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El ling

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El Ling
El Ling
Type
Agglutantive
Alignment
Nominative-Accusuative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
58
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n N ng
Plosive

p

pʰ

b

bʰ

T

Tʰ

D

Dʰ

t

tʰ

d

dʰ

ʈ

ʈʰ

ɖ

ɖʰ

k

kʰ

g

gʰ

q

qʰ

G

Gʰ

Fricative

f

v

th

dh

s

z

ʂ

ʐ

kh

gh

X

R

Affricate

ps

bz

ts

dz

ks

gz

Pre-lateralised

lp

lt

lq
Lateral app. l
Pre-nasalised stops

mp

mb

nt

nd

ngk

ngg

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close í
Close-mid e o
Mid
Open-mid é
Near-open
Open a

AlphabetEdit

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No
Nouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No
Numbers Yes No Yes No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb Yes No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

There are 50 noun genders. These represented inherent properties of the noun in the proto-language, but due to the modern variety's having descended from the secret code language of astrologers, which showed no agreement between regions on gender assignment (each word being assigned its 'astrological gender', a randomly chosen gender), and it is thus accepted to use any gender. It is strongly encouraged the reader use gender assignment for grammatical purposes (see below). However, the definite and indefinite articles, being phonetically adapted to the former first syllable of the word, are still dependent on the word itself. They are included with the word in the lexicon. Moving on, the root of the word always ends in -i. This can then be followed by the dual suffix    -o, the trial -u, or the plural -a if appropriate. A gender suffix then appears finally. This can be any consonant. Note that pronouns are a subcategory of nouns. In order to form the genitive, one must use the possessive form (see below)

VerbsEdit

Verbs take suffixes for tense, mood, and the gender of their arguments. All verbal roots end in -u. The first suffix is for time. This can be marked as tense with no suffix for present, -e for past and -i for future. In addition to these, there are the suffixes é and í,which represent preset times. The times can be set by adding the suffix l followed by the appropriate vowel just before the gender suffix. There is also the suffix -a, which represents the imperative. The time suffixes are followed by suffixes for arguments. These are basically the gender of the noun in the position followed by a vowel representing case. These are as follows: These are as follows: e for the nominative, i for the accusuative, u for the dative, a for the ablative, í for the instrumental, é for the commitative, o for the locative, and some more [coming soon]. Any number of these can be included, and one can even have multiple instances of the same case; this is just the equivalent of using 'and'. After these, there is a consonant representing intensity. The consonants are the unvoiced ones, and the intensity represented increases with letter (see the alphabetical order above). The consonant can be voiced to make the verb a causitive. The intenstiy suffix is followed by a vowel representing the 'direction' of the verb. This works as follows: A verb can be in the interrogative, the affirmative or the negative. Which it is depends on the group to which the vowel belongs. The vowel itself makes it clear whether the verb is in the indicative or subjunctive. Below is a table of the possible combinations and the corresponding vowel:

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
Indicative i u í
Subjunctive e o é





These may be followed by the time-setting suffix (see above). Finally, a consonant appears. This assigns a gender to the noun representing the action as a whole.

Adverbs and NumbersEdit

Adverbs and numbers compose the two minority classes. Both inflect for the gender of the arguments, and adverbs also inflect for intensity. Neither has a gender of their own. Adverbs have a main root and a key vowel. They only constraint on the main root is that it must end in a vowel. It is followed immediately by a consonant representing intensity, which works in the same way as for verbs (see above). Note that voicing, rather than representing a causative, represents the negative. This is then followed by the key vowel, which is in turn followed by a suffix representing the gender of the argument. Numbers are adverbs with nothing for a root and o for the key vowel. the 'intensity' represents the number, increasing by one per unit. Note that adverbs can be used with nouns. They have an adjectivial meaning in this case. Numbers used with verbs represent repetitions.

Semi-VerbalsEdit

The semi-verbal class is not a lexical class. It is solely grammatical. Members are basically nouns dressed as verbs. They may take either a definite or indefinite article. They begin with a root. This is a noun with the -i replaced by an -u. The suffixes that follow are exactly the same as for verbs. Two different forms must be accounted for, however. Firstly, the subject suffix. The gender included here is that of the noun used for the root, as this is the subject of the verb. Secondly, the intensity suffix is not the standard. The suffixes taken are as follows:

Singular Dual Trial Plural
Be -l -lt -lp -lq
Have -N -n -m -ng

To form the causitive, rather than voicing the intensity suffix, one adds either -i- or -u- before the  'direction' consonant.

SyntaxEdit

The syntax section is very short. There is only one rule concerning word order, and that concerns set phonemes, such as genders and times (of verbs). These must go in the logical order. Considering there's nothing else to say about syntax, let us move onto some slightly less grammatical pieces of grammar. Firstly, the content pronouns. These are a small set of nouns which are used to represent things such as the what in 'what John knows about Linux'. They are as follows: teni, dali, goʈʰi, and qʰandi. Now we move onto the subjunctive. The subjunctive, on its own, means 'may' or 'might'. If one wants it to mean 'would', it must be combined with the adverb da-o, which means 'conditionally', although it cannot be used where this word would be used in English.

VocabularyEdit


No. English El Ling
1Imi-
2you (singular)vi-
3hekhi-
4weUse e.g. 'I and you(s)', 'I and they(d)'
5you (plural)vyo (d)/vyu (tr)/vya (p)
6theykhyo (d)/khyu (tr)/ khya (p)
7thisghonu-
8thatzaNu-
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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