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Ehigi
Edhṙ Èçigi
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
right
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
10
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Ehigi (/ˈɛhiːdʒiː/, native Edhṙ Èçigi) [ɛ̀dʰɚ́ ʔɛ̂çìgʲī] is a language spoken by the Àçigi ethnicity in the Ràçigi constituency of the United Federation of Usheira (Rauçeyṙat).

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

alveolar dorsal radical glottal
nasal n ŋ~ɲ
stop held t d~dz k g q (ɢ) (ʔ)
aspirated tʰ d̤~dz̤ kʰ g̤
fricative s z (ɬ) ɮ ç ʝ χ~ʜ ʁ~ʢ h
approximant ɹ j
flap ɾ ɾ̤
  1. The alveolars are laminal except for /s/, /z/, /ɾ/, and /ɾʰ/.
  2. /d/ and /dʰ/ are frequently pronounced with frication (i. e. as [dz] and [dz̤]).
  3. The dorsal nasal and stops are palatalized before an /i/ or before any vowel after an /i/.
  4. /q/ is voiced intervocalically.
  5. A glottal stop is epenthetically inserted between adjacent vowels.
  6. /l/ is devoiced before a voiceless consonant or when phrase-final.
  7. The radical fricatives /χ/ and /ʁ/ are typically pronounced as epiglottal trills [ʜ] and [ʢ] by younger speakers.

VowelsEdit

front central back
high i ɚ ɯ
low ɛ a ʌ

Phonotactics Edit

(C)VCV...CV(C)

  • There are no consonant clusters within words, any potential ones are broken up with an epenthetic /ʌ/ or /ɚ/.
  • Vowels may begin words.
  • Vowels may be consecutive, though they are phonetically broken up by the epenthetic glottal stop.
  • Consonants may end words and form cross-word clusters.

Pitch AccentEdit

Words can have two pitch contours: rising and falling.

Rising contour words have a low tone on the first syllable and a rising or high tone on the last syllable, with mid tones in between. Monosyllabic rising words are rising tone. ex. Rauçeyṙat [ɾà.ʔɯ̄.çɛ̄.jɚ̄.ʔǎt.]

Falling contour words have a falling tone indicated by a grave accent somewhere in them. The syllable before the fall is high and the syllable after the fall is low. Before and after the adjacent syllables are mid tone. ex. Ràçigi [ɾâ.çì.gʲī.]

OrthographyEdit

Native ScriptEdit

Ehigi is written with the same abugida as the rest of the languages of Usheira.

Usheiran Alphabet

The Usheiran Abugida

Native Collation Edit

o, u, i, e, a, g, kh, k, gh, ṅ, d, th, t, dh, n, ġ, qh, q, ġh, z, s, r, rh, c, x, l, h, j, ç, y, ṙ

Punctuation Edit

  • ·⟩: separates words, not necessary after a word ending in the explicit final o sign or between parts of a name, also separates clitic affixes from stems.
  • ×⟩: separates sentences

TransliterationEdit

A a C c Ç ç D d Dh dh E e G g Gh gh H h I i
a co ço do dhi e go ghi haṙ i
/ä/ /ʁ/ /ç/ /d/ /dʰ/ /ɛ/ /g/ /gʰ/ /h/ /i/
J j K k Kh kh L l N n Ṅ ṅ O o Q q Qh qh R r
jo ko khi lo na ṅa o qo qhi ro
/ʝ/ /k/ /kʰ/ /l/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ʌ/ /q/ /qʰ/ /ɾ/
Rh rh Ṙ ṙ S s T t Th th U u X x Y y Z z
rhi se to thi u xo i othax zi
/ɾʰ/ /ɹ/, /ɚ/ /s/ /t/ /tʰ/ /ɯ/ /χ/ /j/ /z/
  • A grave accent is applied to vowels with a falling tone.

PronounsEdit

Full pronouns Edit

sg pl
1 ex neda tuneda
in azṙ
2 thṙ tuthṙ
3 lu tuṙu

ex. Kheqo-ne Edìlao Nucayo. "My name is John Doe."

Clitic pronouns Edit

sg pl
1 -ne -so
2 -hṙ -çe
3 -lu

NounsEdit

Noun classes Edit

# name prefix example
1 person a/0- qa "man, person"
2 tool e- esàca "shovel"
3 animal ṙ- ṙkhoo "octopus"
4 nature ra- raju "swampland"
5 group zi- zìrhi "team"
6 extension lo- lodoca "fence"
7 abstracts qhe- qheṙiza "courage"
8 action o- othax "a pause"
9 inquorate I nu- Nurhija "god of water"
10 inquorate II dace- daceyul "beloved"
plural I u- ukhoo "octopuses"
plural II tu- tuqa "men, people"
plural III ça- çasàca "shovels"
  • For any example referring to a living thing, the translation is not accurate. As Aetho is a different planet, the translations merely suggest a similar niche filled.

Class I Edit

Class I's prefix is a- or none. It is used for people and some place names.

Class II Edit

Class II's prefix is e-. It is used for tools and language.

Class III Edit

Class III's prefix is ṙ-. It is used for animals and fire.

Class IV Edit

Class IV's prefix is ra-. It is used for plant-life and natural landscapes.

Class V Edit

Class V's prefix is zi-. It is used for groups of smaller units.

Class VI Edit

Class VI's prefix is lo-. It is used for long, slender things.

Class VII Edit

Class VIII's prefix is qhe-. It is used for abstract ideas and qualities.

Class VIII Edit

Class VIII's prefix is o-. It is used for actions.

Class IX Edit

Class IX's prefix is nu-. It is an inquorate class with 15 members.

Class X Edit

Class X's prefix is dace-. It is an inquorate class with 6 members.

Number Edit

There are three plural prefixes which replace the singular class prefixes: u-, tu-, and ça-. The number prefix must be learned separately from the class.

Possessive affixes Edit

Possession is indicated by the clitic pronouns suffixed to a noun, followed by an -a, ex. Redà qhezunea. "Get on my level."

Verbs Edit

stem-voice-tense-(person)

Verbs rely on suffixes with some vowel changes.

Non-finite suffixes Edit

  • Active infinitive: -li, some vowel changes including e>a.
  • Passive infinitive: -qali, no vowel changes.
  • Active participle: -gho
  • Passive participle: -qa

Passive Edit

Passive voice is represented by the suffix -qa- (-qo in present tense) which appears immediately following the stem.

Tense Edit

  • Present: no suffix or vowel changes including a, e>o
  • Past: suffix -ṅ, -ṅo before clitic pronouns
  • Future: suffix -s, -so before clitic pronouns

Negation Edit

Negative verb dhali.

act pass
inf dhali dheqali
part dhegho dheqa
pres dho dheqo
past dheṅ dheqaṅ
fut dhes dheqas
ex. dho-ne "I don't", dheṅo-çe "you all didn't", kheqo-ne "my name is",

Person Edit

The subject is optionally represented by a clitic pronoun placed on the end of the verb, before anything else in the sentence, even adverbs which are normally the first thing after the verb. This can be combined with an explicit subject for added emphasis. ex. Xaguso-lu tuṙu neda. "They're gonna kill me!"

Syntax Edit

VSO

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