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Dornel

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Name: Dornel

Type: Flexional

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 3

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


CharacteristicsEdit

Dornel is one of the most important languages of the Efhang family. Its relative simplicity made it an ideal language for commerce and business, until it was almost completely replaced by Tláymyts.

PhonologyEdit

Words are stressed on the first syllable, except when an unstressed prefix is added.

ConsonantsEdit

p [p] t [t] k [k]
b [b] d [d] g [g]
f [f] þ [θ] x [x]
ð [ð]
s [s] dz [dz]
sh [ʃ] zh [ʒ]
m [m] n [n]
r [ɻ] l [l]
y [j] w [w] h [h]

VowelsEdit

Vowels and diphthongs are:

a [a] aw [aw]
e [e], [ɛ] ey [ej], [ɛj]
i [i], [ɪ] iy [ij], [ɪj]
o [o], [ɔ] ow [ow], [ɔw]
u [ʌ], [u] uw [ʌw], [uw]
ə [ə]

Vowels e and o are pronounced primiarily as [ɛ] and [ɔ]. In dialects, the pronunciations [e] and [o] are common.

For u, the standard pronunciation is [ʌ], but the variation [u] also occurs.

MorphologyEdit

NounsEdit

There are three gender of nouns: masculine, feminine and neuter. Nouns are declined according to two numbers: singular and plural, and to four cases, viz.:

  1. Nominative (subject)
  2. Accusative (direct object)
  3. Dative (indirect object)
  4. Genitive (possessive)

Masculine NounsEdit

Declension Example: uwnan "man", "person"
Number Singular Plural
Nominative - -uð
Accusative -o -ozh
Dative -uk -eks
Genitive -ik -iks
Number Singular Plural
Nominative uwnan uwnanuð
Accusative uwnano uwnanozh
Dative uwnanuk uwnaneks
Genitive uwnanik uwnaniks

Feminine NounsEdit

Declension Example: feynreh "family"
Number Singular Plural
Nominative - -eð
Accusative -ew -ezh
Dative -ek -eks
Genitive -ik -iks
Number Singular Plural
Nominative feynreh feynreheð
Accusative feynrehew feynrehezh
Dative feynrehek feynreheks
Genitive feynrehik feynrehiks

Neuter NounsEdit

Declension Example: ðeytet "city", "town"
Number Singular Plural
Nominative - -ið
Accusative -iw -izh
Dative -uk -uks
Genitive -ik -iks
Number Singular Plural
Nominative ðeytet ðeytetið
Accusative ðeytetiw ðeytetizh
Dative ðeytetuk ðeytetiks
Genitive ðeytetik ðeytetiks

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives are declined in a way similar to that of nouns, but with the element i prevailing in the endings. There is no gender distinction.

mupfi "new", "young"Edit

Number Singular Plural
Nominative mupfi mupfið
Accusative mupfiw mupfizh
Dative/Genitive mupfik mupfiks

Kelmti "great"Edit

Number Singular Plural
Nominative kelmti kelmtið
Accusative kelmtiw kelmtizh
Dative/Genitive kelmtik kelmtiks

Comparative FormEdit

SuperiorityEdit

The particle ka is used before the adjective. Ex.:

  • kelmti "large", ka kelmti "larger"
  • mupfi "new", ka mupfi "newer"
  • punni "good", ka punni "better"
EqualityEdit
InferiorityEdit

SuperlativeEdit

The particle hun is used before the adjective. Ex.:

  • kelmti "large", hun kelmti "the largest"
  • mupfi "new", hun mupfi "the newest"
  • punni "good", hun punni "the best"

PronounsEdit

Pronouns follow the same declension system used for nouns and adjectives, with little differences in some forms.

PersonalEdit

The initial e- in the forms of er (except nominative) is dropped in speech, with stress shifting to the last syllable. In written and formal language, however, it is always kept and carries stress.

Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive
1st p. sing. is niw nuk nik
2nd p. sing. dos diw duk dik
3rd p. sing. m. er (e)ro (e)ruk (e)rik
3rd p. sing. f. er (e)rew (e)rek (e)rik
3rd p. sing. n. er (e)riw (e)ruk (e)rik
1st p. pl. muð mizh miks miks
2nd p. pl. fuð fizh diks diks
3rd p. pl. m. (e)ruð (e)rozh (e)reks (e)riks
3rd p. pl. f. (e)reð (e)rezh (e)reks (e)riks
3rd p. pl. n. (e)rið (e)rizh (e)ruks (e)riks

PossessiveEdit

Possessive pronouns are declined like any other adjective.

Person Singular Plural
1st nimi muðði
2nd diyi fuðði
3rd m., f. and n. ðiyi uyi

DemonstrativeEdit

  • iðði "this" (very near)
  • hissi "this" (not so near)
  • giyi "that" (far)

InterrogativeEdit

  • xiy "what"
  • xawn "who"
  • wer "which"
  • neng "how"
  • heym "where"
  • gohem "when"

RelativeEdit

  • xiy "that"
  • xawn "who"

IndefiniteEdit

  • hekonn "some", "any"
  • mayom "no", "none"
  • dutt "all", "every"
  • xett "each", "every"

NumbersEdit

Cardinal NumbersEdit

  • 0 sawl
  • 1 honn
  • 2 tuð
  • 3 delð
  • 4 goleh
  • 5 ðeng
  • 6 dziyes
  • 7 ðawdi
  • 8 uhyed
  • 9 mufi
  • 10 tawððes
  • 11 hontawð
  • 12 tuttawð
  • 13 dettawð
  • 14 gohettawð
  • 15 ðeguttawð
  • 16 dzittawð
  • 17 ðawdittawð
  • 18 uhyettawð
  • 19 mufittawð
  • 20 fed
  • 21 fed honn
  • 30 dled
  • 40 goheled
  • 50 ðeygohed
  • 60 dziheyðed
  • 70 ðawded
  • 80 uhyeded
  • 90 mufed
  • 100 ðawn

Ordinal NumbersEdit

Ordinal numbers are simply the cardinal numbers turned to adjectives and preceded by the particle i:

  • 1st i honni
  • 2nd i tuði
  • 3rd i delði
  • 4th i golhi
  • 5th i ðengi
  • 6th i dziysi
  • 7th i ðawdi
  • 8th i uyhdi
  • 9th i mufi
  • 10th i tawði

ConjunctionsEdit

CoordinatingEdit

  • xoy "for"
  • hiy, goy "and"
  • mayn "nor"
  • ðawt, bûlen "but"
  • u "or"
  • ihet "yet"
  • eððin "so"

CorrelativeEdit

  • henpuð/eð/ið … hiy … "both … and … "
  • u … ho … "either … or … "
  • mayn … mayn … "neither … nor … "
  • mewu … ðat … "not … but … "
  • meððu … denpen … "not only … but also … "

SubordinatingEdit

  • tibyed "after"
  • ged "although"
  • ðiy "if"
  • iððawd "unless"
  • xiyuk "so that"
  • belled "therefore"
  • hebbiys "in spite of", "despite"
  • xoye "because"

VerbsEdit

ConceptsEdit

  • Voices: Active and Passive
  • Moods: Indicative, Conditional
  • Tenses: Present, Perfective, Aorist, Imperfective, Pluperfect, Future, Future Perfect
  • Persons: 1st, 2nd and 3rd
  • Numbers: Singular and Plural

Most endings have been lost. Mood, tense and voice are mostly indicated by means of particles put before or after the verb. Some auxiliary verbs are also used.

Sample Conjugation: feyto "see"Edit

Here is the full conjugation of the verb feyto "see". For other verbs, just change the root (in this case, feyt-).

Infinitive: feyt-o
Tense Indicative Conditional Participle Imperative
Present
1s feyt-əm
2s feyt-ez
3s feyt-ək
1p feyt-unð
2p feyt-ey
3p feyt-əng
1s men feyt-əm
2s men feyt-ez
3s men feyt-ək
1p men feyt-unð
2p men feyt-ey
3p men feyt-əng
feyt-əd
1s -
2s feyt-
3s feyt-ək
1p feyt-nuð
2p feyt-ded
3p feyt-ang
Perfective
1s efəm feyt
2s efez feyt
3s efək feyt
1p efunð feyt
2p efey feyt
3p efəng feyt
1s men efəm feyt
2s men efez feyt
3s men efək feyt
1p men efunð feyt
2p men efey feyt
3p men efəng feyt
feyt-ət -
Aorist
1s stam feyt-əm
2s stadz feyt-ez
3s stak feyt-ək
1p stanð feyt-unes
2p stay feyt-ey
3p stang feyt-əng
1s men stam feyt-əm
2s men staz feyt-ez
3s men stak feyt-ək
1p men stanð feyt-unð
2p men stay feyt-ey
3p men stang feyt-əng
feyt-əs -
Imperfective
1s sin feyt-əm
2s sin feyt-ez
3s sin feyt-ək
1p sin feyt-unð
2p sin feyt-ey
3p sin feyt-əng
1s men sin feyt-əm
2s men sin feyt-ez
3s men sin feyt-ək
1p men sin feyt-unð
2p men sin feyt-ey
3p men sin feyt-əng
feyt-ət -
Pluperfect
1s efəm tot feyt
2s efez tot feyt
3s efək tot feyt
1p efunð tot feyt
2p efey tot feyt
3p efəng tot feyt
1s men efəm tot feyt
2s men efez tot feyt
3s men efək tot feyt
1p men efunð tot feyt
2p men efey tot feyt
3p men efəng tot feyt
feyt-lan -
Future
1s feyt-liy-əm
2s feyt-liy-ez
3s feyt-liy-ək
1p feyt-liy-nð
2p feyt-liy-ded
3p feyt-liy-nga
1s men feyt-liy-əm
2s men feyt-liy-ez
3s men feyt-liy-ək
1p men feyt-liy-nð
2p men feyt-liy-dedz
3p men feyt-liy-nga
feyt-ol -
Future Perfect
1s efliyəm feyt
2s efliyez feyt
3s efliyək feyt
1p efliynð feyt
2p efliyded feyt
3p efliynga feyt
1s men efliyəm feyt
2s men efliyez feyt
3s men efliyək feyt
1p men efliynð feyt
2p men efliyded feyt
3p men efliynga feyt
feyt-elt -


Passive VoiceEdit

Passive voice is formed by means of the particle delem put before the verb. Agent is indicated by means of the preposition with the genitive case. Ex.:

  • Reyfəl delem efək genbəl bə nik. "The book was bought by me."
  • Istuleyh delem melliyək bə erik. "The story is going to be told by him."

SampleEdit

  • "Duttið uwnanuð meððəng reyflið, kas teykmeytetek hiy kas teyliheydeks. Eruð efəng lesewew hiy gemzemzeyew, hiy tifəng esho honn uhodluk hen ispeyleyduk helnemtetik."
    • ("All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.")

VocabularyEdit

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