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Doudouling / Dodolingi

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Doudouling
Dodolingi
Type
Romance / Latin constructed language
Alignment
SVO (normally) ; OVS (pronouns)
Head direction
Head initial (formal); Head final (casual)
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

IdeaEdit

The main idea of my artificial language is to simplify Latin words into one-consonant plus one-vowel structure, wherein the one-vowel is permitted to be nasal, namely (C-V-n) structure. That is because we think this structure is the best for singing. Also, it is required to avoid adding too many extra syllables.

It is trade-off between two options

1) dropping the character not fit into the (C-V-n) structure, which will lose too much info, cause conflict and hard to remember; think about {extract} become {eta}.

2) padding vowels, which will cause too many syllables, and too many repetition of the padding vowel; think about {extract} become {ekusuturakutu}

So the way is to choose some "important" character of the dropped ones and merge them into another consonant or the last vowel.

For example, {extract} => {e-k-str-a-k-t} => {ethato} pronounced as [ɛ'd͡zɑtɔ]. Both {k} are dropped; {s} is merged with [t} to become {th} pronounced [d͡z]; {r} is dropped but represented as a final {-o} suffix.

HistoryEdit

The first version was published in 2004, and an updated version is published in 2014.

Version 2004

Version 2014

Version 2015

DesignEdit

Consonant-vowel-nasal structureEdit

  1. Regard Latin words as several syllables, each with a structure like following: {s} {consonant} {r/l} {i/u} vowel {i/u} {consonant} {consonant}; for convenient, we shorten them as {s} C1 {r/l} S1 V S2 C2 C3
  2. {s}: combine with C1 and convert: {sp} => {ph} ; {st} => {th} ; {sc} {sk} => {ch} . Examples: {state} => {thate} ; {spera} => {phera} ; {sport} => {phota} ; {science} => {chienzo} .
  3. C1: {q} {k} => {c} ; {ce} => {ze} ; {ci} => {zi} ; {ch} [ʃ] {ch} [tʃ] => {ch} ; [ʒ] [dʒ] {y} => {i-}; {w} => {v} ; {x} => {ch} ; {ph} => {f} ; {th} => {t} ; {ch} => {ch} ; {pt} => {b} . Examples: {photo} => {foto} ; {wagon} => {vagon} ; {cent} => {zente} ; {center} => {zenter} ; {aqua} => {aca} ; {question} => {cethon} ; {tank} => {tanco} ; {xerox} => {cherose} ; {china} => {china} ; {japan} => {gapan} ; {adopt} => {adoba} .
  4. {r/l}: delete and move to the end-of-word as compensating {-o} {-u} . Examples: {tract} => {tato} ; {train} => {teno} ; {create} => {ceato} ; {glad} => {gadu} ; {class} => {casu} .
  5. S1: delete if not word stem; else separate to two syllables . Examples: {opinion} => {opinon} ; {piano} => {piano} .
  6. V: just keep {a} {e} {i} {o} {u} ; {y} => {i} . Examples: {pyramid} => {piramid}
  7. S2: combine with V into variations and need compensating {-i} suffix: {ao} {oa} => {au} => {a}..{-i} ; {ae} {ea} => {ai} => {e}..{-i} ; {ee} => {ei} => {i}..{-i} ; {oo} => {ou} => {o}..{-i} ; {oe} {eo} {eu} => {oi} => {u}..{-i} . Examples: {cause} => {casi} ; {daemon=>demoni} ; {coffee} => {cofihi} ; {moustache} => {mothachi} ; {phoenix=>funisi} ; {Europe} => {Uropi} .
  8. C2:
    1. C2: if {r} / {l}, remove and need a compensating {-a} suffix . Examples: {depart} => {depata} ; {alt} => {ata} ; {culture} => {cutura} ; {curt} => {cuta} ; {court} => {cota} .
    2. C2: if {n} / {m}, combine with V into nasal variations: {aN}, {eN}, {iN}, {oN}, {uN} ; wherin {N} is normally {n} but is {m} before {b} {p} {ph} or {m} . Examples: {cant} => {canta} ; {simple} => {simpu} ; {autumn} => {atunni} ; {environment} => {envirommento} .
    3. C2: else remove V and need a compensating {-e} suffix . Examples: {fact} => {fate} ; {experiment (xp is treated as k+sp)} => {epherimente} ; {sign} => {sine} ; {dogmatic} => {domatice} .
  9. C3: create a separate syllable, which needs a ending-vowel or a padding {-e-} : Examples: {construct} => {conthuto} ; {verb} => {veba} ; {partner} => {patenera} .
  10. Choose the ending-vowel based on the order of priority as below
    1. compensating {r/l} : {-o} for dropping {r} ; {-u} for dropping {l}
    2. compensating diphthong : {-i} for diphthong V + S3
    3. compensating C2 : {-a} for dropping {r} ; {-a} for dropping {l} ; {-e} for dropping C2 ;
    4. native: native last vowel in the original word
    5. complement: natural ending based on the class of word: noun singular => {-o}; noun plural (optionally) => {-i}; verb => {-a}; adjective => {-e} ; adverb => {-i}

For example, the word {tract}, a verb should be appended {-a}, but the removed {-r-} determines the ending-vowel to be {-o}, also the removed {-c} needs a compensating {-e}. The second one has higer priority, so it finally became {tato}.

Omitting last syllableEdit

Because the last syllable sometimes bears little information, they can be omitted. The principle of omitting is: the appearing information is more than the omitted one. At first, we observe the last syllable, and give score for consonant and vowel respectively, using the below table.

Score 0 1 2 3 4
Consonant {m}, {n}, {h}, (none), {g} after {n} {s}, {t}, {r}, {l} {p}, {d}, {c} {b}, {z}, {g}, {f}, {v} {ph}, {th}, {ch}
Vowel Complement Compensating {-a}, {-e} Compensating {-o}, {-u} Compensating {-i} Native

If the score of consonant or vowel is 4, so one should not omit. Otherwise, we set the sum of scores of consonant and vowel. If the length after omitting is larger than the sum, one may omit the last syllable. After omitting, the consonant still remain in spelling, but the word stress does not change. That makes that many words have a long form and a short form. The remaining {m}, {n}, {g} might modify the nasal pronunciation of the penultimate syllable.

For example: {important} => {impotanta}; Consonant-Score(t) = 1, Vowel-Score(-a) = 1, Sum = 1 + 1 = 2, Length(impotan) = 3 >= 2, thus: {impotant}.

Another example: {provide} => {povido}; Consonant-Score(d) = 2, Vowel-Score(-o) = 2, Sum = 2 + 2 =4, Length(povi) = 2 < 4, thus: {povido}.

InfluenceEdit

Languages which have influence on this language include:

  1. Latin
  2. French
  3. English
  4. Spanish
  5. Portuguese
  6. Italian
  7. Chinese
  8. Japanese

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s h
Affricate t͡s d͡z
Approximant j w
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Near-open
Open ɑ

AlphabetEdit

Upper Case Lower Case Normal Last of a word Before {h} After {p} {t} {c} Before {g} {c} {h}
A a [ɑ]
B b [b] []
C c [k] [] [j]
D d [d] []
E e [ɛ]
F f [f] []
G g [g] []
H h [ŋ] [] []
I i [i]
L l [l] []
M m [m]
N n [n] [ŋ]
O o [ɔ]
P p [p] [] [w]
R r [h] []
S s [s] []
T t [t] [] [d͡z]
U u [u]
V v [v] []
Z z [t͡s] []

PhonotacticsEdit

All consonants except {m} and {n} are silent when it is the last letter in a word. For example, {bon} [bɔn] meaning {good}, {mar} [mɑ] meaning {sea}, {ma} [mɑ] meaning {my} pronounced the same as {mar}.

There are three consonant clusters: {ph}, {th}, and {ch}. They are pronounced as {ph} [w], {th} [d͡z], and {ch} [j]. For example, {phirit} [wi'hi] meaning {spirit}, {thudenti} [d͡zu'dɛn} meaning {student}, {chibo} ['jibɔ] meaning {script}.

The letter {n} may change from alveolar [n] to velar [ŋ] when it is before {g} [g], {c} [k], or {h} [ŋ]. For example, {anno} ['ɑnnɔ] meaning {year}, {angu} ['ɑŋgu] meaning {angle}, {enhanza} [ɛŋ'ŋɑnt͡sɑ] meaning {enhance}.

The letter {i} becomes a semivowel [j] when it is either between two vowels, or first in a word with a following vowel. For example, {pogete} [pɔ'gɛtɛ] meaning {project}; gunzon [gun't͡sɔn] meaning {junction}.

The affricative consonants {th} [d͡z] and {z} [t͡s] are pronounced together as one consonant. For example, {suthanzale} [sud͡zɑn't͡salɛ] meaning {substantial}.

Word stressEdit

Word stress, namely accent, falls at the vowel before the last consonant, no matter that last consonant is silent or not. For example, {super} [su'pɛ] meaning {upper}, {doma} ['dɔmɑ] meaning {sleep}, {impotant} [impɔ'tɑn] meaning {important}.

Syllable structureEdit

The allowed word structure is one or multiple consonant-vowel-nasal syllables with an optional silent ending consonant letter.

It can be express as a regular expression as below:

^ ( ( b | p | ph | m | f | v | d | t | th | n | s | z | g | c | ch | h | r | l)? [aeiou] ( [mn] )? )+ [bpmfvdtnszgchrl] $

Mnemonic alphabet tableEdit

There is another alphabet layout table as below, which shows better the style of this language and help remembering them.

B b [b] P p [p] PH ph [w] M m [m] F f [f] V v [v]
D d [d] T t [t] TH th [d͡z] N n [n] [ŋ] S s [s] Z z [t͡s]
G g [g] C c [k] CH ch [j] H h [ŋ] R r [h] L l [l]
A a [ɑ] E e [ɛ] I i [i] O o [ɔ] U u [u]

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Number is indicated by the article. For example: {la hom} meaning {the man}, {le hom} meaning {the men}. It is optionally allowed to use {-i} suffix to indicate plural, but it is not necessary. For example: {le homi} also meaning {the men}.

Person can be indicated by pronoun suffixes. For example: {visa-mi} meaning {I look}, {fe-lu} meaning {they do}. Another way is to use pronoun standalone. For example: {mi visa} also meaning {I look}, {lu fe} also meaning {they do}.

Tenses and voices can be indicated by modal verbs. For example: {la thudent thudi-va} meaning {the student will study}, {le hom doma-ha} meaning {people slept}, {la pobemu sova-pen} meaning {the problem is solved}. Another way is to use modal verbs standalone. For example: {la thudent va thudi} also meaning {the student will study}.

Accusative (subject) pronouns can be put in front the verb or after it. Dative pronouns can also be treated the same. For example: {se dita-mi} meaning {I say it}, {te se don-ha-mi} meaning {I have given it to you}.

Person, tenses and voices can be indicated by chained suffixes, and also with accusative pronouns. For example: {te visa-va-mi} meaning {I will see you}, {don-pen-ha-go la liber} meaning {He has been given the book}.

VocabularyEdit

Core vocabularyEdit

English Doudouling (Dodolingi)
the (singular) la
the (plural) le
of de
and e
or o
on su
in in
for po
by pe
with con
this zi
that di
who ci
what ce
when can
where u
why pa
how ca
which cu
as co
under bu
so si
if si
then da
because ba
from ba
though anti
again re
also encor
man hom
woman fem
do fe
be the
much mu
more che
most pim
little paci
big gan
small min
be doing fe-thin
did fe-ha
have done fe-ha
will do fe-va
be done fe-pen
can pu
must man
need nezes
should desev
get pen
give don
take ten
say dit
go va
come ven

DictionaryEdit

Doudouling to English Dictionary

English to Doudouling Dictionary

Swadesh ListEdit

The Doudouling column may contain both short form and long form of the same word.


No. English Doudouling (Dodolingi)
1Imi (accusative: me) (genitive: ma)
2you (singular)tu (accusative: te) (genitive: ta)
3hego (feminine: ga) (accusative: se) (genitive: sa)
4wenu (accusative: ni) (genitive na)
5you (plural)vu (accusative: vi) (genitive: vo)
6theylu (accusative: li) (genitive: lo)
7thiszi (accusative: ze)
8thatdi
9herehi, hizi
10therei, idi
11whoci
12whatce
13whereu, ubi
14whencan
15howca
16notne
17allto, tote
18manymu, muta
19somesever, several
20fewpaci
21otherater, atera
22oneun, une
23twodu
24threetiso, ti-
25fourcato, ca-
26fivezince, zin-
27biggan, gando
28longlong, longe
29widelate, ampu
30thickdense, goso
31heavyponde, gavo
32smallmin, mini
33shortbevo, cuta
34narrowlimite
35thintenu
36womanfem
37man (adult male)hom
38man (human being)human
39childfil, infant
40wifephosi
41husbandmare
42mothermater
43fatherpater
44animalanimal
45fishpichin
46birdavi
47dogcan, cano
48louselase
49snakesepant, sepanta
50wormvema
51treeabor, abora
52forestforetho
53stickbaton, pilo
54fruitfuto
55seedsemin
56leaffoli
57rootradi
58barkcotecha
59flowerforu
60grassheba
61ropethingo
62skindema
63meatcana
64bloodsangin
65boneose
66fatobes
67eggovo
68horncona
69tailtemin
70featherpumu
71hairpelago
72headcapit, capito
73eararicu
74eyeocu
75nosenaso
76mouthoro, oral
77toothdent, dento
78tonguelingo
79fingernaildigit-temin
80footpedo
81leggambo
82kneegenuh
83handman, mano
84wingpinon
85bellyadomen, adomene
86gutsintethin
87neckzeva, colare
88backdosa
89breastpetor, petore
90heartcoda, cadaca
91liverhepar
92drinkbeva
93eatvora
94biteocudu
95sucksute
96spitvomit
97vomitvomita
98blowpopelo
99breathephir, phira, rephir
100laughrir, rira
101seevis, visa
102hearadi
103knowchi
104thinkpens, pensa
105smellodor
106feartimid
107sleepdoma
108liveviva
109diemoda
110killzida, mudera, neca
111fightpune
112huntcaba, cabur
113hitpusa
114cutsega, cupa
115splitseparat
116stabatac, pune
117scratchficato
118digechave, echavate
119swimnatat, natata
120flyaviat, aviata
121walkambu
122comeven, vena
123liedezeba, dezivi
124sitseda
125standthand, thanda
126turntuna
127fallcada
128givedon, dona
129holdcaba
130squeezecompeso
131rubfito, ficato
132washlava
133wipeerasa
134pulltato
135pushpele
136throwgete, gate
137tiegunt, gunta, gunti
138sewcoturi
139countconta
140saydit, dita
141singcant, canta
142playluda, pagu
143floatfotu
144flowfuchu
145freezefigato
146swelltuma, ephand
147sunsol, solo
148moonlun, luna
149starthele
150wateraca
151rainzipit, pezipito
152riverriver, fuvu
153lakelaco
154seamar, maro
155saltsalin
156stonepeter
157sandlapid, lapido
158dustpuva, puvera
159earthtere
160cloudnebul
161fogfumo, nebulo
162skyzel
163windvento
164snownivo
165icegazu
166smokefum
167firefamu, inite
168ashresidu, zendo
169burninzend
170roadrot, roti
171mountainmonto, montan
172redrose, rube
173greenveda
174yellowfavu
175whitebancu, abina
176blackneger
177nightnote
178daydi, dih, diho
179yearan, ann, anno
180warmcalor
181coldfigo
182fullpenu
183newnove, novel
184oldanzen, anzent, anzente
185goodbon
186badmal, male
187rottendecade
188dirtytose
189straightrete, theto
190roundrond, ronde
191sharpacut, acute
192dullotuse, thupide
193smoothgentu
194wethumide, humiditi
195drysice, sicate
196correctcorete
197nearpochim, apochimo, pocho, apocho
198fardithan, ditante
199rightdether, dethere
200leftsinther, sinithere
201ata, in
202inin
203withcon
204ande
205ifsi
206becauseba, po ce
207namenom, nomo, nomin


Example textEdit

Babel textEdit

Dodolingi English
Titu : Babel Tethe, Genesis, Bibu Title : Babel Text , Genesis, Bible
To la mundo the de un ling e de un parol . The whole earth was of one language and of one speech.
Can vogag-lu a la orental , ocure-go ce dichover-ha-lu un panu in la tere de Chinar; e viva-lu idi . As they journeyed east , it happened, that they have found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they lived there.
Dit-lu un a un ater, "Ven , ni lase a fe le tili , e li combutha entirementi." Ha-lu peter po tilo , e usa-lu la tar po la motar . They said one to another, "Come, let's make bricks , and burn them thoroughly ." They had brick for stone, and they used the tar for the mortar.
Dit-lu , "Ven , ni lase conthuto po ni un uba , e un turet , sa capit arive a la zel , e ni lase fe po ni un nom ; ezebe ce divid-pen-nu a uter su la sufaza de to la mundo." They said, "Come, let's build us a city, and a tower , whose top reaches to the sky , and let's make us a name; lest we be scattered abroad on the surface of the whole earth."
Gehova dechend a vis la uba e la turet , ce le infant de hom conthuto-ha . Yahweh came down to see the city and the tower , which the children of men had built .
Gehova dit , "Atenzon , the-lu un popul , e ha-lu to un ling ; e the-zi ce origin-lu a fe . hotemp nule , ce intend-lu a fe , resithu-pen-va de li . Yahweh said, "Behold , they are one people, and they have all one language; and this is what they begin to do . Now nothing, which they intend to do , will be withheld from them.
Ven , ni lase dechend, e ada confus lo ling , da ne pu-lu compendo la parol de un ater." Come, let's down , and there confuse their language, that they may not understand one another's speech ."
Da Gehova li divid uter de idi a la sufaza de to la mundo. Retha-lu de conthuto la uba . So Yahweh scattered them abroad from there on the surface of all the earth. They stopped building the city.
Ada sa nom apele-pen co Babel, ba Gehova confus la ling de to la mundo, idi . De idi , Gehova li divid uter su la sufaza de to la mundo. Therefore the name of it was called as Babel, because Yahweh confused the language of all the earth, there. From there, Yahweh scattered them abroad on the surface of all the earth.

Lord's prayerEdit

Dodolingi English
Titu : Na Pater Title : Our Father
Na pater in la zel, Our fater in heaven,
sant the ta nom . saint is your name.
Ven ta regim , Come your kingdom,
fe-pen ta volunt, done your will ,
co in la zel e su tere . as in heaven and on earch.
Na peri-di pan tu don hodi . Our everyday bread you give today .
Padon-tu na debit, Forgive you our debts,
co padon-ha-nu na debitor. as we have forgotten our debtors.
E tu ne ni dute enter tembazon, and you not us lead into tempation,
bo ni liberat-tu ether de malin. but you us liberate out of malign.

Reflective introduction of DoudoulingEdit

Intoduzono

La pinzipu: a compeso le Latin veba ada la C-V silabu

La magor idea de ma atifizala lingo the a simpifu le Latin veba ada la thuturo de un-consonanto con un-vovelo, in ce la vovelo pemita-pen a the un nasale vovelo. La razon the ba ce pensa-nu ce ze thuturo the la pim bon po canta. Re, the-go recira-pen a pevento de ade muta de le adizonale silabu.

Mase de le Latin veba pu regada-pen co la thuturo con baso: {s} {consonanto} {r/l} {i/u} vovelo {i/u} {consonanto} {consonanto}.

Se chibo-nu po simpu co baso: s C1 (r/l) S1 V S2 C2 C3.

La tageta the a simpifu ze phezi de thuturo ada la un co baso: C V (V pemita-pen a un nasale vovelo).

Pata {s}

A la pimo, la {s}, la pim populare combinazon the {sp-}, {st-}, {sc-}, li conveta-nu ada un singu consonanto, rephetivementi, {ph}, {th}, {ch}, lo ponunzazono dona-pen co [w], [d͡z], [z] (o usa [tʃ] (ch) atenativamenti) in la sim odera. Esampu: state => thate; spera=>phera; sport => phota; science => chienzo.

Pata {consonanto 1}

Ada, la {C1}, se simpifu-nu ada un legale consonanto co baso:

b p m f v

d t n s z

g c h r l

Le ponunzazono asine-pen co, z : [t͡s] (de Gemana), c : [k] asolutementi, h : [ŋ] (ng) (o usa [ʃ] atenativementi), r : [h] (de Fanzeso, pevento-nu la [r] ba the-go dificuta a ponunzo). Le deteli pu considera-pen in pusu impovomento, bo la magor tageta the a se simpifu ada un singu e simpu consonanto. Un ezebone the ce la {pt} ce conveta-pen a {b}. Regu: ph => f; w => v; th => t; c ([s]) => z; q,k => c; x => ch; ch ([ʃ]/[tʃ]) => ch; j,y => g (via gi-); pt => b. Esampu: photo => foto; wagon => vagon; cent => zente; center => zenter; aqua => aca; question => cethon; tank => tanco; xerox => cherose; china => china; japan => gapan; adopt => adoba.

Pata {r/l}

Ada, la {r/l}, va-lu deleta-pen. Bo, va-go resuta a un gando vaniti de infomazona e ceato le confuzon. Ada apende-va-nu un vovelo compensate a la fin de la veba. Po {r}, {-o}; po {l}, {-u}: Esampu: tract => tato; train => teno; creat => ceato; glad => gadu; class => casu .

Pata {semivovelo 1}

La {S1}, la semivovelo in fonto de la vovelo ha mini de usago, e pu deleta-pen, ezebe la caso can apare-lu in la rado de veba, co {piano} e {violet}. Deseva-nu separata la veba ada le du C-V silabu, e un adizonale silabu ceato-pen.

Pata {vovelo}

La {V} the simpu relativementi. Guthi conveta {y} => {i}.

Pata {semivovelo 2}

La {S2}, la semivovelo in dosa de la vovelo. Po zi, {V+S2} pu regada-pen co un ditonge. Simpifu-nu to le ditonge ada zince legale combinazoni: {au}, {ai}, {ei}, {ou}, {oi}. E pusu, the-lu repesento-pen pe {a}, {e}, {i}, {o}, {u) con un compensate {-i}. ao/oa => au => a ..-i; ae/ea => ai => e ..-i; ee => ei => i ..-i; oo => ou => o ..-i; oe/eo/eu => oi => u ..-i. Esampu: cause => casi; daemon=>demoni; coffee => cofihi; moustache => mothachi; phoenix=>funisi; Europe => Uropi.

Pata {consonanto 2}

La {C2} the compesu comparativementi, ba tiso sitazoni nezese considera-pen: A pimo, si {C2} the {r} o {l}, remova-pen-va-go e nezese un compensate {-a}. Esampu. depart => depata; alt => ata; culture => cutura; curt => cuta; court => cota. A seconde, si {C2} the {n} o {m}, resuta-va-go la vovelo ada varazon de nasale: aN, eN, iN, oN, uN. La {N} deseva usa {n} o {m} selon la secenze consonanto, si {b},{p},{ph} o {m}, {N} the {m}; atera, {N} the {n}. Esampu: cant => canta; simple => simpu; autumn => atunni; environment => envirommento. A la tiso, si {C2} the atera, remova-pen-va-go e nezese un compensate {-e}. Esampu: fact => fate; experiment ({xp} regada-pen co {k+sp}) => epherimente; sign => sine; dogmatic => domatice.

Pata {consonanto 3}

A final, po la {C3}, si la {C3} the la utima letere de la Latin veba, se considera-nu un adizonale silabu. Esampu: construct => conthuto; verb => veba. Si atera, un adizonale {-e-} inseta-pen. Esampu: partner => patenera.

La fino e la compensazon

La pinzipu de la regu de la utima vovelo the se fe a divesa. Le regu de apende ha le cato sitazoni co baso. Si un veba satifi du categori, Le regu con pusu ata pezedenzo va adoba-pen. Po esampu, la veba {tract}, a veba deseva apende-pen {-a}, bo la delezon de {-r-} deseva apende {-o}, e la delezon de {-c-} recira a compensata {-e}. La seconde un ha pim ata pezedenzi, da go finalementi deven a {tato}.

Le regu:

1.Compensate

delezon de -r- : -o ; delezon de -l- : -u ;

compezono de ditonge : -i ;

delezon de -r / -l : -a ; delezon de dupu consonanto : -e ;

2.Native

Si la origin veba temina con un vovelo

3.Compementu ( o natural )

nominative (sugete) nomo : -o ; genitive (pedicativo) nomo : -e ; acusative (ogete) nomo : -o (atenativamenti: -a) ; puralu nomo : -i ; nomala veba : -a ; (atenativamenti: veba de pathe tenso : -e) (pefero a usa modal veba sufiche {-ha}) ; (atenativamenti: veba de future tenso : -o) (pefero a usa modal veba sufiche {-va}) ; (atenativamenti: veba de continose tenso : -i) (pefero a usa modal veba sufiche {-thin}) ; (atenativamenti: veba de pasive voco : -e) (pefero a usa modal veba sufiche {-pen}) ; veba : -a ; agetive : -e ; aveba : -i ; peposizono, connezon: -e ;

Omita la final silabu

Ba la final silabu convei mini infomazon in tempi, pu-lu omita-pen. La pinzipu a omita the: la infomazon ce apare the pusu dan la infomazon ce disapare. A pimo, oseva-nu la utima silabu, et don-nu le punti po la consonanto e la vovelo rephetivementi, usa-thin la base tabu.

Consonanto: 0 = nule,h,m,n,ng ; 1 = s,t,r,l ; 2 = p,d,c ; 3 = b,g,f,v,z; 4 = ph,th,ch ;

Vovelo: 0 = Compementu ; 1 = Compensate -a,-e ; 2 = Compensate -o,-u ; 3 = Compensate -i ; 4 = Native ;

Si la punti de la consonanto o de la vovelo the 4, da ne pu-nu omita la fina silabu. Si atera, caculata-nu la sum de le punti de la consonanto e la vovelo. Si la number de silabu ezebe la utima un the pusu dan la sum, pu-nu omita la final silabu. Pothe se omita, la consonato remeni la chiburo encor, bo la azente ne changa-va. La {m}, {n}, {g} ce remeni pu encor changa la nasale ponunzazono de la penutima silabu. Un esampu: {important} => {impotanta}; consonante-punti(t) = 1, vovele-punti(-a) = 1, sum = 1 + 1 = 2, silabu-number(impotan) = 3 >= 2, ada: {impotant}. Un atera esampu: {provide} => {povido}; consonante-punti(d) = 2, vovele-punti(-o) = 2, sum = 2 + 2 =4, silabu-number(povi) = 2 < 4, ada: {povido}.

Selezon de veba

La Latin veba ce usa-nu the le veba ce deriva de le Latin radi e ce apare in Engichu.

Azente

La azente locata in la vovelo in fonto de la utima consonanto.

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