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Dréàn Ãü (Ancient draconic)

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Dréàn Ãü
Ancient Draconic (Romanisation)
Type
Romanisation/Rare language
Alignment
Left to Right
Head direction
Head-initial
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
1
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Dréàn Ãü (IPA /drɛ˥æ˩n æju:/) is the romanised version of the symbolic language spoken by ancient Dragons and Wyverns. It is still spoken today by a minority of Dragons on the Íenarís, the legendary islands of the pacific. It is unknown how this language came to be known by Humans, but myth says that a human warrior befriended a dragon and protected it. Some say this dragon taught the human this language, but it's uncertain how he notified other humans as the warrior was never seen again.

 PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive pb td kg
Fricative fv θ s ʒ χ
Approximant j
Trill r
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i
Open-mid ɛ ʌ
Fairly open æ
Open ɒ

AlphabetEdit

The ancient form of the language used runic script. So far no full examples of the runic alphabet used has been found. The runes are the same in uppercase and lowercase, leading to confusion in whether or not a word is a name.

The romanisation/modern version uses the standard Latin alphabet. Vowels can have either an acute, a grave or an umlaut diacritic, or none at all. The letters A, N and O can have a tilde diacritic which are counted as different letters.

  • A-Ana /æ/
  • Ã-Aya /æj/
  • B-Blej /b/
  • C-Cren /k/
  • D-Dife /d/
  • E-Ien /ɛ/
  • F-Fen /f/
  • G-Gua /f/
  • H-Hineh /h/
  • I-Ein /i/
  • J-Jota /j/
  • K-Kana /k/
  • L-Lao /l/
  • M-Mem /m/
  • N-Nem /n/
  • Ñ-Ney /ɲ/
  • O-Oue /ʌ/
  • Õ-Oy /ʌj/
  • P-Pres /p/
  • Q-Kenu /k/
  • R-Reta /r/
  • S-Sana /s/
  • T-Tre /t/
  • U-Uva /ɒ/
  • V-Vuna /v/
  • W-Vuwa /w/
  • X-Ks-et /eks/ or /ks/
  • Y-Yeni /j/
  • Z-Zri /ʒ/

DiacriticsEdit

Acute accents (Á, É, Í, Ó, Ú) are pronounced higher than normal; e.g. 'A' is /æ˧/ while 'Á' is /æ˥/. Grave accents (À, È, Ì, Ò, Ù) are pronounced lower than normal; e.g. 'À' is /æ˩/. Umlauts(Ä, Ë, Ï, Ö, Ü) extend the vowel sound from their nomally short pronunciations (Ä is /eɪ/, Ë is /i:/, Ï is /aɪ/, Ö is /əʊ/, Ü is /u:/). Tildes (Ã, Ñ, Õ) depend on the letter (A and O have /j/ on the end of the pronunciation, N changes to /ɲ/).

PhonotacticsEdit

When two vowels are next to each other, the sound produced by each vowel is pronounced individually, with a small gap between them that lasts a little shorter than a space between 2 words. There are also 5 consonant phonemes:

  • Ch - th /θ/
  • Ll - h (throaty) /χ/
  • G = f /f/
  • Ph = kh /kʰ/
  • J/Jj = y /j/

In order to prevent the pitch of the word end getting too high or low, the amount of pitch rise or falls is usually no more than 3 tones higher or lower than the start of the word. Stress always falls on the 2nd to last syllable.

GrammarEdit

Nouns (Not names) must always have the word 'The' or Shò before it. This means you translate 'Boat' to The boat, 'Houses' to The houses. Plurals are indicated by Shòs.

Verbs in Dréàn Ãü are split into 2 major sections and 3 endings. The first section is the regular section and is much larger. There are 3 endings, -en, -ir and -reg, that are attached onto the stem of the verb. These conjugated verbs consist of 3 parts: Person, Stem, Ending. Each person has a representative ending if they are doing the action, and a different ending if the action is being done to another, while the stem stays the same after conjugation.

Negatives are indicated by the addition of Zha before the person.

There is no actual conjugation for 'It' or 'One', both use 'He' instead.

-En endings                                      -En personsEdit

I - é You - es I - Jje You - Kre
He - el She - ela He - Che She - Dre
We - esen They - elà We - Kren They - Chen

The verb 'To be' is Eitálen, so using this knowledge 'I am' is Jje eitálé, 'She is' is Dre eitálela. If you want to say 'We are them', you would use the 'We' person and the 'They' ending, making Kren eitálelà.

-Ir endings                                         -Ir personsEdit

I - é You - es I - Lli You - Phi
He - il She - ila He - Shi She - Sheri
We - esen They - ílà We - Phin They - Shin

The verb 'To walk' is Dlonir, so 'We walk' is Phin dlonesen, 'He walks' is Shi dlonil. If you want to say 'I walk him', you would use the 'I' person and the 'He' ending, making Lli dlonil.

-Reg endings                                         -Reg personsEdit

I - é You - ru I - Gro You - Vro
He - pru She - pra He - Eir She - Eire
We - ruen They - ün We - Llro They - Eirn

The verb 'To have' is Trépreg, so 'They have' is Eirn trépün, 'You have' is Vro trépru. If you want to say 'You have us', you would use the 'You' person and the 'We' ending, making Vro trépruen.

The 2nd half of the verbs are the stem changing ones. The only difference is that these verbs also have a spelling change in the stem of the verb. There is no pattern between stem changing verbs; you have to learn what they are. The 3 types of stem change are as follows:

  • I to E. EG, 'To play' is Kriven, 'I play' is Jje krevé.
  • K to . EG, 'To want' is Chökir, 'He wants' is Eir chökòpru.
  • É to A. EG, 'To do' is Jjéreg, 'We do' is Llro jjaruen.

TensesEdit

Tenses are very simple. All that is needed to do is to add a suffix onto the conjugated stem of the verb.

PreteriteEdit

This indicates an action done in the past, what you did. Add the suffix Dar onto the verb to form the preterite. 'I did' translates to Lli jjaédar.

ImperfectEdit

This indicates a progressive action in the past, what you were doing or used to do. Add the suffix Gan onto the verb to form the imperfect. 'I used to walk' would be Gro dlonégan.

ConditionalEdit

This indicates what you would do. Add the suffix trí to form the conditional. 'I would have' translates to Gro trépétrí.

FutureEdit

This indicates what you will do or are going to do. Add the suffix da to form the future. 'I will see' (Srüden) translates to Jje srüdéda.

ContractionsEdit

Like the verbs, contractions are split into 2 types, mandatory and voluntary. Mandatory contractions are required to uphold proper grammar.

The 3 mandatory contractions are:

  • 'The' + noun starting with a vowel = Sh' + noun. EG, 'The bed' is Sh'ean. If the noun is plural, you move the s to the end of the noun, as in Sh'eans.
  • 'I' verb conjugation + 'My' (Éo) = Verb conjugation + O. EG, 'I have my...' is Gro trépréo.
  • 'At' (Pheto) + 'His/Hers' (Ou/Oue) = Phetu/Phetue. EG, 'At his beach...' is Phetu shò brida....

Voluntary contractions are not required. They are usually used in an informal sense between family and friends, and as so, in formal speech they are frowned upon.

  • A word ending with a consonant can be joined with the following word if it starts with a vowel.
  • If you have U shò, the two words can be made into Shu.
  • If you have Dn shò, the two words can be made into Dhò.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives are easily noticeable as they always end in Fer. However, they are unusual in the way that opposites are very similar; to one who is not fluent in Dréàn Ãü they may mistake one for another. For example 'Small' is Zhifer yet 'Big' is Zhenfer. Non-colour adjectives are put before the noun but after the Shò, yet colours are displayed after the noun.

ColoursEdit

The only 'true' colours are as follows:

  • Black - Phollïfer.
  • Red - Tjenfer.
  • Green - Llavbrefer.
  • Blue - Llofer.
  • Orange - Ñrofer.
  • Yellow - Praqofer.
  • Brown - Wrifer.
  • White - Khenafer.

The rest of the colours are indicated by a mix between different colours. For example, purple is Phollï'tjenfer (Black-red). If a colour is said to be 'dark', the suffix -ïfer is added and if it is a 'light' colour the suffix -afer is added.

Extreme agglutinationEdit

Due to the grammar rules on adjectives being more relaxed than normal, when lots of adjectives are required Dréàn Ãü effectively becomes an agglutinative language. Adjectives can be mashed together by replacing the -fer with an apostrophe and joining up the words. For example, 'small, thin and smooth table' can be said as Shò zhi'trake'jjonefer brotten.

An even extremer form of agglutination is when adjectives and colours are joined onto the end of the noun. This would mean that 'small, thin, smooth and green table' can be translated as Shò brottenzhi'trake'jjonefer-llavbrefer. Note that the colour adjective has a separate -fer, is joined by a hyphen and the preceding adjective is not shortened.

DialectsEdit

There are 3 main types of dialect, as well as several minor dialects. The first one, used in the north islands and the most common, is the pronunciations that I have put onto this page.

The second most common is used in the east side islands. It is rather similar, but there are differences in single letter pronunciations and the addition one extra phoneme:

  • S is /ʃ/
  • R is /ɹ/ (I.e. not trilled)
  • Ñ is /ŋ/
  • Br makes /ɸ/

The third most common is rather different to the two more common dialects. It is spoken on the south islands. Someone with little knowledge in this dialect who speaks one of the more common variants will have trouble understanding words spoken in this dialect:

  • S is /θ/
  • Ch and Th are /s/
  • C and K are /q/
  • Q is /g/
  • J is /dʒ/

VocabularyEdit

Note: numbers are stated as 'Ten and one', 'One hundred, ten and one' and so on. Hundreds/thousands are indicated by 'One and hundred/thousand', 'Two and hundred/thousand' and so on.

English Translation
One Uop
Two Wra
Three Phínen
Four Ouf
Five Zcan
Six Aex
Seven Trï
Eight Eilt
Nine Ãen
Ten Phùtìn
Twenty Zhán
Thirty Lloton
Forty Fraxen
Fifty Hrenõn
Sixty Aekën
Seventy Pholan
Eighty Eibun
Ninety Nrãxon
One hundred Uop lr uendra
One thousand Uop lr trensten
Yes Pe
No Zha
English (Language) Ìetofen Ãü
English (Adj) Ìetofer
Hello Fralek
Goodbye Cho
How are you? Có eitáles kre?
(Very) good (Të) bretfer
Please Drat
Thanks Fabõ
But Dn
Good morning Shò bretfer chaltes
Good afternoon Shò bretfer frobbe
Good day Shò bretfer krã
Good night Shò bretfer tolset
My name is.. Mi klant che eitálel..
I don't speak Dréàn Ãü Zha lli quenté Dréàn Ãü
Do you speak English? Quentes phi Ìetofen Ãü?
I (don't) understand (Zha) gro aoldosé
Can you speak slower, please? Kãsru vro quentir plú lufer, drat?

Example textEdit

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