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Didenki

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Didenki
'
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Most of the grammar is being worked out in separate documents that are easier to edit than this page. I will likely only update when I have reached a major conclusion in regards to the grammar.Edit

Cillendor (talk) 20:33, December 12, 2014 (UTC)

General informationEdit

The is the language spoken by the Didenki people of Erbed for the Gcallus Octavious book by Jensine L. W. The story is an ongoing work of hers, but the language was only marginally developed. She tasked me with coming up with a more robust language to accompany it.

The Didenki (as I am calling them for now) had sustained contact with humans—centralized in England—until the 1400s. Thus, their language should have some Middle English influence. However, this is not a requirement. If I can incorporate any of this, I will, but I am more concerned about internal cohesion at first. The only example the author provided was a few names. If I can work these into the language, that's fine. But she is willing to change some of them if they are inconsistent with the language.

As it is, I am beginning by pouring over her existing words and trying to pull out some consistent meanings to apply. These will be my "Speculative notes". Once I have finished that, I will begin adding more bulk to the language.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b ɓ t d k g ʔ
Fricative s z
Affricate f v ʃ ʒ h
Approximant w
Trill
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y u
Near-close
Close-mid o
Mid ə
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a

Writing SystemEdit

# Romanized IPA Name
1 Kk /k/ kas /kas/
2 Ee /ɛ ə/* e /ɛ:/
3 IYiy /i ɪ y/* i /i:/
4 Dd /d/ da /da/
5 GCgc /ʔ/* gcas /ʔas/
6 VFvf /v f/* vfor /voɾ/
7 Pp /p/ par /paɾ/
8 BMbm /ɓ b m/* bmil /ɓil/
9 Aa /a/ as /as/
10 Ll /l/ lil /li:l/

11

Hh /h/ het /het/
12 Tt /t/ ta /tah/
13 Rr /ɾ/ ra /ɾah/
14 Xx /ks t͡s/* ix /ɪks/
15 Oo /o/ o /o:/
16 Ss /ʃ s/* shei /ʃɛi/
17 Zz /ʒ/ zet /ʒɛt/
18 Jj /d͡ʒ/ jul /d͡ʒul/
19 Ww /w/, /ʊ/* wil /wɪl/
20 Nn /n/ na /na:/
21 Uu /u/ un /un/

Eh is pronounced as /ɛ/ in most cases. The pronunciation /ə/ is most often dialectal.

Ih is pronounced as /ɪ/ or /i/ except in the final syllable, if it is VC. Thus denki (the words) is pronounced ['dɛn.ki], but denkit/denkyt (these words) is pronounced [dɪ.'dɛn.kyt]. /y/ is not considered a separate letter from ih, but the stem is flipped to point downward instead of upward.

Gcas was originally pronounced as a glottal stop, but over time it became pronounced as either /k/ or /g/ depending on the region. When anglicized, it is written as 'gc'.

Vfor is the same situation as with gcas, but the original pronunciation is lost. Word-initial, vfor may be pronounced as /v/ or /f/ per regional variance. Before voiceless stops, it is pronounced /f/ (e.g., "often"). Before voiced stops and nasals, it is pronounced /v/ (e.g., "giv'd", "cov'n"). [Note: all examples given are in English at this early stage of development. They should be switched out for Didenki words eventually.]

Bmil is pronounced as a voiced bilabial implosive when word-initial. Anywhere else, it takes either a /m/ or /b/ sound. If VbmCV, it takes the /m/ sound exclusively. If VCbmV or VbmV, it takes the /b/ sound exclusively. However, confusing these sounds does not render them unintelligible to the listener.

Ix normally maintains the pronunciation of /ks/, except when word-inintial. In this place alone it is pronounced as /t͡s/.

Shei is pronounced as /ʃ/ when word-initial or VsV. Word-final, VsCV, and VCsV, it is pronounced as /s/.

Wil can take the sound of /ʊ/ (like in Welsh) when word-final if following another consonant. In all other situations, it remains as /w/.

PhonotacticsEdit

For consonants, common clusters include labializations and nasalizations. Both are funcitons of grammar, so they never appear independently in a root word. However, na may appear as the first letter in a root word.

Other clusters which may appear are as follows:

Romanization Pronunciation
sk /ʃk/
sgc, s' /ʃʔ/*
sd /ʃd/
svf /ʃv/
sp /ʃp/
sbm /ʃm/
sl /ʃl/
st /ʃt/
sr /ʃr/
sn /ʃn/

Because gcas has lost its original pronunciation of /ʔ/, this cluster is most often pronounced as /ʃk/.

For vowels, the clusters resemble those found in English (Vi and Vu).

All root words are in the form (s)CVC or VC.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

Nouns are divided into three senses: abstract, concrete, and action. These are identified by the aspect prefix. There are 21 aspects in Didenki, which are based around their alpha-numeric system. The first set (1-7) indicates the abstract sense of the noun. The second set (8-14) represents the concrete sense. The third set (15-21) represents the action sense. This third set is explained in more detail under the Verbs heading.

AspectEdit

The following examples use the root dek (word). Also, not all roots can receive all aspects. Dek is used here because it (potentially) uses all 14 noun aspects. These meanings/translations are suggestions at this point. More work will be done to refine this point when I begin working on the vocabulary.

Temporal Aspect I Noun Meaning (English)

Temporal Aspect II

Noun Meaning (English)
K kedek "future word", spoken plan, prophecy, prediction

BM

bmadek written plan, procedure, instruction
E edek

"current word", conversation, statement

A adek text, "newspaper", note
I idek "stated word", fact L ladek book, record, archive
D didek "received word", oral tradition, noun H hadek inscription (ancient history)
GC gcidek "accepted word", truth, principle, proverb T tadek "accepted word", truth, principle, proverb
VF vfidek "fading word", memory, implies uncertainty, also deroggatory term for another's edek R radek legend, myth, also slander, satire
P pedek "completed word", refers to the fulfillment of a prediction X xadek religious text(?), scientific law

PluralsEdit

Tentatively, there are two cases to show number. Singular remains uninflected. For plural, the final syllable mutates. If the final syllable is (C)VC, it nasalizes to (C)VnC (or (C)VmC—uncertain of words can end with bilabials yet). E.g., deki > denki. If word ends in a definite article i, the -n attaches to the i. E.g., omi > omyn.

This culture uses a base-7 number system with 1, 2, 3, 7, and 21 being significant. I might add a "perfect plural" for a count of seven.

Genitive caseEdit

speculative note: Nouns in the genitive case are modified by the suffix -lan.

VerbsEdit

Didenki is heavily noun-based. Nouns can be converted into verbs using the third temporal category. E.g., dek (word)

AspectEdit

Aspect/tense is shown through the third set of letters, 15-21. At this point in development, there are only these seven aspects. I might revise this at a later point.

Temporal Aspect III Verb Meaning (English)

Example***

Translation
O odek will speak

Odek.

I will speak tomorrow.
S sodek are speaking Sodek. We are speaking now.
Z zudek did speak Zudek. My father told me this last week.
J judek began speaking Jodek. The teacher began speaking 30 minutes ago.
W wodek will continue speaking Wodek. She will continue speaking after lunch.
N nodek will finish speaking Nodek. We will finish speaking when I leave.
U udek have finished speaking Udek. He has finished speaking.

Examples will be written more fully after the conjugations have been completed and a larger vocabulary is written.

Conjugations indicating person and number also exist but have not been established yet. They will likely be suffixed.

MoodEdit

There will likely be variations in mood. I have yet to explore this feature.

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit


No. English Didenki
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22onekas
23twoeh
24threeih
25fourdah
26fivegcas
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150waterisdis
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earthesyth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163windosirin
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fireavos
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


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