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Dradelian/Grammar

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The guid to Dradelian grammar. Attributed to the "Sabimo rajämu cin Drädelsrutu" (Dradelian Thieves Guild).

ContentsEdit

[hide]#Contents

  1. AlphabetEdit
    1. Pronunciation guideEdit
  2. GrammarEdit
    1. Derivational morphology Edit
    2. Definite articleEdit
    3. Morphological paradigmsEdit
      1. Plural and non-countable Edit
        1. NounsEdit
        2. AdjectivesEdit
        3. AdverbsEdit
    4. VerbsEdit
      1. InfinitiveEdit
      2. TensesEdit
    5. AspectsEdit
      1. ExamplesEdit
    6. EndingsEdit
      1. For exampleEdit
    7. CasesEdit
    8. Plurals/Non countablesEdit
      1. ExamplesEdit
      2. ExamplesEdit
    9. More pronounsEdit
      1. Personal PronounsEdit
    10. PredeterminersEdit
    11. MoodsEdit
      1. ConditionalEdit
        1. For example...Edit
    12. other moodsEdit
    13. AspectsEdit
    14. InfinitivesEdit
    15. Futher AdjectivesEdit
      1. Double adjectivesEdit
      2. DemonymsEdit
      3. Adverbs describing adjectives Edit
    16. Possession Edit
      1. NumberEdit
      2. causativeEdit

AlphabetEdit

Letter: A B C D E F Ä G H I J K L Ğ M N O P R Rz S Sz T U Ã Õ V Y Z
IPA: ɑ b t͡ɕ d e/eɪ f æ g h i ɟ/ʑ k l ɣ m n o p ɾ ʑ s ɕ t u ɑ̃  õ v j z
  • J is pronounced ɟ when followed by a vowel, but it is pronounced ʑ when at the end of a word or followed by a consonant or at the end of a word. 
  • E is pronounced eɪ when it is placed at the end of a word.
  • Ä, Ã, Õ and Ğ are distinct letters of the alphabet, and can not be substituted by A, A, O and G. Instead they must be substituted by Ae, Ao, Ou and Gz if the letters are unable to be typed.
  • A grave accent can be used in any vowel (excluding Õ and Ã) to indicate that the vowel is not part of an inflection, these do not change the pronunciation or contribute to separate letters of the alpahbet (unlike Ä, Ã and Õ which are separate letters). The grave accent form of Aa, Ee, Ää, Ii, Oo and Uu is Àà, Èè, Ȁȁ, Ìì, Òò and Ùù. The use of graves is non-standard.

Pronunciation guideEdit

  • A - a as in father
  • B - b as in bat
  • C - similar to ch in chat
  • D - d as in doomupper teeth, as in v.</span>
  • E - e as in peck
  • F - f as in fish (only used in verbs)
  • Ä - a as in cat (notice the difference in pronunciation compared with A)
  • G - g in gear
  • H - h in hat
  • I - ee in feed
  • J - either like "dy" or s in vision
  • K - c in cat
  • L - l in lamp
  • Ğ - not used in English, but is pronounced the same as it is in Azeri, sounds a bit like a mixture of G and Z.
  • M - m in mop
  • N - n in no
  • O - o in so
  • P - p in pan
  • R - r in rat (however, tapped)
  • Rz - s in measure
  • S - s in sink
  • Sz - sh in ship
  • T - t in top
  • U - oo in boot
  • Ã - nasal A
  • Õ - nasal O
  • V - v in van (v is very rarely used in Dradelian)
  • Y - y in yellow
  • Z - z in zoo 

GrammarEdit

Derivational morphology Edit

Adverbs, Adjectives and Nouns can be derived from eachother by adding the appopriate suffix. For example, the noun "kipomo" can be made into an adjective "kipomu", meaning pig-like. It can also be made an adverb, "kipomi" meaning a "in a pig-like manor". 

Definite articleEdit

Dradelian has one article, the definite article. It is used to show that the noun is definitive, identifiable to the listener/reader. "The" is the definite article in English, and the Dradelian definite article is like "The" in English. However, the definite article in Dradelian is a suffixed article, which means that it is marked in the end if the noun, rather than being an individual word like in English. The Dradelian definitive article is "ako", it is placed on the end of a definite noun instead of "o".

  • Kipomo = a pig
  • Kipomako = the pig

Morphological paradigmsEdit

Plural and non-countable Edit

NounsEdit

As in English, plural nouns take -s in Dradelian. However, Dradelian also marks non-countable nouns to show that they are non-countable. Non-countable nouns are substances of concepts that we cannot divide into separate elements, or have several of them. Air, water, cheese, dust are examples of non-countable nouns, in Dradelian, non countable nouns are marked with -t.

  • Kipomo = a pig
  • Kipomos = pigs
AdjectivesEdit

In Dradelian, adjectives must agree with the noun they describe. Therefore, and adjective becomes plural or non-countable if the noun it describes is plural or non-countable. Singular adjectives are marked with -u, plural adjectives are marked with -su and non-countable adjectives are marked with -tu.

  • Kipomo szumumu = large pig
  • Kipomos szumumsu = large pigs
AdverbsEdit

Adverbs become plural or non-countable only when an adverb is describing a plural or non-countable adjective. For example, if an adjective is describing a plural or non-countable noun, it will then become either plural or non-countable. But if the plural or non-countable adjective is described by an adverb, the adverb will also become either plural or non-countable. Singular adverbs are marked with -i, plural adverbs are marked with -si and non-countable adverbs are marked with -ti.

  • Kipomo szumumu rzizäni = extremely large pig
  • Kipomos szumumsu rzizänsi = extrmemly large pigs
Singular Plural Non-Countable
Noun -o -os -ot
Adjective -u -su -tu
Adverb -i -si -ti

VerbsEdit

InfinitiveEdit

The infinitive is the basic, unconjugated form of a verb, sometimes called the name of the verb. In English the infinitive is the word "to" followed by a verb: to talk, to see, to return. The Dradelian infinitive is formed by adding the suffix -iar to the end of the verb.

TensesEdit

Tenses in Dradelian are formed by removing the infinitive suffix and replacing it with the appropriate suffix. There are three tenses in Dradelian, past, present and future.

Tense Suffix
Present -ar
Past -ir
Future -or

AspectsEdit

Aspects in Dradelian take suffixes. Below is a list of moods.

  • Perfect +igu
  • Continuous +äyu
  • terminative +erätu
  • Durative - ärgu 
  • Prospective (soon) - olju 
  • Defective - akrenu 
  • Accidental - isendru
  • Inchoative - to begin to, to start to - evesku
  • Iterative - avredu

ExamplesEdit

  • Ton dujar kipomo - I feed pig
  • Ton dujor kipomo - I fed pig
  • Ton dujir kipomo - I am going to feed pig

-iar is the infinitive ending. -ar is the present tense ending. -or is the past tense ending. -ir is the future tense ending. Dradelian uses a SVO word order, like English, however it uses VSO when the verb is jussive. To show that the action happened to someone, rather than them doing the action, you make them the object of the sentence, for example...

  • Ton dujor - I fed
  • Dujor ton - I was fed

Since "ton" (I) is now the object of the sentence, it shows I was being fed, and not feeding something.

EndingsEdit

Dradelian lacks articles. The equivalent of articles in Dradelian are in the form of suffixes. They are - ut = the.

For exampleEdit

  • Kipomo = A pig/Pig, Kipomos = Pigs
  • Kipomuto = The pig, Kipomutos = The pigs
  • Kipomälos = Some pigs

CasesEdit

Dradelian has three cases:Nominative, vocative and partitive.

Case Singlular noun

Plural noun 

Non countable noun

Singluar

adjective

Plural

adjetive

Non-countable

adjective

Pronoun

Adverb

(present)

Adverb

(past)

Adverb

(future)

Nominative -o -os -ot -u -su -tu - (s/t)i dr(s/t)i zl(s/t)i
Vocative -soyto -soytos -soytot -soytu -soytsu -soyt'tu -goyn soyt(s/'t)i soytdr(s/t)i soytzl(s/t)i
Partitive -älo -älos -älot -älu -älsu -ältu - äl(s/t)i äldr(s/t)i älzl(s/t)i

Plurals/Non countablesEdit

To make a noun plural, you must add -s to the end, so kipomo = pig, kipomos = pigs. Also, if a noun is plural, the adjective describing the noun must be plural also, we do this by adding an -s before the -u. Non-countable nouns, for example "milk", "mud", "muck" and "rum", work the same was as plurals, however they take a -t rather than an -s.

ExamplesEdit

  • Kipomo szumumu - big pig
  • Kipomos szumumsu - big pigs
  • Nuhot mugantu - brown mud

As you may have noticed, adjectives are post-positive, which means they are placed after the noun, unlike English where adjectives are placed before the noun. Adverbs are also post-positive, which means they come after the verb they are describing.

For words which end in "t", to be made an adjective describing a non-countable word, an apostrophe must be added to separate the t on the end of the word and the "t" in the -tu non-countable adjective ending. For example, "Dradelsrut" is the demonym for Dradelia in Dradelian. As an adjective describing a non-countable noun it would be "Dradelsrut'tu".

If you are talking about actions you do to yourself, you must use Ton, the word for I/me ("I" and "me" are the same word in Dradelian"). For example, if you where saying "I get washed" in English, meaning you washyourself, it would be "Ton haszar ğäyte ton", literally meaning "Me wash to me" to show you are washing yourself, not washing another thing or person. Also, there are no reflexive pronouns (himself, yourself, ourselves ect.) in Dradelian, so to show someone or you are doing an action to themselves you use a personal pronoun as the subject and put "ğäyte" (to) before the subject. For example

  • Szekan dujar ğäyte szekan - He fed himself (Literally:He fead to he)
  • Szekan dujar szeken - he fed him, as in someone else (Literally:He fed he)

This is also used in Dradelian to express an action without specifying a subject. For example if you where to say "I eat", without specifying a subject, you would say in Dradelian "Ton dujar ğäyte ton" which means "I fed to myself". However if you where saying you eat something, such as "I eat chese", you would say "Ton ğafar yoszot", since the sentence has a subject, with yoszot (cheese) being the subject.

Questions When asking a question in Dradelian, use the following pronouns. In Dradelian questions, the word order sticks to SVO, unlike English which sometimes inverts during a question. For example, "who are you?" in Dradelian is "bhan bhõk cebar?", literally "who you are?".

  • rzan - who 
  • cumon - what
  • bemov - where
  • dän - why 
  • szarzum - how
  • ğetem - how much/how many
  • vec - yes/no
  • szud - which
  • vyok - yes/no when there are multiple choices
  • vyevem - what type?

ExamplesEdit

  • Rzan cebar yero? - Who is a beast? (Litteral:Who is beast?)
  • Cumon cebar yero? What is a beast? (Litteral:What is beast?)
  • Bemov cebar yero? Where is a beast? (Litteral:Where is beast?)
  • Dän cebar yero...? Why is a beast...? (Litteral:Why is beast...?)
  • Szarzum cebar yero...? How is a beast...? (Litteral:How is beast...?)
  • Ğetem rzõk varzar yeros? How many beasts do you own? (Litteral:How many you own beasts?)
  • Vec rzõk cebar yero? Are you a beast? (Litteral:Yes/no you are beast?)
  • Szud ton jokar yero? Which beast do you like? (Litteral:Which you like beast?)

More pronounsEdit

Personal PronounsEdit

English Dradelian
I, me Ton
You Rzõk
You (plural) Yaran
He, him Szekan
She, her Patim
They Gäj
We, us Bihab

PredeterminersEdit

Predeterminers in -ucä, for a setence with prederminers this is the form. (adjective) (verb) (predeterminer)

Bägu cebor ucä (alike where all) - (All where alike)

MoodsEdit

Dradelian has two moods, subjunctive and conditional. In Dradelian, these moods are shown as prefixes before the verb.

ConditionalEdit

Conditional in Dradelian is used to express something hypothetic, it is used in Dradelian to express "If something happens, something else will happen too".

For example...Edit
  • Rzõk vilzobar cajäto, vilguszar rzõk. - If you kill a human, you will be imprisoned.
  • rzõk vilzobir cajäto, vilguszir rzõk. - If you are going to kill a human, you are going to be imprisoned.
  • rzõk vilzobor cajäto, vilguszor rzõk. - If you had killed a human, you would have been imrpisoned.

Subjunctive

  • Prefix = Jut-

Subjunctive in Dradelian is used to express something unreality. Where as the Conditional is used to express reality.

For example...

  • "Rzõk vilzobar cajät. Vilguszir rzõk" - "If you kill a human. You will be imprisoned".

other moodsEdit

  • sred - desirative, want to
  • sdol - Necessisative, need to
  • prek - Potential, able to, can
  • vyem - Speculative, maybe
  • crev - should
  • väl = "probably" 

AspectsEdit

Aspects in Dradelian take suffixes. Below is a list of moods.

  • Perfect +igu
  • Continuous +äyu
  • terminative +erätu
  • Durative - ärgu 
  • Prospective (soon) - olju 
  • Defective - akrenu 
  • Accidental - isendru
  • Ihocative - to begin to, to start to - evesku
  • Examples
  • PreSimp = Present. - Szekan dokar Kipomuto (he bombs the pigs)
  • PreProg = Current, still happening - Szekan dokaräyu Kipomuto (he is bombing the pigs)
  • PrePer = Recently happened, still current. - Szekan dokarigu Kipomuto (he has bombed the pigs)
  • PasSimp = Past. - Szekan dokor Kipomuto (he bombed the pigs)
  • PasProg = Continuos, but happened. - Szekan dokoräyu Kipomuto (he was bombing the pigs)
  • PasPer = Was still current at the time, but has happened Szekan dokorigu Kipomuto (he had bombed the pigs)
  • FutSimp = Future. - Szekan dokir Kipomuto (he will bomb the pigs)
  • FutProg = Will be continuos, when it happens - Szekan dokiräyu Kipomuto (he will be bombing the pigs)
  • FutPer = Will be current, but over with when it happens - Szekan dokiräyu Kipomuto (he will have bombed the pigs)

InfinitivesEdit

The infinitive form of the verb in Dradelian ends in -iar. Infinitives can be used in several ways in Dradelian. The first way is for sentences like "I can kick", "I refuse to run" which use two verbs. In Dradelian these would be "Ton  pozar beviar" and "Ton vugar mãyiar". Infinitives can also be used for phrases such as "It is hard to eat", which in Dradelian would be "Gan cebar ğafiar rzäbi" meaning "It is to eat hard/difficult". 

Futher AdjectivesEdit

Double adjectivesEdit

Double adjectives in Dradelian need to be seperated by "cin" (Dradelian for "and"). For example "Kipomo jeğämu cin secumu", litterally "Pig fat and smelly". 

DemonymsEdit

Demonyms, words relating to a place can be adjectives too. Demomyns end in -srut, and can be made an adjective by adding -u (-su if plrual, -tu if non countable). So "Kipomo Kästrovsrutu" means "Kaestrovian pig", and "Kipomos Kästrovsrutsu" means "Kaestrovian pigs". If a demonym is made into a noun such as "Dradelsruto" it refers to a Dradelian person.


Adverbs describing adjectives Edit

Adverbs can describe adjectives in Dradelian. They must be placed after the Adjective they are describing. For example "Kipomo jeğämu rzizäni" means "A very fat pig", with jeğämu being the adjective meaning "fat" or "chubby" and "rzizäni" being an adverb meaning "very". This can work for double adjectives too, "Kipomo jeğämu rzizäni cin secumu rzizäni" means a "very fat, very smelly pig". Both adjectives need to take the adverb "rzizäni" in this sentence to show both adjectives are desribed by the adverb "rzizäni". If only one was followed by the adverb, the adverb would only describe the adjective it followed.

Possession Edit

Possession in Dradelian is indicated by using suffixes. For example -pan is the suffix meaning "your", so kipompanomeans "your pig". In Dradelian to say "the pig is yours" you would say "Kimpomuto cebar kipompano" meaning "The pig is your pig".

NumberEdit

To show numbers in Dradelian, a prefix is added. For example, "dani" is the prefix meaning three. So three pigs would be "Kipomdanios", this can be extended by saying "Kipompandanios" meaning "three of your pigs", and even "Kipomälpandanios" meaning "Some of your three pigs".

causativeEdit

+tr(i/î)id

Futher word order

I have modified the gun to kill the pig (English)

I have modified to kill the pig the gun (Dradelian - litteral)

i dri drsi zli zlsi 

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