|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Echlander (natively ‘Ēckęle /ʔɛ:tskẽlɛ/) is a language isolate spoken in the remnants of the Ech Empire on the planet Patrona (‘Arkǭnę): The Kingdom of Ech, Kalatuun, and the Cōersā canton of the Confederacy of Belsha (Persā).
- Stops, affricates, and fricatives are voiced intervocallically.
- /w/ is pronounced as [m] before a nasal vowel.
- /l/ is centralized to [ɹ] in the syllable coda.
|close||i i:||ẽ ẽ:||õ õ:||u̞ u̞:|
|open||ɛ ɛ:||ä ä:|
(C)V(/s/, /ts/, /l/) Word initial syllables must begin in a consonant
Illegal syllables: ne, no, nǫ, ge, go, gue, guo, ko, kǫ, yi, pę, pǫ
- The inclusive and exclusive 1p pronouns differ in whether or not they include the listener, i.e. ketēle "me and you" vs. gamęr "me and him/her/it".
Verbs are insanely expressive in the Echlander, and are more often used to make new nouns than other nouns are.
|Subjects and objects||Direct or inverse||The verb itself||Incorporated nouns, time of day, direction, causative, formality, etc.||Source of evidence||Tenses, Aspects, Modalities|
The personal prefix taking up the first slot is obligatory and may be broken down as a compound prefix into most animate argument and least animate argument.
In the table, the more animate arguments are the rows and the less animate arguments are the columns.
ex. ilāga "I carry", ǫlāga "he/she/it carries", keolāga "we carry you/him/her/it", tilāga "he/she/it carries him/her/it", nalāga "he/she/it carry them", mǫislātęrqui "it's said he carried you"
There are three "voices" in Echlander. A sentence can be direct, inverse, or reflexive.
The direct voice is used when the more animate argument is the subject of the sentence. It is marked with a null morpheme in slot 2. ex. Yǫsōrkicqui. "I knocked him out."
The inverse voice is used when the less animate argument is the subject of the sentence. It is marked with an infixed -is- in slot 2, which sometimes affects the personal prefix. ex. Yǫissōrkicqui. "He knocked me out."
The inverse morpheme also functions as a reflexive morpheme when applied to the intransitive prefixes (the 0 column in the above table). ex. Ǫissōrkicqui. "He knocked himself out."
Personal prefix mutations with the inverse/reflexive morpheme:
Evidentiality is a marking of the type of evidence the speaker has for what they are saying. The evidence infix is placed in slot 5. Evidentiality is only marked in five of the ten TAMs: the habitual, continuous, past, negative, and abilitative.
In the past tense the null morpheme describes an event directly witnessed or experienced by the speaker. ex. nitīliostaimęqui "I saw them steal the gold", nitīliostaimęlar "I didn't see them steal the gold"
There are 3 more evidential infixes: reportative -tęr- (I was told, I hear, It's said), assumptive -hō- (I can only assume), and deductive -ga- (I suppose, I guess, I can then infer)
Cōgua ǫsōrkic‘apīryęhōta. "I assume he'll get drunk and pass out soon"
Past: -qui, ex. oguǫqui "you went"
Habitual: -ga, ex. oguǫga "you go"
Continuous: -ta, ex. oguǫta "you're going"
Negative: -lar; the tense of a negative expression is determined through context. ex. oguǫlar "you didn't go"
Abilitative: -‘ęs, ex. oguǫ‘ęs "you can go"
Interrogative: -kē, ex. oguǫkē "did you go?"
Optative: -cac, ex. oguǫcac "I hope you'll go"
Imperative: -s; the personal prefixes are dropped. ex. guǫs "go!"
When an object is incorporated, the verb becomes intransitive.