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|Masculine, femenine and neutre.|
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Doktalingua is a logical language designed for becoming a worldwide lingua franca by the 22th century.
|Plosive||p b||t d||k g|
|Flap or tap||r|
- C is always pronounced like in English 'bleach'.
- G is always pronounced like in English 'gate'.
- R is always pronounced like in Spanish 'toro', even at the beginning of a word.
- X is always pronounced like in English 'sheep'.
- Y is always pronounced like in Spanish 'yeso'.
- Z is always pronounced like in English 'thunder'.
In Doktalingua, the last letter always indicates the grammar role of any word:
|Last letter||Grammar role|
Singular feminine in nominative case
Singular neutre in nominative case
Plural in nominative case
Added when dative case
Added when accusative case
Singular masculine in nominative case
|-r||Verb (infinitive form)|
Added when genitive case
|-t||Verb (non-infinitive form)|
|-z||Pronoun (excepting personal ones and those declined as adjectives)|
- Articles, demonstrative pronouns and possessive pronouns are also declined like adjectives.
- Proper nouns are excluded, because they are never declined: Doktalingua, Jupiter, Marok.
Nouns, adjectives and pronouns declined like adjectives are declined following this rule.
For the root word oman- ('person'):
The usual gender is neutre. Masculine and femenine are only used for living beings which gender is known and explicit.
The adjectives, articles and pronouns declined like adjectives are also declined in the same form that the noun they are related to. For example:
- Do alto omano: the tall man.
- Da alta omana: the tall woman.
- Ne alte omane: a tall person.
- Di alti omani: the tall people.
- Go aidet dam altam omanam: I help the tall woman.
- De kase des altes omanes: the house of the tall person.
Example for the personal pronoun l- (third person):
Doktalingua lacks of proper verbal conjugation. Verbs have only two forms, infinitive and non-infinitive. For example:
- Kanter: to sing
- Kantet: any other form for the verb.
Person and number is determined by the personal noun:
- Go kantet: I sing.
- La kantet: She sings.
Voice, mood, tense and aspect is determined by the verbal auxiliars, which are embedded between the personal noun and the verb, except in the present simple.
This is the table of verbal auxiliaries:
|Remote past||bap||-||-||add up|
|Past continuous||bup||-||-||add up|
|Present continuous||gep||-||-||add up|
|Remote future||fup||-||-||add up|
- Go edet nen pomen: I eat an apple.
- Go bap edet nen pomen: I ate an apple.
- Go bop edet nen pomen: I have eaten an apple.
- Go bup edet nen pomen: I was eating an apple.
- Go gep edet nen pomen: I am eating an apple.
- Go fep edet nen pomen: I am going to eat an apple.
- Go fup edet nen pomen: I will eat an apple.
- Go map edet nen pomen: I would eat an apple.
- To tap edet nen pomen: Eat an apple!
- Ne pome up edet gom: An apple is eaten by me.
- Ne pome bap up edet gom: An apple was eaten by me.
Some constructions needs an additional adverb, like the pluperfect. For example:
- She had worked in many bad jobs before, but she finally found the prefect one.
In Doktalingua, the past before the past (when telling a story) is indicated by the adverb pastel:
- La bap labret nak multi mali labri pastel, abek la bap findet den perfekten unen finalel.
The usual order of the sentences in Doktalingua is:
Subject (article + nominative + genitive) + Verb (verbal auxiliar + proper verb) + Complements (usually accusative + dative + adverbs).
From the Charlemagne's biography at Wikipedia:
"Do eldesto filio dos Pepino do Kurto u Bertrada des Laon, Karlomagno bap beset rexo nak 768 postak dem mortem dos los batros. Lo bap set korexento initak mek lom fretom Karloman I. De subte morte dos Karloman nak 771 untek nul eksplizitim zirkunstanzim bap laset Karlomagno modek dom nul disputaxom rexentom des frankes regaxes. Karlomagno bap kepet den politiken dos los batros bersek dem papaxem u lo bap beset do protexanto des les, bup kitet din lombardin ok dem poterem nak nordem Italia, u lo bup lidet nen inkursionen insek islamem Spania. Lo bap kanfenet besuk dim omanim des les orientes yelek, bup kristianiset lin untek penalem des mortes, ofel le bup kauset nak episodim suk dem masakrem des Verden. Karlomagno bap asolet den topen des les poteres nak 800 tempez lo bap up koronet dom papom Leo III tak natalizem nak oltem basilikem des Santes Petrus."
"The oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, Charlemagne became king in 768 following the death of his father. He was initially co-ruler with his brother Carloman I. Carloman's sudden death in 771 under unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. Charlemagne continued his father's policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy, and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain. He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, Christianizing them upon penalty of death, at times leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden. Charlemagne reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned "emperor" by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Old St. Peter's Basilica."