TAM can be left out if understood.
Verb infinitives are made by suffixing <-(ę)y> onto an inflected verb.

Class PrefixEdit

The class prefix in Darahti is a constant element in the verb system. The class element in verbs functions a bit differently from that in nouns as it has eleven classes that do not match up cleanly with noun classes. The eleven classes are straightforwardly analysed and labelled but are roughly paired with the nominal seven.

Label Corresponds to... Marking
Human voluntary I I II y-, ęx-
Human involuntary II x-, wx-
Domestic animal III III þ-, úþ-
Body part IV IV mv-, mkw-
Plants V V VII yr-, úr-
Mushrooms
Food, drink
VI x-, xrę-
Weather, geography VII VII j-, aj-
Writing VIII VI h-, þtá-
General communication IX hc-, cø-
Dangerous animal X III VII n-, þnú-
General XI VII hc-, hcw-

Each of the class agreement morphemes has two allomorphs: a prevocalic and a preconsonantal one.

Aspect and MoodEdit

Darahti features a partially conflated aspect and mood inflection system: the suffixes aren't transparently fused nor actually separable but their rough independent shapes can be seen. The suffixes all carry a thematic echo vowel in case the stem ends in a consonant.

Indicative Optative Imprecative Commissive Directive
Continuative \varnothing -xák -lák -yǫ́k -sǿk
Eventive -tek -lęk -yęk
Momentane -tẃr -xẃr -lír -yúr -súr
Frequentative -kwt -xat -lwt -ywt -søt

TenseEdit

Darahti has a moderately simple system that differentiates between the absolute past and nonpast, and a relative past and nonpast. There's also a single atemporal or gnomic marker that marks general timeless information.

Past <pas> Non-Past <npas> Atemporal <atm>
Absolute <a> -et \varnothing -úp
Relative <r> -ek -ǫc

PersonEdit

Darahti marks verbs for the singular and plural, as well as three persons. In the third person, it has a distinction between proximate and obviate.

Singular <sg> Plural <pl>
First <1> -ẃt
Second <2> -(s)ú -(s)ít
Third <3> Proximate <p> -et
Obviate <o> -ǫk -ęk

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit

AnimalsEdit

uþ-pǫpá
cat, small feline
uþ-na
dog, canine

BiologicalEdit

-ę́ñe-
to eat, consume

Example textEdit

  • úþę́ñetẃretø uþpǫpárít uþna
    • [ʉ:θɜ:ɳetɤ:retø ʉθpɞpa:ri:t ʉθna]
    • úþ-ę́ñe-tẃr-et-ø uþ-pǫpá-rí-t uþ-na-Ø
    • iiic-eat-ind.mom-apas-p.sg iiic-cat-sg-nom iiic-dog-acc.sg
    • the cat ate the dog up (at once)
  • xę́ñetẃretø uþpǫpárít ęxet
    • [ɰɜ:ɳetɤ:retø ʉθpɞpa:ri:t ɜɰet]
    • x-ę́ñe-tẃr-et-ø uþ-pǫpá-rí-t ęxet-Ø
    • vic-eat-ind.mom-apas-p.sg iiic-cat-sg-nom vc-cherry-acc.sg
    • the cat ate the cherry fruit up (at once)

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