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Nominative- Accusative
Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General informationEdit

 Denkan is the language spoken by the Denkan people, and it has official status in the Denkan Federation and it is spoken by over 350 million people. The origins of the language are from the Old Denkan Empire Age, its earliest known origin traces back to the Tatsuk language. Attempts to find a relative for the Denkan or Tastuk language family have been made, with hypothesis associating it with Indo-European, Iberian-Basque or even Altaic languages.



Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative tʃ  dʒ
Affricate f v θ ð s ʃ h
Approximant ɹ
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap


Front Near-front Central Near-back Back


Letter Denkan Name Pronunciation
A A a
B Bo b
G Goth g
D Do d
DH Dho ð
E E e
H Hoth h
U U u
V Venk v
J Joth
I I i
Kh Okh x
K Kurh k
L Loth l
M Om m
N On n
O O o
P Po p
F Fo f
R Rai
RH Orh
S Saink
Z Ze/ Tse
T Tai t
TH Toth



Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Definiteness Edit

Definiteness of a noun is indicated by an article preceeding the word.

Indefinite Noun Definite Noun
Masculine Onn a man jo onn the man
Feminine One a woman da one the woman
Neuter Kurh a house i kurh the city
Plural Kuirh cities ik kuirh the cities


Nouns decline according to number and grammar case.

Word (Meaning) Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Ablative Commitative Locative
Leiko (Game) Leiko Leikog Leikoth Leikoi Leikoch Leikoz Leikoink
Saiku (Time) Saiku Saikug Saikuth Saiki Saikuch Saikuz Saikuink
Bandhe (Band) Bandhe Bandheg Bandheth Bandhei Bandhech Bandhez Bandheink
Kurh Kurh Kurheg Kurhen Kurhi Kurhech Kurhez Kurhink
Baki Baki Bakig Bakith Baku Bakich Bakiz Bakink

Plural Edit

Nouns in plural add -k suffix to the word stem when ending in vocal. When ending in consonant the last syllable is modified.

Word in English Singular Plural
Game Leiko Leikok
Star Sarh Sairh
Tree Brenn Breinn
Song Zith Zioth
Mountain Loth Löth
Lake Surh Suirh

Pronouns Edit

Personal Pronouns

English Nom Acc Gen Dat Abl Com Loc Ess Instr Voc
I Akh nig nith nei nich niz nib nio nist
You (sing.) Zu zig zuth zui zuch zuz zib zo zist zugio
You (sing. formal) Su sig suth sui such suz sib sio sist sugio
You (sing. female informal) Si sig suth sei sich siz sib sio sist sigio
He On eg ons oni onech onez onink
She Na nag nath nai nach naz naink
It En seg ens eni enech enez enink
We (1st person) Aik gig guth aiki aikech aikez aikink
We (1st and 2nd person) Noik nog noith noiki noikech noikez noink
You (Plural) Zuk Zukeg Zuken Zuki Zukech Zukez zukink
You (Plur. formal) Süb sübeg Süben Sübi Sübech Sübez Sübink
They Ein eig eins eini einech einez einink

Possessive Pronouns

Demostrative Pronouns

Adjectives Edit

Adjectives are declined according to gender and number.

The -en ending is added to words ending in consonant (e.g. firh (happiness), firhen (happy)).

-ikh ending is added after a vowel (e.g. sanu (truth), sanuich (true); Spainsko (Spain), Spainskoich (Spanish)).

-oth or -th ending is used for colors (zoth (green) sith (yellow), kroth (red), etc.) or participle of a verb (daz (to write) dazüth süirh (written books), toth( to shut) töth vionk (shut doors)).

Masculine enn ikh oth
Feminine eng ig ote
Neuter en ikh oth
Plural ein Ik öth



Verbs are conjugated by tense, aspect and mood. Tense is marked by a declension in the word stem, while aspect and mood are indicated by a particle added before or after the verb.

The following tables show the conjugation of the verb Vann ( to go).

Tense Verb
Past Vannoth
Present Vann
Future Vannorh

There are two aspects: perfective and imperfective.

Perfective English Imperfective English
Vannoth went vannodhi used to go
Vann go vann to be going
Vannorh will go vannorhi would go
Mood Indicative Interrogative Potential Imperative Supine
Past Vannoth Vannoth dho vannorheth vandheth
Present Vann Vann dho vannorhe vandhe vannog
Future Vannorh Vannorh dho vannorherh vandherh

There are a few irregular verbs: zerh (to be) and both (to exist). Verb to be is the only one to have a singular and plural form in the present and future tense. The only exception to the rule found in the verb both is the present tense (iz) and that the past form is the root form itself. Verbs with the -oth ending remain the same in the past tense (e.g. toth (to close) in the past tense would be toth as well (closed)).

Tense Indicative Imperfective Interrogative Imperative Subjuctive
Past zeth ezeth zeth dho dheth
Present er (singular)

der (plural)

ze er dho/ der dho dhe dheg
Future erh (singular)

derh (plural)

ezerh erh dho/ derh dho dherh

Negative Verbs Edit

Tense Indicative Interrogative Potential Imperative
Past vannont vannont dho vannorhent vandhent
Present vannon vannon dho vannorhen vandhen
Future vannorn vannorn dho vannorhern vandhern

Syntax Edit

The word order of Denkan is OSV (Objetc-Subject-Verb). It is believed that the ancient dialects of Denkan were originally SOV and in some cases SVO, but with the introduction of literature OSV order became the standard for both written and spoken forms. The language has 3 genders (masculine, feminine and neuter or common) and two numbers (singular and plural), adjectives and definite articles decline according to gender and number. There are 7 grammar cases.


Accents and Dialects Edit

Since the Imperial Age, the Denkan language has had regional variations. Nowadays, due to standardization and mass media the spoken language has become more homogenous across the Denkan nation but still with significant variations.

Denkan Dialects: Edit

Metropolitan Denkan
Contemporary Denkan
Southern Denkan


Example textEdit

The following words are taken from Matthew 6:9-13, according to the Denkan Bible Translation and the New International Version in English.

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