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Eindo is a highly agglutinating nominative-accusative language.
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Name: Eindo

Type: Agglutinative

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Mixed

Number of genders: 1

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Eindo is spoken by the ConCulture in the ConCountry of Eino, which is located at about the latitude of Earth's Scandanavia.


The International Phonetic Alphabet Chart for the Eindo Consonants
Place of Articulation → Liabial Coronal Dorsal Radical
Manner of Articulation ↓ Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g q ɢ
Frictive f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h
Approximant ɹ j
Labial Approximant ɥ w
Trill r
Tap or Flap
Lateral Frictive
Lateral Approximant l
Lateral Flap

The International Phonetic Alphabet Chart for the Eindo Vowels
Front Near-Front Central Near-Back Back
Close i y u
Close-Mid e ø o
Near-Open æ
Open ä

This page will use the convention that any character between brackets [ ] refers to the orthographic letter while any character between forward-slashes / / refers to the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) pronunciation.


The only consonant which has more than one possible pronunciation is [h]. Its differing pronunciations depend upon its context. When surrounded by vowels or immediately preceded by another consonant, it is pronounced as /h/. The letter [h] can only legally precede another consonant if the following consonant is a [p], [t], or [k]. If it does precede one of these three consonants, there are three additional possible pronunciations. If it is preceded by an [i] or [e], it is pronounced /ç/, by an [a] or [ä] as /ħ/, and by an [o], [ö], [u], or [y] as /ʍ/. Some speakers alternatively pronounce it always as /x/ except when preceded by [i] or [e] in which case they pronounce it as /ç/. This alternate pronunciation is mostly used by inhabitants of large cities, especially members of the lower class. Any time two identical consonants are adjacent, the consonant is geminated, meaning that the length of pronunciation is doubled. Geminated consonants cannot be at the beginning or end of a word, and cannot be a part of a consonant cluster.


The only vowel which has more than one possible pronunciation is [e]. Officially it has only the one pronunciation, /e/, but in a syllable which contains a coda, especially in unstressed syllables, it can be pronounced /ɛ/. Nearly all speakers will use this alternate pronunciation.

Eindo contains a system of vowel harmony based on the frontness of vowels. The vowels [a], [o], and [u] are back vowels, and [ä], [ö], and [y] are front vowels. [i] and [e] are transparent neutral vowels, which means that they do not alter the frontness or backness of a word in any way and can be used in both instances. The vowel which determines the frontness of a word is the first non-neutral vowel in the root of the word. This also takes place with the semivowels, such that [j] is a neutral semivowel, [w] is a back semivowel, and [ẅ] is a front semivowel. If the entire root is neutral, the word acts as though it contained back vowels. The only time a word can contain both front and back vowels is when it is a compound word, which happens most often in place names.

When two different vowels are adjacent, in most cases a diphthong will be formed. All diphthongs are falling, which means that even when, for example, an [i] precedes an [a], the [i] is not pronounced as the semivowel /j/ as in English, but is in fact the dominant vowel in the diphthong with the sound falling into the [a] sound. There are 30 possible diphthongs: [ie], [ia], [iä], [io], [iö], [iu], [iy], [ei], [ea], [eä], [eu], [ey], [ai], [au], [äi], [äy], [oi], [oa], [ou], [öi], [öä], [öy], [ui], [ue], [ua], [uo], [yi], [ye], [yä], and [yö]. [eo], [oe], and [öe] are pronounced as two syllables. When three vowels are adjacent, the first two are pronounced as a diphthong (if legal) and the third is pronounced as a second syllable. If the first two cannot be legally pronounced as a diphthong, the second and third are, while the first vowel receives it's own syllable. If neither pair of vowels can be made into a diphthong, they are pronounced as three distinct syllables. In certain circumstances, a vowel pair which would normally be pronounced as a diphthong should not be. The most common example of this is when a root beginning with a vowel is prefixed. In such instances, in the Latin orthography the first vowel of the root should gain an acute accent or a macron if it already contains a diaeresis. Using the Eindo Runes, this is represented by a dot placed above the vowel. An example of this would be with the word naílpo (“colt,” or “young male horse”).

Any time two identical vowels are adjacent, the vowel is geminated, meaning that the length of pronunciation is doubled. A geminated vowel cannot make up any part of a diphthong.


The first syllable in a root is always stressed. This means that if the root begins the word, the first syllable of the word receives the main stress, while if it is prefixed it does not. The stress is only a light stress, but it is an important distinction which can cause confusion if done incorrectly. After the main stress, every second syllable receives secondary stress. If there are an odd number of syllables excluding prefixes, stress is moved from the third-to-last syllable to the second-to-last syllable and the final syllable is unstressed.


Eindo phonemes are organized into three distinct categories which divide a syllable: onsets, nuclei, and codi. A syllable must contain a nucleus, but an onset and coda are both optional.


[p t k] + [l r s š] + [j w ẅ]

[p t k] + [l r s š]

[b d g] + [l r z ž] + [j w ẅ]

[b d g] + [l r z ž]

[f s š v z ž] + [l r] + [j w ẅ]

[f s š v z ž] + [l r]

[p t k q b d g c f ŧ s š h v đ z ž m n ň l r ř] + [j w ẅ]

[p t k q b d g c f ŧ s š h v đ z ž m n ň l r ř j w ẅ]





[p t k m n ň l] + [s š]

[b d g m n ň l] + [z ž]

[f ŧ s š m n ň l] + [p t k]

[v đ z ž m n ň l] + [b d g]

[h] + [p t k]

[p t k q b d g c f ŧ s š h v đ z ž m n ň l r ř]

Alphabet Table

Eindo Runes


The Eindo writing system is a runic alphabet with 34 letters, twelve numerals, and twelve punctuation marks.


Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Eindo is a highly agglutinating language. This means that derivation, conjugation, and declension are all done by the affixation of morphemes to a root. Roots end with specific vowels to denote the part-of-speech of the word. Nouns end with [-o] (from now on, any time an affix is given it will be given as if the root contained back vowels, but it should be understood that should the root contain front vowels, the affix's vowels will also be front vowels), verbs end with [-a], adjectives end with [-i], adverbs end with [-u], and determiners and other parts of speech end either with [-e] or with a consonant.


All undeclined nouns end with [-o], which happens to also be identical to two of the possible declensions, the vocative and the nominative. Eindo nouns have four different articles, three numbers, and 27 declensional cases.

The four articles are the definite, indefinite, partitive, and negative articles. The definite article, me, indicates that the noun is a specific one (or ones) identifiable to the listener. The indefinite article, se, indicates the opposite, that the noun either is not specific or identifiable yet, or that its precise identity is irrelevant or hypothetical. The partitive article, swe, expresses the same as the indefinite article but is used in the specific instance of mass nouns. The negative article, kwe, specifies none of its noun. Articles always immediately precede their noun, and in writing they are separated by a hyphen.

The three numbers for which Eindo nouns can be declined apply to verbs and the rest of the language, as well, not just nouns. The three numbers are singular, which is unmarked and specifies one noun, paucal, which is expressed by [-a-] and represents between two and five of the noun, and plural, which is expressed by [-i-] and represents more than five of the noun.

Declensional CasesEdit

The vocative case is used for addressing someone and has no morphological marking.

The nominative case marks the subject of the verb, the agent in active voice constructions. The nominative case has no morphological marking.

The accusative case marks the direct object of the verb, the patient in active voice constructions. It is marked by [-n].

The dative case marks the indirect object of the verb. It is marked by [-t].

The genitive case marks that the noun is modifying another noun in one of various ways. It can show possession, origin, reference, and description. The genitive case is marked by [-s]. In the particular case of possession, if the possessor is known (and thus a pronoun would be used), the possessed noun can instead receive a personal possessive prefix, which is hyphenated like an article, and the personal pronoun is dropped.

The partitive case marks partiality, where a subgroup is selected from a larger group, and following qualifying numbers, in which case the number is marked for grammatical case. The partitive case is marked by [-v].

The instrumental case indicates that the noun is the instrument or means with or by which the subject achieves or accomplishes the verb. It is marked by [-k].

The benefactive case indicates that the noun is that which is intended to be benefited by the verb, or for which the verb is being done. It is marked by [-p].

The causal case indicates that the noun is the cause or reason for the verb. It is also used to denote authorship for literature, art, theater, music, and all other creative subjects. It is denoted by [-ht].

The comitative case indicates companionship or association. It is marked by [-m].

The abessive case expresses the lack or absence of the marked noun. It is marked by [-l].

The illative case is a locative case which expresses movement into a noun. It is marked by [-d].

The inessive case is a locative case which expresses location inside a noun. It is marked by [-ň].

The elative case is a locative case which expresses movement from within a noun. It is marked with [-đ].

The lative case is a locative case which expresses movement to a noun. It is marked by [-ŧ].

The adessive case is a locative case which expresses location at, by, or near a noun. It is marked with [-hk].

The ablative case is a locative case which expresses movement from or away from a noun. It is marked by [-ř].

The allative case is a locative case which expresses movement onto a noun. It is marked by [-q].

The superessive case is a locative case which expresses location on a noun. It is marked by [-r].

The delative case is a locative case which expresses movement from on a noun. It is marked by [-g].

The prolative case is a locative case which expresses movement via, through, or by way of a noun. It is marked by [-š].

The translative case is a stative case which expresses a change of state into another. It is marked with [-h].

The essive case is a stative case which expresses a temporary state of being. It is marked by [-f].

The excessive case is a stative case which expresses a change from a state. It is marked by [-z].

The antessive case is a temporal case which expresses a preceding time. It is marked by [-ž].

The temporal case is a temporal case which expresses a time or during or at a time. It is marked by [-b].

The postessive case is a temporal case which expresses a following time. It is marked by [-hp].

Personal PronounsEdit

Personal pronouns are treated exactly in the exact same fashion as regular nouns are. Just as with regular nouns they have three numbers: singular, paucal, and plural. There are three persons, two of them having two distinctive types, giving five total separate persons. There are 14 distinctive personal pronouns, and 14 distinctive personal possessive prefixes.

The first distinction is that of clusivity in the first person. This only affects the paucal and plural pronouns, which means that there is only one singular first person pronoun, not two. Inclusive first person pronouns include the one being addressed, while exclusive first person pronouns do not.

The second distinction is that of humanity in the third person. The third person pronouns are different depending on whether the reference is human or not. Human pronouns can additionally receive a gender prefix to denote gender for greater clarity.

The vocative form of personal pronouns
Person Singular Paucal Plural
1st (Inclusive) no noa noi
1st (Exclusive) řoa řoi
2nd so soa soi
3rd (human) to toa toi
3rd (non-human) lo loa loi
The personal possessive prefixes
Person Singular Paucal Plural
1st (Inclusive) ni nia nii
1st (Exclusive) řia řii
2nd si sia sii
3rd (human) ti tia tii
3rd (non-human) li lia lii


All unconjugated verbs end with [-ađa], which denotes that the verb is in the infinitive form. When conjugated, the final [-đa] is dropped before the affixation of the conjugational morphemes.

Verbs can be conjugated for polarity, eight modals, seven aspects, three voices, three tenses, seven persons, and three numbers. There are additionally two participles, each of which can additionally be conjugated, and a gerundive form.

Non-participle conjugated verbs take the following form as a template for the order of affixes:

Polarity + Prefixes + Root + Suffixes + Modality + Habituality + Temporal Relevance + Progressivity + Mood + Voice + Tense + Person


A morpheme can be affixed to the beginning of a word to denote that it is not happening. This negative polarity is shown with the affixation of the morpheme [ce-].


Modals express notions of possibility and necessity. In many languages, especially Germanic ones (including English), modality is expressed using an auxiliary verb such as should or must. In Eindo, these modal expressions are affixed directly to the verb itself. Each of these modals can additionally have its own negative polarity.

Eindo Modal Affixes
Modal Definition Positive Morpheme Negative Morpheme
Should Shows an idealized behavior -lu- -lju-
May/Might Shows possibility or uncertainty -đu- -đju-
Can/Could Shows ability -zu- -zju-
Must Shows obligation -vu- -vju-

If both the modal and polarity of a verb are negative, it acts as it does in English. An example is in the phrase I can't not eat it, which means that it is impossible for the speaker to not eat the subject.


The habitual aspect, [-n(o)-], expresses habitual or repeated action (the use of parentheses signifies that the enclosed phoneme is optional, included only if there would otherwise be an illegal consonant cluster).

Temporal RelevanceEdit

The imperfect or current aspect is the default state of a verb and thus has no morpheme. The retrospective aspect, [-t(o)-], expresses a past event which still has relevance. For example, I have eaten instead of I eat. The prospective aspect, [-g(o)-], expresses a future event which already has relevance, or is anticipated. For example, I am about to eat instead of I eat.


Progressive aspect expresses that an action is ongoing, rather than an instantaneous action. Similarly to the modals, this is expressed in English with an auxiliary verb, specifically to be, as well as a suffix on the main verb. In Eindo it is shown with the morpheme [-Vh-] if it is followed only by the personal affix or [-V-] if it is followed by any other conjugational affixes, where [V] represents a repeat of the preceding vowel.


There are four moods expressible in Eindo. The most commonly used mood is the indicative mood, which expresses factual information and positive beliefs. Any verb which does not contain a morpheme for mood is in the indicative mood. Commands, requests, and prohibitions are given using the imperative mood, which is represented by the morpheme [-k(o)-]. The conditional mood is used to speak of an event whose realization depends upon some other condition. English uses the auxiliary verb “would” for this construction, but Eindo uses the affix [-f(o)-]. The final mood is the subjunctive mood, which expresses hypothetical or unlikely events, or expresses opinions, hopes, or emotions. The subjunctive mood is expressed with [-ň(o)-].


Eindo verbs can be conjugated for three different voices. The active voice is the standard voice, and thus has no morpheme added if the verb is using it. The active voice means that the agent of the verb is the subject of the sentence. The passive voice, represented by the morpheme [-ŧ-], is when the patient of the verb is the subject. The third voice, the middle voice, is said to be between the active and passive voices. The verb appears syntactically active but semantically passive. The middle voice is shown with the affix [-š-]. Another possible way to look at the difference between the passive and middle voice is that with the passive voice, the agent can be expressed obliquely, but with the middle voice it cannot.


Eindo conjugates its verbs into three tenses: past, present, and future. The present tense receives no morpheme, and thus a verb with no tense affix is in the present tense. Verbs in the past tense are expressed by [-j-], but it changes to [-i-] when followed by a plural personal affix in all cases except when the past tense marker is the only non-personal conjugational suffix added to the verb. The future tense is shown by [-w-].

Personal EndingsEdit

The final conjugational suffix on a verb is the personal ending. This ending corresponds with the pronoun of the subject of the verb, which means that unless necessary for clarification or emphasis, the subject's pronoun is almost always dropped since it can be determined from the ending of the verb.

The vocative form of personal pronouns
Person Singular Paucal Plural
1st (Inclusive) -(e)n -an -in
1st (Exclusive) -ař -iř
2nd -(e)s -as -is
3rd (human) -(e)t -at -it
3rd (non-human) -(e)l -al -il

When a conjugational consonant cluster can be broken in two ways, by either the optional [o] of the aspectual or mood affixes or by the optional [e] of the singular personal endings, always use [e].


Eindo has a verbal participle, an adjectival participle, and a gerundive form. The gerundive form cannot be conjugated in any way. The adjectival participle can be conjugated for either the active or passive voice, but no other conjugational morphemes are legal. The verbal participle, however, can take many conjugational morphemes. It can be conjugated to show habituality, temporal relevance, mood (though only the indicative or the subjunctive, the subjunctive expressing assumption, supposition, or inference), voice (though only active or passive), and a personal ending. The verbal participle is shown by the morpheme [-uv(e)-], the adjectival by the morpheme [-uk-i] where the space between the [k] and [i] represents the optional passive voice morpheme, and the gerundive is formed by the affixation of [-ulo].


Undeclined adjectives end with [-i]. Adjectives can be declined in the exact same way that nouns can and should always have the same case as the noun it is modifying. Adjectives have a few additional declensions possible. Adjectives can be marked as comparative with [-hi-] or superlative with [-hti-]. Adjectives can also be changed into nouns by adding the comparative suffix and changing the last [i] to an [o]: [-ho-]. This can be demonstrated in English by the following sentence: The faster he ran, the more he needed water. Adjectives generally follow the noun they modify, but because of the case markings it can be moved anywhere as long as clarity is maintained.


Adverbs end with [-u]. Adverbs can only be declined for comparativity, [-hu], and superlativity, [-htu]. Adverbs generally immediately follow the verb they modify, but can be moved anywhere as long as clarity is maintained.


To ask a question, the prefix [te-] is used. To ask a normal question, it is affixed to the verb, but it can be affixed to any other word, signifying that that word is what is being asked about. The difference is comparable to the differences in the English questions “Did it snow here?” “Did it snow here?” “Did it snow here?” and “Did it snow here?” all of which require a change in prosody.


Eindo uses a duodecimal numerical system. This means that the number system is based on the number twelve, rather than ten as in the decimal system. The Eindo runes include digits from 0-11. While using Latin orthography, [ɸ] will represent 10 and [†] will represent 11, thus the digits 10 will represent twelve, not ten, and 20 will represent 24, not 20, etc.

Numerals Table 1

Eindo Digits

When a numeral is represented using digits rather than words, the number must still be possible to decline. Therefore, when a numeral represented by a digit is declined, the digit is followed by a semicolon ; and the declension, starting after the [s] in the numeral's ending, written out. For example, the cardinal number five in the accusative case would be written 5;on, while the collective number three in the dative case would be written 3;kot.

Numerals Table 2

Eindo Numerals 12-23


Cardinal numbers are the standard form of numerals, being the simple names for them as well as their most commonly used form. All numerals contain two parts, a stem and an ending. Numbers can be composed of many stems, but will have only one ending. The cardinal ending is [-so]. Numerals between 11 and 1^ are formed by adding the comitative suffix [-m] to the end of the stem for twelve, add the stem for the second digit, and finally add the numeral ending.

Numerals Table 3

Eindo Dozens

Each dozen past the first is formed by adding the stem of the dozen's digit to the front of the stem for twelve.

The gross' place is formed in the same way as the dozen's place, with a prefixed number to the stem [ni-], the comitative case ending, and the one's digit, ending with [-so]. A hyphen is placed between every three digits in a number, both when written out and when using numerals.

Numerals Table 4

Larger Eindo Numerals


Ordinal numerals represent the rank of a number with respect to some order. Ordinal numerals can be adjectives or adverbs, and thus have to different possible endings. The adjectival ordinal (i.e. the first winner) ending is [-si] and the adverbial (i.e. he who won first) is [-su].


Partitive numerals represent fractions and non-integral quantities. The numerator of the fraction is formed as a cardinal numeral while the denominator of the fraction is formed with the ending [-sjo].


Multiplicative numerals express how many fold or how many time (i.e. single, double, triple...) and are formed with the ending [-swo].


Collective numerals signify that several persons or things are taken definitely and unitedly together (i.e. both, all three, all four...) and are formed with the ending [-sko].


Distributive numerals signify how many times each or how many at a time (i.e. singly/one at a time, doubly/two at a time...) and are formed with the ending [-spo].


Because of its extremely high amount of declension and conjugation, the word order in Eindo is very free, especially in poetry, the only limitations being those of clarity. The most neutral syntax is verb-subject- object (VSO) and all other arrangements imply emphasis. Despite the free syntax, there are a few specific words which must be placed in specific locations and a few general guidelines for others. The few adpositions in the language are always prepositional, and modifiers tend to follow their heads. Thus adjectives tend to follow their nouns, adverbs tend to follow their verbs, and genitives tend to follow their heads, but they can be moved assuming clarity is maintained.


Eindo relies heavily on a system of agglutinative derivation. This derivation includes both prefixes and suffixes. Suffixes are able to change the part of speech of the word, but prefixes are not. More than one affix can be added to a root, as long as it makes sense, and the affixes are parsed from left to right. Not all derivations are plausible, however. All suffixes have three parts: the beginning, the stem, and the ending. The beginning, which is made up of the first vowel in the given suffix, signifies the part of speech to which the derivational suffix can be affixed. In other words, the suffix can only be affixed to a word which ends with that vowel. The beginning of the suffix is dropped when it is affixed. The stem is what gives the suffix its meaning, made up of any combination of consonants and vowels. The ending is made up of the final vowel in the suffix and it signifies the word's part of speech after the affixation of the suffix. If the beginning and ending of a suffix are identical, then, pending any illegal consonant clusters, all vowels may be dropped between the end of the word and the suffix being added. For example, Eino (the country in which Eindo is spoken) + -odo (the suffix which signifies that the word is referring to the language of the country) = Eindo (the language spoken in the country of Eino).

Styles of Speech and WritingEdit


There are only minor dialectical differences in the pronunciation of Eindo. As was mentioned earlier in the article, some who grow up in large cities, especially in the lower classes, tend to pronounce their consonants slightly harsher. This is especially pronounced with the letter [h], which, following an [i] or [e] is pronounced /ç/ while after any other vowel or any consonant it is pronounced /x/.


Eindo has a prefix [re-] which can be affixed to words to show respect. Affixing it to a noun shows respect or polite feelings for the noun, and affixing it to a pronoun essentially changes the pronoun's meaning to sir. Affixing the prefix to a verb shows either respect for the action, unless the verb uses the imperative mood. In such cases, it can be translated as the indirect questions of English which show politeness (i.e. Can you pass the salt? instead of Pass the salt).

Idioms and AnalogiesEdit

The Eindo language can make use of analogies, such as metaphors and similes, euphemisms, and idioms in the same way that other languages, such as English, can. Similes can be formed using the essive noun case, which normally means “in a state of (noun),” “as a (noun),” or “in the form of (noun),” but in this case translates to “like a (noun)” or “as a (noun).” Common idioms can often be shortened to a few words of the idiom and speakers will usually understand.


There is much poetry written in the Eindo language. Much is in the form of epics, especially detailing the life of the legendary folk hero Mjelte. Much of the stories have been collected and written in a single volume called Me-Mjelteno, which means The Land of Mjelte, or Me-Einneasnalo, a compound word which means The Tale of the Land of Eino.

Eindo poetry can be metered or unmetered and often includes literary devices such as assonance and consonance (and more specifically alliteration).



The following texts were translated into Eindo from English, then retranslated into English again. All three versions are given.

Schleicher's FableEdit

Schleicher's Fable by August Schleicher

Easnalvo Šlaihkeros Augustoht Šlaihkeroht


On a hill, a sheep that had no wool saw horses, one of them pulling a heavy wagon, one carrying a big load, and one carrying a man quickly. The sheep said to the horses: “My heart pains me, seeing a man driving horses”. The horses said: “Listen, sheep, our hearts pain us when we see this: a man, the master, makes the wool of the sheep into a warm garment for himself. And the sheep has no wool”. Having heard this, the sheep fled into the plain.


Đeanvohk deodajet se-önjö önjömöl iloan, konsaajet aso loas se-gädön ybin, ybtääjet aso se-ybätön obin, nen ybtääjet tisu aso se-naswanon. Easajet me-önjö me-iloat: “Gotnal ni-ŧjuso non, deošauv janaajet se-swano se-iloan”. Easajet me-iloa: “Pjakon, önjö, gotnaal nia-ŧjusoa noan moikob deošaan sikon: se-swano, me-tomo, votat me-önjömök me-önjös se-nädmön reogin evop. Nen vytät me-önjökwe-önjömön”. Bodošauvetjat sivon, ŧomajet me-önjö me-manod.

English Retranslation:

On a hill, a sheep without wool saw a few horses, one of them pulling a heavy wagon, one carrying a large load, and one carrying a man swiftly. The sheep said to the horses: “My heart pains me, seeing a human driving horses”. The horses said: “Listen, sheep, our hearts pain us when we see this: a human, the master, creates using the wool of the sheep a warm garment for himself. And the sheep has no wool”. Having heard this, the sheep fled into the plain.

The North Wind and the SunEdit

The North Wind and the Sun by Aesop

Me-Uko Veo nen Me-Pulo Isopoht


The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the stronger, when a traveler came along wrapped in a warm cloak. They agreed that the one who first succeeded in making the traveler take his cloak off should be considered stronger than the other. Then the North Wind blew as hard as he could, but the more he blew the more closely did the traveler fold his cloak around him; and at last the North Wind gave up the attempt. Then the Sun shined out warmly, and immediately the traveler took off his cloak. And so the North Wind was obliged to confess that the Sun was the stronger of the two.


Älẅääjät Me-Uko Veo nen Me-Pulo twihisaňjet kjo, moikob resjajet se-bařavo ykäŧet se-jevod reogid. Dwajat kjes palaňjet asu to oivo es däsäđä ŧätäňjet me-bařavo ti-jevon ököälyŧet twihi kum me-ralon. Qanajet žu Me-Uko Veo pjet twi pjet ňötäjet, kes qanajet me-twiho ykäjet me-pitho weđisu me-bařavo ti-jevon tohk; mer hošajet pjohisu Me-Uko Veo. Hořajet žu reogisu Me-Pulo, nen ŧätäjet šaitisu se-bařavo ti-jevon. Mer ẅimäŧjet fjubađa Me-Uko Veo kjes ajet Me-Pulo me-twihof me-osos.

English Retranslation:

The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was stronger, when a traveller came wrapped in a warm cloak. They agreed that he who first succeeded in causing the traveller to remove his cloak should be considered stronger than the other. Then the North Wind blew as strong as he was able, but the stronger he blew the more tightly the traveller wrapped his cloak on him; thus eventually the North Wind yielded. Then the Sun shined warmly, and the traveller immediately removed his cloak. Thus the North Wind was obliged to confess that the Sun was the stronger of the two.

The King and the GodEdit

The King and the God by S. K. Sen

Me-Nađwento nen Me-Teino S.K. Senoht


Once there was a king. He was childless. The king wanted a son. He asked his priest: “May a son be born to me!” The priest said to the king: “Pray to the god Werunos”. The king approached the god Werunos to pray now to the god. “Hear me, father Werunos!” The god Werunos came down from heaven. “What do you want?” “I want a son.” “Let this be so”, said the bright god Werunos. The king's lady bore a son.


Jaušpelod ystid ajet se-nađwento. Se-swanpolajet. Jottajet me-đwento se-naswanpo. Mjořtajet to-teinhon: “Jygäňŧet se-naswanpo nop!” Easajet me-teinho me-đwentot: “Ubresaket me-teinot Weřunot”. Me-teinoŧajet me-đwento Weřunoŧ kep ubresađa me-teinot. “Bodošakes non, deswanpo Weřuno!” Resjajet me-teino Weřuno teinnoř. “Tejottas kjon?” “Jottan se-naswanpon”. “Aňel mer sivo”, easajet me-teino puti Weruno. Jygäjet me-renuswano me-nađwentos se-naswanpon.

English Retranslation:

In the distant past there was a king. He lacked a child. The monarch wanted a son. He asked his priest: “May a son be birthed for me!” The priest said to the monarch: “Pray to the god Werunos”. The monarch approached the god Werunos in order to pray to the god. “Hear me, father Werunos!”The god Werunos came from heaven. “What do you want?” “I want a son”. “May this be so”, said the bright god Werunos. The lady of the king birthed a son.


The following texts were composed in the Eindo language and have been translated into English. Both versions are given.

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