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El Ling
El Ling
Type
Agglutantive
Alignment
Nominative-Accusuative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
58
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n N ng
Plosive

p

pʰ

b

bʰ

T

Tʰ

D

Dʰ

t

tʰ

d

dʰ

ʈ

ʈʰ

ɖ

ɖʰ

k

kʰ

g

gʰ

q

qʰ

G

Gʰ

Fricative

f

v

th

dh

s

z

ʂ

ʐ

kh

gh

X

R

Affricate

ps

bz

ts

dz

ks

gz

Pre-lateralised

lp

lt

lq
Lateral app. l
Pre-nasalised stops

mp

mb

nt

nd

ngk

ngg

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close í
Close-mid e o
Mid
Open-mid é
Near-open
Open a

AlphabetEdit

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No
Nouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No
Numbers Yes No Yes No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb Yes No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

There are 50 noun genders. These represented inherent properties of the noun in the proto-language, but due to the modern variety's having descended from the secret code language of astrologers, which showed no agreement between regions on gender assignment (each word being assigned its 'astrological gender', a randomly chosen gender), and it is thus accepted to use any gender. It is strongly encouraged the reader use gender assignment for grammatical purposes (see below). However, the definite and indefinite articles, being phonetically adapted to the former first syllable of the word, are still dependent on the word itself. They are included with the word in the lexicon. Moving on, the root of the word always ends in -i. This can then be followed by the dual suffix    -o, the trial -u, or the plural -a if appropriate. A gender suffix then appears finally. This can be any consonant. Note that pronouns are a subcategory of nouns. In order to form the genitive, one must use the possessive form (see below)

VerbsEdit

Verbs take suffixes for tense, mood, and the gender of their arguments. All verbal roots end in -u. The first suffix is for time. This can be marked as tense with no suffix for present, -e for past and -i for future. In addition to these, there are the suffixes é and í,which represent preset times. The times can be set by adding the suffix l followed by the appropriate vowel just before the gender suffix. There is also the suffix -a, which represents the imperative. The time suffixes are followed by suffixes for arguments. These are basically the gender of the noun in the position followed by a vowel representing case. These are as follows: These are as follows: e for the nominative, i for the accusuative, u for the dative, a for the ablative, í for the instrumental, é for the commitative, o for the locative, and some more [coming soon]. Any number of these can be included, and one can even have multiple instances of the same case; this is just the equivalent of using 'and'. After these, there is a consonant representing intensity. The consonants are the unvoiced ones, and the intensity represented increases with letter (see the alphabetical order above). The consonant can be voiced to make the verb a causitive. The intenstiy suffix is followed by a vowel representing the 'direction' of the verb. This works as follows: A verb can be in the interrogative, the affirmative or the negative. Which it is depends on the group to which the vowel belongs. The vowel itself makes it clear whether the verb is in the indicative or subjunctive. Below is a table of the possible combinations and the corresponding vowel:

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Indicative i u í
Subjunctive e o é





These may be followed by the time-setting suffix (see above). Finally, a consonant appears. This assigns a gender to the noun representing the action as a whole.

Adverbs and NumbersEdit

Adverbs and numbers compose the two minority classes. Both inflect for the gender of the arguments, and adverbs also inflect for intensity. Neither has a gender of their own. Adverbs have a main root and a key vowel. They only constraint on the main root is that it must end in a vowel. It is followed immediately by a consonant representing intensity, which works in the same way as for verbs (see above). Note that voicing, rather than representing a causative, represents the negative. This is then followed by the key vowel, which is in turn followed by a suffix representing the gender of the argument. Numbers are adverbs with nothing for a root and o for the key vowel. the 'intensity' represents the number, increasing by one per unit. Note that adverbs can be used with nouns. They have an adjectivial meaning in this case. Numbers used with verbs represent repetitions.

Semi-VerbalsEdit

The semi-verbal class is not a lexical class. It is solely grammatical. Members are basically nouns dressed as verbs. They may take either a definite or indefinite article. They begin with a root. This is a noun with the -i replaced by an -u. The suffixes that follow are exactly the same as for verbs. Two different forms must be accounted for, however. Firstly, the subject suffix. The gender included here is that of the noun used for the root, as this is the subject of the verb. Secondly, the intensity suffix is not the standard. The suffixes taken are as follows:

Singular Dual Trial Plural
Be -l -lt -lp -lq
Have -N -n -m -ng

To form the causitive, rather than voicing the intensity suffix, one adds either -i- or -u- before the  'direction' consonant.

SyntaxEdit

The syntax section is very short. There is only one rule concerning word order, and that concerns set phonemes, such as genders and times (of verbs). These must go in the logical order. Considering there's nothing else to say about syntax, let us move onto some slightly less grammatical pieces of grammar. Firstly, the content pronouns. These are a small set of nouns which are used to represent things such as the what in 'what John knows about Linux'. They are as follows: teni, dali, goʈʰi, and qʰandi. Now we move onto the subjunctive. The subjunctive, on its own, means 'may' or 'might'. If one wants it to mean 'would', it must be combined with the adverb da-o, which means 'conditionally', although it cannot be used where this word would be used in English.

VocabularyEdit


No. English El Ling
1Imi-
2you (singular)vi-
3hekhi-
4weUse e.g. 'I and you(s)', 'I and they(d)'
5you (plural)vyo (d)/vyu (tr)/vya (p)
6theykhyo (d)/khyu (tr)/ khya (p)
7thisghonu-
8thatzaNu-
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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