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Elene

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Elene (Elene, [eleɲe]) is a language isolate. It is written in Latin script, of which it uses 24 characters, with Ń, Õ, and Ÿ regarded as seperate letters. The additional acute (´), double acute (˝), grave (`), double grave (  ̏ ), circumflex (ˆ), and cedilla (¸) diacritics used for gramattical purposes. Elene is unique in that it features geminated consonants and allophony corresponding to vowels. Verbs are conjugated according to person, tense, and number. Nouns are declined according to number.


Elene
Elene
Type
Isolating
Alignment
Nominative–accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

In a real world setting, Elene would be spoken in northwestern Russia and around the southeastern Baltic coast. Liguistically, some of the lexicon could be tied to other languages but the proposal is too weak to relate it to any existing language family. 

Its phoneme inventory is reminiscent to those of Romance languages, following similar allophonic structure as well. Syntax is also similar, along with conjugation, but the usage of grammatical particles to express some tenses and emotions differ from many Indo-European languages.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m〈m〉 n〈n〉 ɲ ŋ
Plosive

p〈p〉

b〈b〉

t〈t〉

d〈d〉

k〈q〉

g〈g〉

ʔ
Fricative

f〈f〉

v〈v〉

s〈s〉

ʃ

ʐ〈y〉

ç

x〈h〉
Affricate

t͡s

d͡z

t͡ʃ

d͡ʒ

c͡ç k͡x
Approximant

w

ɥ

j〈ÿ〉

ɥ

w
Trill r〈r〉
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.

l〈l〉

ɫ

ɫ
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close

i〈i〉

y

u〈u〉
Near-close ʊ〈õ〉
Close-mid e〈e〉 o〈o〉
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open a〈a〉

AllophonesEdit

Before e, i, or j some consonants change:
t→[t͡ʃ]
d→[d͡ʒ]
n→[ɲ]
s→[ʃ]
h→[ç]
Before a velar consonant, n becomes ŋ:
ng→[ŋ]
ngg→[ŋgː]
nq→[ŋk]
nh→[ŋk͡x]

PhonotacticsEdit

Consonants can be doubled to become geminated [ː], except for:
f, h, ń, r, v, y, ÿ

Digraphs and TrigraphsEdit

〈au〉[aw]
〈ai〉[aj]
〈eu〉[ew]
〈ei〉[ej]
〈iu〉[jy]
〈ou〉[oː]
〈oi〉[oj]
〈õu〉[ʊw]
〈õi〉[ʊj]
〈ui〉[ɥi]
〈ÿi〉[iː]
〈vm〉[m̩]
〈vn〉[n̩]
〈vng〉[ŋ̍]
〈vl〉[l̩] or [ɫ]
〈nhj〉[ɲc͡ç] (applies to nhi and nhe as well)

LessonsEdit

Unit 1Edit

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

AlphabetEdit

A consonant is considered wide if it is followed by a, o, õ, u or ÿ. Consonants followed by e, i, or j are considered long. If a letter only fills one box, it maintains that pronunciation for both instances.

Letter Name Wide Long
A alta [a]
B batta [b]
C cu [k] or [t͡s] [ʃ]
D datta [d] [d͡ʒ]
E esta [e]
F afa [f]
G gal [g]
H hama [x] [ç]
I it [i]
J ÿat [j]
K ka [k]
L ella [l]
M evma [m]
N evna [n] [ɲ]
Ń [ʔn] [ʔɲ]
O otto [o]
Õ hõva [ʊ]
P patta [p]
Q uqqu [k]
R raim [r]
S satta [s] [ʃ]
T tanta [t] [t͡ʃ]
U uo [u] or [y] [ɥ]
V van [v]
W wa [w] [ɥ]
X axa [ʃ]
Y yait [ʐ]
Ÿ aÿatta [j]
Z ozo [d͡z] [d͡ʒ]
Letters C, K, W, X, and Z are not used in native words, but are used in loan words, names, etc.

HistoryEdit

Traditionally, the alphabet was ordered and written much differently. It was written in both Latin and an original Archaic alphabet:

Aa Ii Uu Ee Oo Ww Pp Bb Mm Ff Vv Tt Dd Nn Ll Rr Ss Zz Yy Qq Gg Hh Xx
Ʌʌ Иu Yɥ Ѫѫ Oo Ɵɵ Пn Бб Mм Φφ Wɯ Tτ Δɒ Vv Ԡԡ Ꝛꝛ Cc Ӡӡ Ьь Qq Гг Хх Ѣѣ
  • Õ was written as W / Ɵ.
  • Ń as XN / ѢV.
  • Y as Z / Ӡ.
  • J and Ÿ were both written as Y / Ь.
  • Consonant gemination, except for nasals, was expressed by writing a X / Ѣ before the consonant.
  • No diacritics were used.

While the Archaic script is used in modern literature for religious, decorative, and traditional works, the Latin alphabet is standard.

GrammarEdit

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

Person Type Singular Plural
1 General eme emite
Formal Eo Eov
2 General ette etitte
Formal Ete Etev
3 General assa asitta
Formal Asa Asav

PosessiveEdit

Person Singular Plural
1 mei mevi
2 tei tevi
3 sai savi

DemonstrativeEdit

Singular Plural
Object Location Object Location
Proximal ÿa ÿata ÿav
Mesial na nata nav
Distal la lata lav
Interrogative ale alat

ConjugationEdit

Verbs are only conjugated according to person and basic tense (past, present, future). The other tenses are formed by use of auxiliary verbs. All infinitives, the unconjugated verbs, get grave diacritics and end in à, è, ì, ò, ȍ, or ù. Conjugated verbs get a circumflex diacritic.

Regular VerbsEdit

-àEdit

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 â âi
2 ât âte
3 âus âuse

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 âta âti
2 âtta âtti
3 âusta âuti

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 âl âlo
2 âto âtjo
3 âuso âusjo
-èEdit

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 ê êi
2 êt ête
3 âis âise

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 êta êti
2 êtta êtti
3 âista âiti

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 êl êlo
2 êto êtjo
3 âiso âisjo
-ìEdit

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 î îe
2 ît îte
3

êis

êise

Past

Person

Singular Plural
1 îta îti
2 îtta îtti
3 êista êiti

Future

Person

Singular Plural
1 îu îlo
2 îto îtjo
3 êiso êisjo
-òEdit

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 ô ôi
2 ôt ôte
3 êus êuse

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 ôta ôti
2 ôtta ôtti
3 êusta êuti

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 ôu ôlo
2 ôto ôtjo
3 êuso êusjo
-ȍEdit

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 ỗe
2 ỗt ỗte
3 ỗus ỗuse

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 ỗta ỗtei
2 ỗtta ỗttei
3 ỗusta ỗutei

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 ỗr ỗro
2 ỗto ỗtjo
3 ỗuso ỗusjo
-ùEdit

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 û ûe
2 ût ûte
3 ûos ûose

Past

Person

Singular Plural
1 ûta ûtei
2 ûtta ûttei
3 ûosta ûotei

Future

Person

Singular Plural
1 ûõ ûlo
2 ûto ûtjo
3 ûoso ûosjo

Irregular VerbsEdit

È: to beEdit

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 êe êi
2 êt ête
3 ês êse

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 êta êti
2 êtta êtti
3 êsta êsi

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 êl êlou
2 êtou êtjou
3 êsou êsjou
Hjuè: to haveEdit

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 hjuê hêe
2 hjuêt hête
3 hjuês hêse

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 hjuêta hêti
2 hjuêtta hêtti
3 hjuêsta hêsi

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 hjuêl hêlo
2 hjuêto hêtjo
3 hjuêso hêsjo
Anù: to be ableEdit

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 anûa anûe
2 anûat anûate
3 anûas anûase

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 anûta anûti
2 anûtta anûtti
3 anûsta anûsi

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 anûal anûlo
2 anûatto anûtjo
3 anûasso anûsjo
Yè: to goEdit

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 yêe yêi
2 yêt yête
3 yês yêse

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 yêta yêti
2 yêtta yêtti
3 yêsta yêsi

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 yêl yêlou
2 yêtou yêtjou
3 yêsou yêsjou

SyntaxEdit

The usual syntax of Elene is SVs(O). Conjugated verbs, however, show person so that the subject is implied. Both SVs(O) and Vs(O) is allowed.

Eme oî ette. Anûate rotì.
[eme oj et͡ʃːe] [anuat͡ʃe rot͡ʃi]
S Vs O Vs O
1s love(1s,pr) 2s able(2pl,pr) eat(inf)
I love you. You all can eat.

NumberEdit

Plurals in Elene are expressed depending on noun endings.

Ending in a VowelEdit

  • a, o, õ, or u. 
-v
vuttja vuttjav
bird birds
  • Some proper nouns such as names or demonyms can end in i or e.
-'v
i armeni iv armeni'v
an armenian some armenians

Ending in a ConsonantEdit

Singlular nouns can also end in all consonants, except for f, h, j, n, ń, or v. What makes the words plural depends on endings:

  • b, d, g, y, ÿ
-ev is added
eÿ eÿev
egg eggs
  • l, r
-ov
toral toralov
back backs
  • m
ń is placed in front of the m
asastam asastańm
stick sticks
  • ng
ń replaces the n
lõng lõńg
ash ashes
  • p, q, s, t
-jav
omboit omboitjav
belly bellies
  • If a noun, in loan words or proper nouns such as names, ends in f, h, j, n, ń, or v
-'ov
e iv e iv'ov
the eve the eves

QuestionsEdit

Syntax does not change if a sentence becomes interrogative. The distiguishing features are:

  • Rising pitch on the main verb.
  • The diacritic on the first conjugated verb is changed to an acute (or double acute in the case of ỗ).
Yêtou. Yétou?
[ʐetoː] [↗ʐetoː]
go(2s,f) go(2s,f,?)
You will go. Will you go?
Hjỗt inè. Hjőt inè?
[çʊt iɲe] [↗çʊt iɲe]
drink(2s,pr) not drink(2s,pr,?) not
You don't drink. You don't drink?

ParticlesEdit

In Elene, seperate words, or particles, are added to a sentence to express additional grammatical information.

TenseEdit

Tense particles follow a verb to add a tense that can't be conjugated. These get the same diacritics as verbs, however they remain unconjugated and can end in consonants. They follow the verb/verb phrase that they modify.

Particle Meaning Example Elene Example English
Negative inè not Santtâusta inè assa. He did not hit him.

Imperative

tèt command Santtâus tèt assa. Hit him.
Perfect completion Santtâuso dà assa. He will have hit him.
Participle lȍn currently occuring Ês santtà lȍn assa. He is hitting him.

EmotionEdit

To emphasize the emotion the subject is feeling, particles are sometimes used in informal and archaic speech and writings. These are usually used at the end of a sentence or phrase. These get the cedilla (¸) diacritic.

Particle Example Elene Example English
Joy ȩ

Yêi ȩ!

Let's go!
Sadness lo̧ Lolouâ lo̧. I'm sorry.
Anger sa̧ Yêt tèt sa̧! Go away!
Sencerity la̧ Altaggâ la̧. Thank you very much.
Pain a̧i Satâ a̧i! It burns!

In modern usage, the cedilla can be used to express emotion in informal writing and speech.

Õ̧õ! Mette imi!
Ooh! Very good!

VocabularyEdit

Some words can double as verbs.


No. English Elene
1Ieme
2you (singular)ette
3heassa
4weemite
5you (plural)etitte
6theyasitta
7thisÿa
8thatna
9hereÿata
10therenata
11whoalan
12whatale
13wherealat
14whenalehe
15howalotte
16notinè
17alloto
18manymen
19somedale
20fewiman
21othertorotte
22oneeno
23twoteto
24threeyain
25fourbõn
26fivearato
27bigdoi
28longanoi
29widevatte
30thickpottõi
31heavyhomon
32smallsatin
33shortbutin
34narrowimatin
35thinvostin
36womanumula
37man (adult male)votta
38man (human being)vamana
39childsjo
40wifetumutta
41husbandvotatta
42motherama
43fatheraba
44animalsolstamina
45fishostina
46birdvuttja
47dog
48lousebomnatta
49snakeverella
50wormoutoa
51treeqiu
52forestmõriu
53stickasastam
54fruitavru
55seedtuno
56leafla
57rootsustauna
58barkmõt
59floweravalla
60grassmittia
61ropehompa
62skinsal
63meatańo
64bloodtinim
65boneomno
66fatittant
67eggeÿ
68hornfaltu
69tailentena
70featheralfu
71hairpeÿu
72headnamasta
73earallam
74eyeyoÿo
75noseoppom
76mouthqou
77toothitit
78tongueaglompu
79fingernailhimtina
80footupevma
81legapalma
82kneeuntja
83handmona
84wingavaya
85bellyomboit
86gutstantu
87neckassona
88backtoral
89breastmÿõ
90hearttoqqtõqa
91liverdolmate
92drinkhjõlla / hjȍ
93eatrotì
94biterutatta / rutattì
95suckgovmò
96spithamò
97vomitququa / ququettà
98blowhafù
99breathehasà
100laughauaran / auarà
101seeomittȍ
102hearohollà
103knowqenȍ
104thinksomnà
105smellassoto / asottù
106fearnala / nalamè
107sleeptomunat / tomì
108livetrivù
109diegattè
110killgattandà
111fightsuassam
112hunttimittò
113hitsanttà
114cutiti / itì
115splitqurutì
116stabamatì
117scratchdordutja / dordusatì
118digmigyì
119swimplottù
120flybassjap / saltȍ
121walksatsà
122comegassà
123lieumonet / umossȍ
124sitsauÿò
125standdaneà
126turnsortì
127fallonmo / dallè
128givefittù
129holdyaÿà
130squeezesjotù
131rubpovmì
132washbamnuà
133wipehafò
134pulltontalù
135pushgotjù
136throwoyattè
137tietolttu / toltimivnà
138sewtuatì
139countqettaì
140sayfalè
141singhotanè
142playunggà
143floatobloà
144flowhuttè
145freezehulassjà
146swellsoltȍ
147sunhia
148moonÿuõ
149starsjõya
150watersjaÿ
151rainamet / amettè
152riversuo
153lakelag
154seaosoq
155salthumal
156stoneortunam
157sanddovnaq
158dustuttupa
159earthsotjo / Talmer
160clouddo
161fogvamaillo
162skytjem
163windossab
164snowugia / ugì
165iceugattja
166smokemostom / tigarrà
167firefo
168ashlõng
169burnsatà
170road
171mountainanja
172redohesõi
173greeneltesõi
174yellowiyosõi
175whiteangosõi
176blackeqrosõi
177nightduallem
178daytiõ
179yearõnea
180warmmitti
181coldhuroi
182fulluli
183newuvoi
184oldehe
185goodimi
186bademÿe
187rottenuqqse
188dirtysosson
189straightgratan
190roundsate
191sharptan
192dullõne
193smoothsuli
194wetsuen
195drysasi
196correcthasse
197neardayan
198fareyon
199rightalte
200leftdane
201aton
202inon
203withne
204andol
205ifas
206becauseleto
207namelang


Example textEdit

Elene (Elene, [eleɲe]) is a language isolate. It is written in Latin script, of which it uses 24 characters, with Ń, Õ, and Ÿ regarded as seperate letters. The additional acute (´), double acute (˝), grave (`), double grave (  ̏ ), circumflex (ˆ), and cedilla (¸) diacritics used for gramattical purposes. Elene is unique in that it features geminated consonants and allophony corresponding to vowels. Verbs are conjugated according to person, tense, and number. Nouns are declined according to number.

Elene (Elene, [eleɲe]) ês i sprottu o selle. Ês alfale on Lattina o sanalo, o assa somâus toti-sal sańm, ne Ń, Õ, ol Ÿ samõvâis o selle sańm. E metti aqut (´), tonale aqut (˝), grava (`), tonale grava (  ̏ ), sirqumfleqsa (ˆ), ol sedilla (¸) sjasesańm êse somà salu haltuname somattav. Elene ês sellanon leto somâus tonalette qoqquv ol alofonia te samõvâis alav. Dalavav êse vamanattaì o vamana, olosa, ol totra. Ossov êse totrattaì o totra.

In a real world setting, Elene would be spoken in northwestern Russia and around the southeastern Baltic coast. Liguistically, some of the lexicon could be tied to other languages but the proposal is too weak to relate it to any existing language family. 

On i fasse sqotjo lata, Elene õssỗus è falè dà on njovese Rossja ol gaula e sjoese Balte soqta. Sprotsa o, iv o e hortu anûase è toltimivnà on metten sprottuv vet e haltava ês mette vose ula toltausao on uam elemen yia o sprottu.

Its phoneme inventory is reminiscent to those of Romance languages, following similar allophonic structure as well. Syntax is also similar, along with conjugation, but the usage of grammatical particles to express some tenses and emotions differ from many Indo-European languages.

Sai baga o fonema ês toltue o nav o sprottuv o Romantja, sonmỗus lȍn toltu futiq o alofona mette. Sai sintaqsa ês mette toltai, mette ne vamanattasao, vet e soma o usubbav ula fottusao iv olosav ol mautalov sellanêus ula mette sprottuv o Indi-Oropi.

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