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Doktalingua

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Doktalingua
Doktalingua
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
No
Genders
Masculine, femenine and neutre.
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Doktalingua is a logical language designed for becoming a worldwide lingua franca by the 22th century.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f z s x
Affricate c y
Approximant
Trill
Flap or tap r
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid e o
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a

AlphabetEdit

ABCDEFGIKLMNOPRSTUXYZ

abcdefgiklmnoprstuxyz

Notes:

  • C is always pronounced like in English 'bleach'.
  • G is always pronounced like in English 'gate'.
  • R is always pronounced like in Spanish 'toro', even at the beginning of a word.
  • X is always pronounced like in English 'sheep'.
  • Y is always pronounced like in Spanish 'yeso'.
  • Z is always pronounced like in English 'thunder'.

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

In Doktalingua, the last letter always indicates the grammar role of any word:

Last letter Grammar role
-a

Noun/adjective/personal pronoun

Singular feminine in nominative case

-e

Noun/adjective/personal pronoun

Singular neutre in nominative case

-i

Noun/adjective/personal pronoun 

Plural in nominative case

-k Preposition
-l Adverb
-m

Noun/adjective/personal pronoun

Added when dative case

-n

Noun/adjective/personal pronoun

Added when accusative case

-o

Noun/adjective/personal pronoun

Singular masculine in nominative case

-p Verbal auxiliary
-r Verb (infinitive form)
-s

Noun/adjective

Added when genitive case

-t Verb (non-infinitive form)
-u Conjunctions
-z Pronoun (excepting personal ones and those declined as adjectives)

 Notes:Edit

  • Articles, demonstrative pronouns and possessive pronouns are also declined like adjectives.
  • Proper nouns are excluded, because they are never declined: Doktalingua, Jupiter, Marok.

NounsEdit

Nouns, adjectives and pronouns declined like adjectives are declined following this rule.

For the root word oman- ('person'):

Case Masculine Femenine Neutre Plural
Nominative

omano

man

omana

woman

omane

person

omani

people

Accusative omanon omanan omanen omanin
Dative omanom omanam omanem omanim
Genitive omanos omanas omanes omanis

The usual gender is neutre. Masculine and femenine are only used for living beings which gender is known and explicit.

The adjectives, articles and pronouns declined like adjectives are also declined in the same form that the noun they are related to. For example:

- Do alto omano: the tall man.

- Da alta omana: the tall woman.

- Ne alte omane: a tall person.

- Di alti omani: the tall people. 

- Go aidet dam altam omanam: I help the tall woman.

- De kase des altes omanes: the house of the tall person.

Example for the personal pronoun l- (third person):

Case Masculine Femenine Neutre Plural
Nominative

lo

he

la

she

le

it

li

they

Accusative

lon

him

lan

her

len

it

lin

them

Dative

lom

him

lam

her

lem

it

lim

them

Genitive

los

his

las

her, hers

les

its

lis

their, theirs

VerbsEdit

Doktalingua lacks of proper verbal conjugation. Verbs have only two forms, infinitive and non-infinitive. For example:

  • Kanter: to sing
  • Kantet: any other form for the verb.


Person and number is determined by the personal noun:

  • Go kantet: I sing.
  • La kantet: She sings.


Voice, mood, tense and aspect is determined by the verbal auxiliars, which are embedded between the personal noun and the verb, except in the present simple.

This is the table of verbal auxiliaries:

Tense Indicative

Subjunctive /

Conditional

Imperative Passive
Remote past bap - - add up

Recent past

bop - - add up
Past continuous bup - - add up
Present - map tap add up
Present continuous gep - - add up
Immediate future fep

-

- add up
Remote future fup - - add up


Examples:

  • Go edet nen pomen: I eat an apple.
  • Go bap edet nen pomen: I ate an apple.
  • Go bop edet nen pomen: I have eaten an apple.
  • Go bup edet nen pomen: I was eating an apple.
  • Go gep edet nen pomen: I am eating an apple.
  • Go fep edet nen pomen: I am going to eat an apple.
  • Go fup edet nen pomen: I will eat an apple.
  • Go map edet nen pomen: I would eat an apple.
  • To tap edet nen pomen: Eat an apple!
  • Ne pome up edet gom: An apple is eaten by me.
  • Ne pome bap up edet gom: An apple was eaten by me.


Some constructions needs an additional adverb, like the pluperfect. For example:

  • She had worked in many bad jobs before, but she finally found the prefect one.

In Doktalingua, the past before the past (when telling a story) is indicated by the adverb pastel:

  • La bap labret nak multi mali labri pastel, abek la bap findet den perfekten unen finalel.   

SyntaxEdit

The usual order of the sentences in Doktalingua is:

Subject (article + nominative + genitive) + Verb (verbal auxiliar + proper verb) + Complements (usually accusative + dative + adverbs).

VocabularyEdit


No. English Doktalingua
1Igo (m), ga (f)
2you (singular)to (m), ta (f)
3helo
4wegi
5you (plural)ti
6theyli
7thiseto (m), eta (f), ete (n)
8thatelo (m), ela (f), ele (n)
9hereatal
10therealal
11whoomanez
12whatkosez
13wherelokez
14whentempez
15howmodez
16notnul
17allomi
18manymulti
19somekuno (m), kuna (f), kune (n), kuni (pl)
20fewpoki
21otheratri
22oneun-
23twodu-
24threedr-
25fourkadr-
26fivezink-
27biggrand-
28longlong-
29wideampl-
30thickgros-
31heavypes-
32smalllil-
33shortkurt-
34narrownar-
35thinfin-
36womanomana
37man (adult male)omano
38man (human being)omane
39childpuer-
40wifesposa
41husbandsposo
42motherbatra
43fatherbatro
44animalbinge
45fishpeze
46birdabe
47dogkane
48louseluse
49snakeserpe
50wormgorme
51treearbre
52forestarbraxe
53stickpale
54fruitfrute
55seedseme
56leaffolie
57rootrote
58barkbarke
59flowerflore
60grasserbe
61ropekorde
62skinpele
63meatkarne
64bloodsange
65boneose
66fatgrase
67eggobe
68hornkorne
69tailkaude
70featherplume
71hairbaile
72headkape
73earaude
74eyeoke
75nosenase
76mouthbuke
77toothdente
78tonguelinge
79fingernailonge des dixes
80footpede
81legkambe
82kneeroxe
83handmane
84wingale
85bellypanxe
86gutsgodi
87neckkole
88backbake
89breastbraste
90heartkuore
91liverfexe
92drinkbeber (v), bebraxe (noun)
93eateder
94bitemorder
95suckxumer
96spitspiter
97vomitpoter
98blowbloger
99breathespirer
100laughriser
101seeoker
102hearauder
103knowsaber
104thinkpenser
105smellpuder
106feartemer
107sleepdormer
108livelifer
109diemorer
110killkiler
111fightluxer
112huntaunter
113hititer
114cutkuter
115splitdibier
116stabstaber
117scratchgrater
118digdeger
119swimsuimer
120flyaler
121walkpeder
122comekomer
123liemender
124sitseder
125standstayer
126turntorner
127fallfader
128givedoner
129holdsoster
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

From the Charlemagne's biography at Wikipedia:

"Do eldesto filio dos Pepino do Kurto u Bertrada des Laon, Karlomagno bap beset rexo nak 768 postak dem mortem dos los batros. Lo bap set korexento initak mek lom fretom Karloman I. De subte morte dos Karloman nak 771 untek nul eksplizitim zirkunstanzim bap laset Karlomagno modek dom nul disputaxom rexentom des frankes regaxes. Karlomagno bap kepet den politiken dos los batros bersek dem papaxem u lo bap beset do protexanto des les, bup kitet din lombardin ok dem poterem nak nordem Italia, u lo bup lidet nen inkursionen insek islamem Spania. Lo bap kanfenet besuk dim omanim des les orientes yelek, bup kristianiset lin untek penalem des mortes, ofel le bup kauset nak episodim suk dem masakrem des Verden. Karlomagno bap asolet den topen des les poteres nak 800 tempez lo bap up koronet dom papom Leo III tak natalizem nak oltem basilikem des Santes Petrus." 

"The oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, Charlemagne became king in 768 following the death of his father. He was initially co-ruler with his brother Carloman I. Carloman's sudden death in 771 under unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. Charlemagne continued his father's policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy, and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain. He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, Christianizing them upon penalty of death, at times leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden. Charlemagne reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned "emperor" by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Old St. Peter's Basilica."

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