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Deshai
Tsešaayul
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Ergative
Head direction
both
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Deshai (natively /tsæʃɑːjuɬ/, literally this language, transliterated as 'Tsešaay-ul')

Classification and DialectsEdit

  • Classical Deshai
  • Šánhis-Kátšis Deshai
  • Westosese Deshai

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal (m) n ŋ
Plosive p p’ t t’ k k’ ʔ
Affricate ts ts’ tʃ tʃ’
Lateral affr. tɬ tɬ’
Fricative s s’ ʃ x x’ h
Lateral fric. ɬ ɬ’
Approximant β̞ˠ ɹ j

m, n, g, p, p', t, t', k, k', ', ts, ts', tš, tš', tl, tl', s, s', š, j, j', h, l, l', w, r, y

VowelsEdit

Front Back
High i iː u uː
Low æ æː ɑ ɑː

StressEdit

Stress is non-contrastive. Words in isolation or at the end of a phrase are stressed on the last syllable. Words beginning or within a phrase, on the other hand, are stressed on their first syllable.

  • Thus, Nap'retš waatwis-šu-l. /p'rætʃ wɑːtwisʃúɬ/ "We eat in the workshop."

Writing systemsEdit

There are primarily two writing systems for the dialects of Deshai: the classic script and the Chevin script.

Classic script Edit

The classic script is partway between an abjad and an alphabet. It is cursive and written in top-to-bottom vertical lines starting on right side of the page. It is still used in religious texts and in many Deshayant-majority countries to varying degrees.

Chevin script Edit

NounsEdit

GenderEdit

Nouns are not declined for grammatical gender, yet they still fall into two broad and misnamed classes called Animate and Inanimate, which are needed for verb conjugation.

ArticlesEdit

Articles follow the nouns they modify, separated by a hyphen. Short postpositions are placed between the noun and the article.

  • indefinite: 0
  • definite, proximal: -(u)l
  • definite, distal: -(a)g

Possessives Edit

Possession is shown with prefixes. They are typically separated from the noun stem with hyphens.

sg pl
1ex i- aš-
1in al-
2 u- ug-
3 e- ra-
refl us-

ex. aš-watwis "your and my workshop", iigten e-watwis-ag "the seamstresses workshop"

Derivational morphology Edit

Nouns are derived from verbs by putting phonemes in between the consonants of the verb's triconsonantal root.

CeCaaC: patient

  • tsešaay "language"
  • letaaj "corpse"
  • wetaaw "creation"

eCCuuC: instance

  • etsšuuy "a conversation"
  • eltuuj "a death"
  • enp'uur "a meal"

aCaCaCi: art or skill

  • atsašayi "oration"
  • agatani "sewing skills"
  • akawat'i "philosophy"

CeeCiC: instrument

  • tseešiy "voice"
  • weetiw "tool"
  • neep'ir "eating utensil"

CaaCCis: location

  • tsaašyis "speech-hall, convention center"
  • laatjis "cemetery"
  • waahšis "race track"

iiCCeC: sentient actor

  • iitsšey "speaker"
  • iiwtew "creator"
  • iigten "seamstress"

sCiCuC: resulting noun

  • stsišuy: "communication"
  • sgitun: "a stitch"
  • skiwut': "realization"

VerbsEdit

BasicsEdit

Verbs are based on triconsonantal roots (much like in Arabic). The citation form is the infinitive CaCaCa.

ex. kawat'a "to think/find out", lataja "to die", wahaša "to run", šatata "to freeze", l'ahaka "to slash", nap'ara "to eat", watawa "to create", tašara "to love", ha'asa "to do", tsašaya "to speak/talk", gatana "to sew"

C-AM-C-erg/others-C-abs

Non-finite forms Edit

Aspect-moodEdit

continuous habitual perfective
ind a 0/e u
subj aa ee uu
imp i
  • ex. wahšaa "he's running", wehšaa "he runs", wuhšaa "he ran"
  • The habitual indicative only receives an infix if its absence creates an unpronounceable consonant cluster.

PersonEdit

Absolutive slot:

sg pl
1ex -ii -etš
1in -etl
2 -0 -u
3.an -aa -aap
3.inan -0 -ep

Ergative slot:

sg pl
1ex -i- -aš-
1in -al-
2 -u- -u-
3 -e- -ra-
intrans -0-
refl -us-
recip -tsi-
neg -ep-
  • Kuwrat'etl! "They found out about us!" [kuːβ̞ˠɹɑt’ætɬ]
  • Kuwalt'aap! "We found out about them!" [kuːβ̞ˠɑɬt’ɑːp]
  • Kwept'aap lnuri-l. "The kids don't think."
  • Tašusraap. "They love themselves."
  • Taštsiraap. "They love each other."
  • Tsišepy "Don't talk!"

Postpositions Edit

šu "in"

VocabularyEdit

NumbersEdit

Deshai numbers are base-10 up to 20, thereafter they become base-8 due to Westosese influence.

# #+8 #+16 #*8
0 štuu 8 ji 16 kurug 0 štuu
1 tuk 9 yaan 17 kuhet 8 ji
2 tetš 10 (ku)wewt2 18 kuji 16 kurug
3 pin 11 t'een1 19 kuyaan 24 pinji
4 muut' 12 jaj1 20 'ukuug1 32 muut'ji
5 tark' 13 kupin 21 kurug-tark' 40 tark'ji
6 rug 14 kumuut' 22 kurug-rug 48 rugji
7 het 15 kutark' 23 kurug-het 56 hetji
8 ji 16 kurug 24 pinji 64 'its'iij
  1. 11, 12, and 20 have unique names.
  2. The ku- in kuwewt (10) is optional, and is typically heard in formal speech.

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