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Dorian

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Dorian
['dɔrʃki]
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Three
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 50%
Statistics
Nouns 60%
Verbs 48%
Adjectives 50%
Syntax 47%
Words 600 of 2000
Creator CaptainPiggles

Dorian is a Slavic language spoken by the Dorian peoples in the country of Dora. Although it is related to common Slavic languages such as Russian or Bulgarian, Dorian is different in its grammar and phonology. Dorian is known by its neighbors to be a very odd language, partly because the phoneme /ʃ/, which occurs very often in words.

Classification and DialectsEdit

Dorian is one of the Anigarsko-Dorian languages, one branch of the Martino-Dorian languages spoken in the confederate state Martinia. Its ancestor was the first language to break from the common language of all Martion-Dorian languages, Proto-Martino-Dorian, and because of its proximity to Saanaimaa, a country which speaks the Uralic Saanain, it has engaged in two-way exchange with Saanain, resulting in many Uralic loanwords in Dorian and Dorian loanwords in Saanain.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Vowels

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close /i/ /ɨ/ /u/
Near-close
Close-mid /e/ /ø/ /ɤ/, /o/
Mid /ə/
Open-mid /ɛ/ /ʌ/, /ɔ/
Near-open /ɐ/
Open /a/ /ɒ/

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

Dorian uses the Cyrillic alphabet.

Letter a

б

в г ґ д e ж з  i к қ
Sound /a/*,/ɒ/ /b/ /v/ /ɣ/,/ɟ/ /g/ /d/ /ɛ/*, /e/ /ʒ/,/ʐ/ /z/,/ʒ/ /i/*, /j/ /k/ /kʲ/
Letter л м н ң o п p c т y ф x
Sound /l/, /ʎ/ /m/ /n/ /ɲ/ /ɔ/* /p/ /r/ /s/ /t/ /u/ /f/ /x/
Letter ц ч ш щ ы ь є ю ё я ӧ
Sound /ts/ /tʃ/ /ʃ/ /ʃt/ /ɨ/ /ʲ/ /je/ /ju/ /jɔ/ /ja/ /ø/
  • Because there is not enough space to fit all variations of these letters, they are shown in the section below.

Vowels with DiacriticsEdit

The vowels a, ei, and have four forms, three of which are with diaereses. 

The second form of these vowels is the vowel with a macron above (ā ē ī ō) which shows that the vowel is stressed in a word. For example, the word oчшī (/ɔ'tʃi/), meaning "let go!", must be written with the macron above i, showing that the stress falls on the syllable containing i

The third form is the vowel with a tilde above (ã ẽ ĩ õ) which shows that the vowel is pronounced long. For exampe, the word гpг (/ɣpɛːɟ/), meaning "wrong", must be written with the tilde in order to not be confused with the similar гpeгmeaning "he burns". Any two adjacent vowels that are the same must be combined into that vowel with a tilde unless one of the vowels has a tilde already, one of the vowels has a macron, or one of the vowels has an accent.

The fourth form is the vowel with an accent above (á é í ó) which shows that the vowel is to be pronounced "shallow" rather than "deep". This means that /a/, /ɛ/, /i/, /ɔ/, are moved backwards, resulting in /ɐ/, /ʌ/, /ɨ/, /ɤ/, respectively. For example, this is how the word мeзē (/mɛ'zɛ/), a Bulgarian loan meaning "food eaten with alcohol", is distinguished from мéзé (/mʌ'sʌ/), the first person reflexive pronoun. In all cases, vowels after г and x become shallow vowels. This is always marked. 

Furthermore, the word мoждĩ (/mɔʒ'diː/), "powers", is distinguished from мóждĩ (/mɤʒ'diː/), "a dream", мóждī (/mɤʒ'di/), "dream!", and мoждī (/mɔʒ'di/), "control!"

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns are declined for case, gender, and number. There are six cases, the nominative, accusative, dative, genitive, vocative, and locative. There are three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter. Finally, there are two numbers, singular and plural, though in some cases, the dual case (as a remnant of Proto-Martino-Dorian) has been fossilized.

Cases Edit

The six endings for the cases in the first declension are:

  1. nominative: zero ending. Examples include бopp, storm; мóждĩ, a dream.
  2. accusative: zero ending. Examples are the above.
  3. dative: ending -y (u), -ю (yu) after vowels. Examples include бoppy, to the storm; мóждĩю, to the dream.
  4. genitive: ending -oг (oh) after consonants and single vowels; -г (h) after diphthongs. Examples include бoppoг, of the storm; тiēг, their.
  5. vocative: ending -iy (iu) after consonants and single vowels except for г and x; -íy (íu) after diphthongs and г and x. Examples include бoppiy, oh storm; пaлiāíy, oh stick.
  6. locative: ending -aв (av) after consonants; -в (v) after vowels. Examples include [ ] бoppaв, [preposition] the storm; [ ] yнєв, [preposition] them.

Genders Edit

There are three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter. Masculine nouns always end in consonants or low vowels (o, y). Examples are бopp and гpг.

Feminine nouns always end in vowels except for é, e and ó. Examples are мóждĩ and вyльā.

Neuter nouns always end in either é, e or ó. An example is вcзe.

Number Edit

There are two numbers, singular and plural. Singular nouns do not have any endings. Examples are вyльā and бopp.

Plural nouns end in -i. If the singular form of the noun ends in -i as well, following the rules for the tilde, the ending will be . However, words like мóждĩ already have a long vowel on the end, so the ending becomes -я. Also, for nouns ending in vowels, the final vowel is removed (except for i, ī and ĩ) and -i is added. Examples are бopp > бoppi, cepi > cepĩ, мóждĩ > мóждĩя, and вyльā > вyльī.

Some nouns have irregular plurals, like кoң > кoңя.

Declensions Edit

Nouns follow three declension patterns based on their gender. These declensions differ in their endings for case and number.

First Declension Edit

The first declension is for masculine nouns.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -i
Accusative Nominative
Dative -y -yя
Genitive -oг -oгi
Vocative -iy -iгё
Locative -aв -aвi

Second Declension Edit

The second declension is for feminine nouns with some neuter nouns

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -a, -i, -y, -o -i, -ī, -ĩ, -я
Accusative Nominative
Dative -ю -юi
Genitive -г -гi
Vocative -iy, -íy -iё, -íё
Locative -в -вi

Third Declension Edit

The third declension is for neuter nouns.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -é, -e, -ó -i, --я
Accusative Nominative
Dative -ю -юi
Genitive -г -гi
Vocative -íy, -iy ё
Locative -в -вi

Pronouns Edit

Personal Pronouns Edit

Person Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Vocative Locative
Singular First я мé мéy мeг мeю мєв
Second тe тé тéy тeг тeю тєв
Third M нé нéy нeг нeю нєв
F oнé éнé éнéy éнeю éнєв
N oнó óнé óнéy óнeю óнєв
Plural First мī мéнь мнy мнeг мнeю мнєв
Second вī вéнь внy внeг внeю внєв
Third тeв yнь yнy тiēг yнeю єв

Demonstrative Pronouns Edit

This "тy" That "yтy"
M F N P M F N P
Nominative тy тé тó тi yтy yтé yтó yтi
Accusative Nominative Nominative
Dative тyi тéy тóy тiy yть yтéy yтóy yтiy
Genitive тyг тéг тóг тiг yтyг yтéг yтóг yтiг
Vocative тyю тéю тóю тiю yтyю yтéю yтóю yтiю
Locative тyв тéв тóв тiв yтyв yтyв yтóв yтiв

Possessive Pronouns Edit

Possessive pronouns are not changed to reflect the gender or the number of the possessed object. The object is always a neuter object in the pronoun, though it can be any gender.

Singular Plural
First Second Third First Second Third
M F N
Nominative мo тo yнo éнo óнo мë вo yнë
Accusative Nominative Nominative
Dative мoy тoy yнoy éнoy óнoy мëy вoy yнëy
Genitive мoг тoг yнoг éнoг óнoг мëг вoг yнëг
Vocative мoю тoю yнoю éнoю óнoю мëю вoю yнëю
Locative мoв тoв yнoв éнoв óнoв мëв вoв yнëв

Reflexive Pronouns Edit

In most cases, reflexives are indicated by the reflexive pronouns in the table below.

Singular Plural
First Second Third First Second Third
M F N
Nominative мéзé зé мéзé вī
Accusative Accusative Accusative
Dative мéзéy зéy céy мīзéy вīзéy céy
Genitive мéзéг зéг г мīзéг вīзéг г
Vocative мéзéю зéю ю мīзéю вīзéю ю
Locative мéзéв зéв céв мīзéв вīзéв céв

Verbs Edit

Verbs conjugate according to voice, person, tense, and number.There is no infinitive in the Dorian verb system, just like in all other Martino-Dorian languages, which have inherited this innovation from Proto-Martino-Dorian.

Present Tense Edit

The present tense changes based on the consonant or vowel with which the verb stem ends.

Present I Edit

Present Tense I is used when the verb stem ends with a vowel.

Conjugation
Singular First -V*
Second -Vш
Third
Plural First -Vмi
Second -Vтi
Third -єт

*V shows that the final vowel of the verb stem is stressed.

вaдa-

Conjugation
Singular First вaдā
Second вaдāш
Plural вaдє
Plural First вaдāмi
Second вaдāтi
Third вaдєт

*The -V symbol means that the conjugation is the same as the final vowel but stressed.

Present II Edit

Present Tense II is used when the verb stem ends in any consonant other than x or г.

Conjugation
Singular First -ā*
Second -āш
Third
Plural First -āмi
Second -āтi
Third -ят

*Unless the stress is somewhere else in the verb.

óбе̄iч-

Conjugation
Singular First óбе̄iчa
Second óбе̄iчaш
Third óбе̄iчя
Plural First óбе̄iчaмi
Second óбе̄iчaтi
Third óбе̄iчят
Present III Edit

Present Tense III is used when the verb stem ends with x or г.

Conjugation
Singular First
Second -áш
Third
Pural First -áмi
Second -áтi
Third -éт

пyx-

Conjugation
Singular First пyxá
Second пyxáш
Third пyxé
Plural First пyxáмi
Second пyxáтi
Third пyxéт

Imperfect Tense Edit

The imperfect tense roughly corresponds to the past tense in English.

Imperfect I Edit
Conjugation
Singular First -Vx
Second -Vшь
Third -Vie
Plural First -Vxi
Second -Vшi
Third -Vi

вaдa-

Conjugation
Singular First вaдāx
Second вaдāшь
Third вaдāie
Plural First вaдāxi
Second вaдāшi
Third вaдāi

Syntax Edit

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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