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Echlander
‘Ēckęle
Type
Polysynthetic
Alignment
Direct-Inverse
Head direction
left
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Echlander (natively ꇠꇮꏂ‹ꅁ ‘Ēckęle /ʔe:tskẽle/) is a language isolate spoken in the remnants of the Ech Empire on the planet Patrona (‘Arquǭnę): The Kingdom of Ech, Kalatuun, and the Cōersā canton of the Confederacy of Belsha (Persā).

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

bilabial alveolar dorsal glottal
plain labialized
nasal n ŋ ŋʷ
stop t k ʔ
affricate ts
fricative ɸ s h
approximant l j w
  • Stops, affricates, and fricatives are voiced intervocallically or after /l/.
  • [m] is an allophone of /w/ before a nasal vowel.
  • [ɹ] is an allophone /l/ in the syllable coda.

VowelsEdit

front back
close i i: o u:
mid ẽ ẽ: ɔ̃ ɔ̃:
open æ ɛ: a ɑ:

PhonotacticsEdit

(C)V(/s/, /ts/, /l/)

Illegal syllables: ne, no, nǫ, ge, go, gue, guo, ko, kǫ, yi, pę, pǫ

Orthography Edit

Native script Edit

The native script of the Echlanders and all of the languages of their previously-conquered territory is a syllabary called Posani‘ēckęle.

The syllabary Edit

i e ę a o ǫ 0
0 1
ꀿˆ2 ꉧˆ2
n
g
gu
t
k
qu
p
s 3
c
h
l
y 4
w
  1. This is the length mark
  2. The inverted breve on these symbols is supposed to be above them like the other glottal stop syllables.
  3. This letter functions ambiguously as either a coda s or c. It is also commonly written as a barred ꉔ.
  4. Despite yi's pronunciation matching i, it retains a separate symbol.

Writing direction Edit

In imitation of Manjingan writing, the Ech syllabary is written in right-to-left horizontal lines starting at the bottom of a page.

Collation Edit

i, ‘i, e, ‘e, ę, ‘ę, a, ‘a, o, ‘o, ǫ, ‘ǫ, ni, nę, na, nǫ, gi, gę, ga, gui, guę, gua, guǫ, ti, te, tę, ta, to, tǫ, ki, ke, kę, ka, qui, que, quę, qua, quo, quǫ, pi, pe, pa, po, si, se, sę, sa, so, sǫ, ci, ce, cę, ca, co, cǫ, hi, he, hę, ha, ho, hǫ, li, le, lę, la, lo, lǫ, yi, ye, yę, ya, yo, yǫ, wi, we, mę, wa, wo, mǫ, s/c, r, :

Romanization Edit

Letter a ā c e ē ę ę̄ g gu h
Sound /a/ /a:/ /ts/ /e/ /e:/ /ẽ/ /ẽ:/ /ŋ/ /ŋʷ/ /h/
Letter i ī k l m n o ō ǫ ǭ
Sound /i/ /i:/ /k/ /l/ [m] /n/ /o/ /o:/ /õ/ /õ:/
Letter p qu r s t w y
Sound /ɸ/ /kʷ/ [ɹ] /s/ /t/ /w/ /j/ /ʔ/

PronounsEdit

Pronouns are never obligatory, as the verb expresses both subject and object.

sg pl
1 in nana ketēle
ex gamęr
2 kis mętēle
3 ‘ęc
gen quǭr
  • The inclusive and exclusive 1p pronouns differ in whether or not they include the listener, i.e. ketēle "me and you" vs. gamęr "me and him/her/it/them".

VerbsEdit

Verbs are insanely expressive in the Echlander.

Affix orderingEdit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Person Voice Root Various Ability Evidential TM
Subjects and objects Direct or inverse The verb itself Incorporated nouns, time of day, direction, causative, formality, etc. Ability Source of evidence Tenses, Moods
ǫ- 0- sōrkic -‘apīryę -0 -hō -ta
Cōgua ǫsōrkic‘apīryęhōta. "I assume he'll pass out drunk soon"

PersonEdit

The personal prefix taking up the first slot is obligatory and may be broken down as a compound prefix into most animate argument and least animate argument.

In the table, the more animate arguments are the rows and the less animate arguments are the columns.

0 1 2 3
sg pl sg pl
prox obv
1 sg i ike yo iso ita ina
pl ke keo keso keo keta kena
2 sg o ota ona
pl so somǫ sota sona
3 sg prox ǫ ti na
obv ta tana
pl ni

ex. ilāga "I carry", ǫlāga "he/she/it carries", keolāga "we carry you/him/her/it", tilāga "he/she/it carries him/her/it", nalāga "he/she/it carry them", mǫislātęrqui "it's said he carried you"

VoiceEdit

There are three "voices" in Echlander. A sentence can be direct, inverse, or reflexive.

The direct voice is used when the more animate argument is the subject of the sentence. It is marked with a null morpheme in slot 2. ex. Yǫsōrkicqui. "I knocked him out."

The inverse voice is used when the less animate argument is the subject of the sentence. It is marked with an infixed -is- in slot 2, which sometimes affects the personal prefix. ex. Yǫissōrkicqui. "He knocked me out."

The inverse morpheme also functions as a reflexive morpheme when applied to the intransitive prefixes (the 0 column in the above table). ex. Ǫissōrkicqui. "He knocked himself out."

Personal prefix mutations with the inverse/reflexive morpheme:

direct inverse
i I... yes I...myself
yo I...you iwis you...me
keo we...you kewis you...us
we...him/her/it he/she/it...us
o you... wis you...yourself
ti he/she/it...him/her/it tais he/she/it...him/her/it
ni they... nais they...themselves

Incorporation Edit

When an object is incorporated, the verb becomes intransitive.

Taimę keotīlios‘ęga. vs. Ketīliostaimę‘ęga. "We can steal the gold."

Ability Edit

There is an affix meaning "able to do", ‘ę, which takes up slot 5. ex. Ācor iguǫ‘ęgaga. "I think I can go today."

EvidentialityEdit

Evidentiality is a marking of the type of evidence the speaker has for what they are saying. The evidence infixes are placed in slot 5. Evidentiality is not marked in the imperative or interrogative moods.

The null morpheme describes an event directly witnessed or experienced by the speaker. ex. nitīliostaimęqui "I saw them steal the gold"

There are 3 more evidential infixes: reportative -tęr- (I was told, I hear, It's said), assumptive -hō- (I can only assume), and deductive -ga- (I suppose, I guess, I can then infer)

Tense and moodEdit

Past Present Future
Indicative pos qui ga ta
int quikē takē
neg quilar lar talar
Imperative* pos s
neg slar
  • Personal prefixes are dropped in the imperative. ex. Guǫslar! "Don't go!" or "Let's not go!"

VocabularyEdit

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