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Didenki

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Didenki
'
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Most of the grammar is being worked out in separate documents that are easier to edit than this page. I will likely only update when I have reached a major conclusion in regards to the grammar.Edit

Cillendor (talk) 20:33, December 12, 2014 (UTC)

General informationEdit

The is the language spoken by the Didenki people of Erbed for the Gcallus Octavious book by Jensine L. W. The story is an ongoing work of hers, but the language was only marginally developed. She tasked me with coming up with a more robust language to accompany it.

The Didenki (as I am calling them for now) had sustained contact with humans—centralized in England—until the 1400s. Thus, their language should have some Middle English influence. However, this is not a requirement. If I can incorporate any of this, I will, but I am more concerned about internal cohesion at first. The only example the author provided was a few names. If I can work these into the language, that's fine. But she is willing to change some of them if they are inconsistent with the language.

As it is, I am beginning by pouring over her existing words and trying to pull out some consistent meanings to apply. These will be my "Speculative notes". Once I have finished that, I will begin adding more bulk to the language.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b ɓ t d k g ʔ
Fricative s z
Affricate f v ʃ ʒ h
Approximant w
Trill
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y u
Near-close
Close-mid o
Mid ə
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a

Writing SystemEdit

# Romanized IPA Name
1 Kk /k/ kas /kas/
2 Ee /ɛ ə/* e /ɛ:/
3 IYiy /i ɪ y/* i /i:/
4 Dd /d/ da /da/
5 GCgc /ʔ/* gcas /ʔas/
6 VFvf /v f/* vfor /voɾ/
7 Pp /p/ par /paɾ/
8 BMbm /ɓ b m/* bmil /ɓil/
9 Aa /a/ as /as/
10 Ll /l/ lil /li:l/

11

Hh /h/ het /het/
12 Tt /t/ ta /tah/
13 Rr /ɾ/ ra /ɾah/
14 Xx /ks t͡s/* ix /ɪks/
15 Oo /o/ o /o:/
16 Ss /ʃ s/* shei /ʃɛi/
17 Zz /ʒ/ zet /ʒɛt/
18 Jj /d͡ʒ/ jul /d͡ʒul/
19 Ww /w/, /ʊ/* wil /wɪl/
20 Nn /n/ na /na:/
21 Uu /u/ un /un/

Eh is pronounced as /ɛ/ in most cases. The pronunciation /ə/ is most often dialectal.

Ih is pronounced as /ɪ/ or /i/ except in the final syllable, if it is VC. Thus denki (the words) is pronounced ['dɛn.ki], but denkit/denkyt (these words) is pronounced [dɪ.'dɛn.kyt]. /y/ is not considered a separate letter from ih, but the stem is flipped to point downward instead of upward.

Gcas was originally pronounced as a glottal stop, but over time it became pronounced as either /k/ or /g/ depending on the region. When anglicized, it is written as 'gc'.

Vfor is the same situation as with gcas, but the original pronunciation is lost. Word-initial, vfor may be pronounced as /v/ or /f/ per regional variance. Before voiceless stops, it is pronounced /f/ (e.g., "often"). Before voiced stops and nasals, it is pronounced /v/ (e.g., "giv'd", "cov'n"). [Note: all examples given are in English at this early stage of development. They should be switched out for Didenki words eventually.]

Bmil is pronounced as a voiced bilabial implosive when word-initial. Anywhere else, it takes either a /m/ or /b/ sound. If VbmCV, it takes the /m/ sound exclusively. If VCbmV or VbmV, it takes the /b/ sound exclusively. However, confusing these sounds does not render them unintelligible to the listener.

Ix normally maintains the pronunciation of /ks/, except when word-inintial. In this place alone it is pronounced as /t͡s/.

Shei is pronounced as /ʃ/ when word-initial or VsV. Word-final, VsCV, and VCsV, it is pronounced as /s/.

Wil can take the sound of /ʊ/ (like in Welsh) when word-final if following another consonant. In all other situations, it remains as /w/.

PhonotacticsEdit

For consonants, common clusters include labializations and nasalizations. Both are funcitons of grammar, so they never appear independently in a root word. However, na may appear as the first letter in a root word.

Other clusters which may appear are as follows:

Romanization Pronunciation
sk /ʃk/
sgc, s' /ʃʔ/*
sd /ʃd/
svf /ʃv/
sp /ʃp/
sbm /ʃm/
sl /ʃl/
st /ʃt/
sr /ʃr/
sn /ʃn/

Because gcas has lost its original pronunciation of /ʔ/, this cluster is most often pronounced as /ʃk/.

For vowels, the clusters resemble those found in English (Vi and Vu).

All root words are in the form (s)CVC or VC.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

Nouns are divided into three senses: abstract, concrete, and action. These are identified by the aspect prefix. There are 21 aspects in Didenki, which are based around their alpha-numeric system. The first set (1-7) indicates the abstract sense of the noun. The second set (8-14) represents the concrete sense. The third set (15-21) represents the action sense. This third set is explained in more detail under the Verbs heading.

AspectEdit

The following examples use the root dek (word). Also, not all roots can receive all aspects. Dek is used here because it (potentially) uses all 14 noun aspects. These meanings/translations are suggestions at this point. More work will be done to refine this point when I begin working on the vocabulary.

Temporal Aspect I Noun Meaning (English)

Temporal Aspect II

Noun Meaning (English)
K kedek "future word", spoken plan, prophecy, prediction

BM

bmadek written plan, procedure, instruction
E edek

"current word", conversation, statement

A adek text, "newspaper", note
I idek "stated word", fact L ladek book, record, archive
D didek "received word", oral tradition, noun H hadek inscription (ancient history)
GC gcidek "accepted word", truth, principle, proverb T tadek "accepted word", truth, principle, proverb
VF vfidek "fading word", memory, implies uncertainty, also deroggatory term for another's edek R radek legend, myth, also slander, satire
P pedek "completed word", refers to the fulfillment of a prediction X xadek religious text(?), scientific law

PluralsEdit

Tentatively, there are two cases to show number. Singular remains uninflected. For plural, the final syllable mutates. If the final syllable is (C)VC, it nasalizes to (C)VnC (or (C)VmC—uncertain of words can end with bilabials yet). E.g., deki > denki. If word ends in a definite article i, the -n attaches to the i. E.g., omi > omyn.

This culture uses a base-7 number system with 1, 2, 3, 7, and 21 being significant. I might add a "perfect plural" for a count of seven.

Genitive caseEdit

speculative note: Nouns in the genitive case are modified by the suffix -lan.

VerbsEdit

Didenki is heavily noun-based. Nouns can be converted into verbs using the third temporal category. E.g., dek (word)

AspectEdit

Aspect/tense is shown through the third set of letters, 15-21. At this point in development, there are only these seven aspects. I might revise this at a later point.

Temporal Aspect III Verb Meaning (English)

Example***

Translation
O odek will speak

Odek.

I will speak tomorrow.
S sodek are speaking Sodek. We are speaking now.
Z zudek did speak Zudek. My father told me this last week.
J judek began speaking Jodek. The teacher began speaking 30 minutes ago.
W wodek will continue speaking Wodek. She will continue speaking after lunch.
N nodek will finish speaking Nodek. We will finish speaking when I leave.
U udek have finished speaking Udek. He has finished speaking.

Examples will be written more fully after the conjugations have been completed and a larger vocabulary is written.

Conjugations indicating person and number also exist but have not been established yet. They will likely be suffixed.

MoodEdit

There will likely be variations in mood. I have yet to explore this feature.

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit


No. English Didenki
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22onekas
23twoeh
24threeih
25fourdah
26fivegcas
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterisdis
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthesyth
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windosirin
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireavos
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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