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Drunal

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Drunal
Deu Nels
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Drunal is the third language of the Netherbelgs , preceded by Sveg in the north. This language is spoken by the western region.

PhonologyEdit

The Drunal phonology is based off the Dutch phonology; as Drunal is the Natrodian equivalent to Dutch.

TableEdit

Sound IPA
A ɑ
AA a:
B b
C loaned (normally /s/, /k/ or /t͡s/)
CH χ (word-final: x)
D d
E ɛ
EE e: / ɛɪ̯
EI ɛi̯
ER ɚ:
EU øː
EUR ø˞:
F f
G ɣ (word-final: χ)
H h
I ɪ
IE i:
IJ æɪ̯
J j
K k
L l
M m
N n
NG ŋ
O ɔ
OO o: / ɔʏ̯
P p
Q loaned
R ʁ (ɹ otherwise)
RR ʀ
S s
SJ ʃ
T t
U ʏ
UI ɶɪ̯
V v
W ʋ
X k͡s
Y i
Z z

Phonetic RulesEdit

The following applies to rootwords:

  • Primary stress is usually placed on the penultimate syllable unless the penultimate syllable is not part of the root word (i.e. conjugations like ge- to make participles and prefixes).
    • Secondary stress is usually placed on the first syllable of the second word of a compound word. Root words cannot have both types of stress.
  • E is pronounced /ə/ at the end of a word.
    • This is also true in Es in unstressed syllables.
  • AE and O are automatically pronounced as a double vowel (AAEE and OO respectively) in the primary stressed syllable unless a double consonant (ttkk etc.) or a consonant digraph like ch proceeds it.
    • Doesn't apply to single syllable words.
  • A vowel with a diaeresis signifies it is part of another syllable and separates it from digraphs.
    • These are Ë, Ï and Ü
      • ​Ö isn't as popular and is usually used in bounderies of compound words and past participles as the digraph OO isn't normally separated.
  • É forces primary stress, so it is usually placed in the second syllable and functions like a normal E:
    • Oke means oak and is pronounced /ˈo:kə/
    • Oké means okay and is pronounced /ɔˈke:/
    • Ó functions similarly
  • Words beginning with a vowel are preceded with a glottal stop if necessary.
  • A word-final G isn't pronounced if the next word begins with G
    • The G becomes geminated.
      • Jeg gaat /jɛ ɣ:a:t/ I go
  • In colloquial speech, one can omit word-final Gs completely if it is more comfortable to do so.

Word OrderEdit

The word order is taken from the language's sister language Exgot:

  1. Subject
  2. (Auxiliary) Verb
  3. Dative Object
  4. (Negation Particle)
  5. Adverb
  6. Object
  7. Preposition
  8. Locative Object
  9. Other Information
  10. Seperable part of a seperable verb
  11. Past Participle
  12. Infinitive [If auxiliary verb is used]

Subject-Object inversion can occur and the verb comes at the end of subordinate clauses.

Verb ConjugationEdit

Verb infinitives must always end in n but verbs that don't end in en are irregular.

Irregular VerbsEdit

To BeEdit

Person 1st Person 2nd Person Third Person
Number

Singular

jeg

Plural

wij

Singular

tij

Plural

vuit

Singular

et/zé/oet

Plural

zij

Infinitive oen
Past Participle goend
Indicative & Subjunctive (Simple & Continuous)
Present en oen ent oen is oen
Preterite waar weren waart weren waar weren
Other
Imperative oe

To HaveEdit

Person 1st Person 2nd Person Third Person
Number

Singular

jeg

Plural

wij

Singular

tij

Plural

vuit

Singular

et/zé/oet

Plural

zij

Infinitive heeln
Past Participle gehaad
Indicative & Subjunctive (Simple & Continuous)
Present haab heeln haapt heeln haas heeln
Preterite haad heden haadt heden haadt heden
Other
Imperative haap

To BecomeEdit

Person 1st Person 2nd Person Third Person
Number

Singular

jeg

Plural

wij

Singular

tij

Plural

vuit

Singular

et/zé/oet

Plural

zij

Infinitive worn
Past Participle geword
Indicative & Subjunctive (Simple & Continuous)
Present word worn wordt worn wordt worn
Preterite woet woeden woed woeden woet woeden
Other
Imperative word

To GoEdit

Person 1st Person 2nd Person Third Person
Number

Singular

jeg

Plural

wij

Singular

tij

Plural

vuit

Singular

et/zé/oet

Plural

zij

Infinitive gaan
Past Participle gegaad
Indicative & Subjunctive (Simple & Continuous)
Present gaat gaten gaadt gaten gaat gaten
Preterite gang gangen gangt gangen gangt gangen
Other
Imperative

Regular Verbs [To Make/Do]Edit

Person 1st Person 2nd Person Third Person
Number

Singular

jeg

Plural

wij

Singular

tij

Plural

vuit

Singular

et/zé/oet

Plural

zij

Infinitive ettsjen
Past Participle geëttsjd
Indicative & Subjunctive (Simple & Continuous)
Present ettsj ettsjen ettsjt ettsjen ettsjt ettsjen
Preterite ettsjte ettsjten ettsjte ettsjten ettsjte ettsjten
Other
Imperative ettsj

NegationEdit

To negate a verb, the particle "nee" (/ne:/) is added after the verb and indirect object. The Netherbelgen see this word as a particle though and don't think of the word as a word with meaning.

Jeg en nee!

I am not!

Imperative MoodEdit

The imperative mood applies across all persons. 1st person singular in the imperative mood is usually used in thoughts. 1st person plural translates to "Let's..."

The second and third persons are more popular in this mood. Third person is normally used when the topic is another person.

Passive VoiceEdit

The passive voice is formed with the auxiliary verb to will/become and the past participle.

Oet wordt geëttsjd.

It is done.

Conditional VerbsEdit

These verbs are formed with the verb to become (worn) in the past tense with the infinitive.

Jeg woet gaan.

I would go.

Reflexive VerbsEdit

These are formed by replacing the subject pronoun with a reflexive one or adding zelfs after the subject.

Jezelfs en.

I'm myself.

On oke zelfs is.

Relexive PronounsEdit

  • jezelfs - I ... myself
  • tezelfs - you ... yourself
  • ezelfs - he ... himself
  • zezelfs - she ... herself
  • oezelfs - it ... itself
  • wezelfs - we ... ourselves
  • veuzelfs - you ... yourselves
  • dezelfs - they ... themselves

PolitenessEdit

The polite second person pronoun is oe and uses normal conjugation for verbs.

Oe ent.

You (polite) are.

Personal PronounsEdit

Case Stressed Unstressed
Person 1 2 3 1 2 3

Number + Gender

S P S P Polite SM SF SN P S P S P Polite SM SF SN P
Nominative jeg wij tij vuit oe et oet zij jeg we te vu oe et ot ze
Accusative + Dative mij onz tij vuit oe et oet zij me onz te vu oe et ot ze
Genetive mijn onse tu vu oes ets zes oets zijn men onse tes vus oes ets zes ots zen

PluralisationEdit

To pluralise a noun, you add the suffix -en. Vowel length and stress must be preserved and words ending in vowels use the suffix -ien. Words ending in an unvoiced consonant gain the suffix and voice the consonant.

suip → suiben /ˈsɶɪ̯bən/

soup → soups

oke → ókeien /ˈo:kəi:n/

oak → oaks

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