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Edvian

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Name: Edvian

Type: Synthetic

Alignment: Left

Head Direction: Initial

Number of genders: 1

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive p b t d c ɟ k g ʔ
Fricative f v s ʂ x
Affricate
Approximant j
Trill r
Lateral l

VowelsEdit

Monophthongs Front Central Back
Close i ɨ (ɯ) u
Close-mid
Near-close ɪ
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a
Diphthongs
IPA Realization
ja á
é
ó
ij ý
  • Úú, [u] is commonly realized as [uw] when final.
  • Yy, [ɨ] has the allophone [ɯ].

OrthographyEdit

Letter Context IPA Notes
a [a]
á [ja]
b [b]
c [k]
ç [s]
d [d] has [ð] as an allophone
[ɟ]
e [ɛ]
é [eɛ]
f [f]
g [g]
ġ [j]
h [x]
i [ɪ]
í [i]
l [l]
m [m]
n [n]
[ɲ]
o [ɔ]
ó [oɔ]
p [p]
r [r]
s [ʂ]
t [t]
ts [tʂ]
[c]
u [ə]
ú [u] may be [uw] if final.
v [v]
y [ɨ] has [ɯ] as allophone.
ý [ij]
z [s] only in tz.

GrammarEdit

DeclensionsEdit

Declensions in Edvian are divided into two different classes, internal and external declensions, with internal declensions mainly the root, and the external declensions functioning mainly by affixing.

InternalEdit

External declensions in Edvian affect the root, mainly, and usually work by way of ablaut, palatalization, lenition, and consonant gradation. Each declension is split into how many syllables the original noun has in the nominative, and then whether it ends in a nasal consonant or not.

Monosyllable Liquid FinalEdit
Cor
Ġel
Sg.
Pl.
Sg. Pl.
Nominative
cor cór ġel ġél
Accusative
cos cós ġev ġév
Genitive
coir cóir ġeil ġéil
Dative
cois cóis ġeiv ġéiv

In the plural, vowels are switched to their accented counterparts. In the accusative and dative, final liquids change, and in the genitive and dative, an extra vowel, -i, is added before the final consonant.

Dual Syllable Nasal FinalEdit
Medyn
Lóram
Sg.
Pl.
Sg. Pl.
Nominative
medyn medġyn lóram lósan
Accusative
medum meadġum lóren lósen
Genitive
medun mediun lórem lóriem
Dative
meýdum meýdíym lóýden lóýrían

Above shows a very common change in dual syllabled words. In the nominative and accusative plurals, the consonant before the last vowel of the word is palatalized by inserting a ġ after said consonant. This is quite consistent in all dual syllabled nouns except for those that end in liquids, which completely change, as seen above. Words in which their last syllables begin with a liquid consonant, such as lóram go through consonant gradation, in which r becomes s and l becomes v.

In the first declension, for the accusative, the last vowel in the noun goes through ablaut. In this case, y becomes u. In the plural, this is simply palatalized (unless they are liquids). Apart from vowel changes in the accusative, nasals also change. Simply enough, if the noun ends in n, it becomes m, and if it ends in m, it becomes n. This inversion is seen in the accusative and the dative. The genitive keeps the previously changed vowel but goes back to the original final nasal consonant. In the plural, a -i is inserted before the final vowel. In the dative, a -ý is inserted before the first consonant of the last syllable, the last vowel of the noun is still in ablaut, and the last nasal consonant changes again. In the plural, the -ý is kept, and a -í is inserted before the final vowel of the noun, which incidentally changes back to its original vowel.

Dual Syllable Unvoiced FinalEdit
Pólet Madġic
Sg.
Pl.
Sg. Pl.
Nominative
pólet pólġet madġic madiġic
Accusative
pólit pólġet madġoc madiġic
Genitive
púlet pġúlet mídġic mġídġic
Dative
púlit pġúlit mídġoc mġídġoc

Nouns with two syllables that end in an unvoiced consonant follow two main rules: vowel change and palatalization. In the nominative plural, the consonant before the last vowel is palatalized. However, for nouns in which palatalization occurs naturally (this happens only in loanwords), an epenthetic i is added, therefore madġic would be madiġic, or falġat would be faliġat, etc. The accusative singular contains a vowel ablaut in the second vowel of the noun, and the plural of the accusative is the same as the plural for the nominative. In the genitive, the first vowel gets a vowel change rather than the second one, and in the plural, the consonant that immediately precedes the first vowel is palatalized with a ġ. The dative keeps the changed vowel from the genitive and merges it with the vowel change from the accusative, and, in the plural, the consonant that immediately precedes the first vowel is palatalized.

ExternalEdit

Cína Mulo
Sg.
Pl.
Sg. Pl.
Nominative
cína cíny mulo muly
Accusative
cínú cínu mulí mulíl
Genitive
cíní cíná mulé mulét
Dative
cínum cíned mulum mulúm

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