Elene: Unit 1 Lesson 3Edit

Food; Plural; Participle Tense and GerundEdit

Vocab 1.3Edit

For help with Learner Pronunciation, see here.

Elene Learner Pronunciation English
rotì ro.chi to eat
hjȍ hyoo to drink
dollù to share
rotja ro.cha food
hjõlla drink
hiarotja breakfast
tiõrotja lunch
noqqorotja supper
savarotja dessert
satirotja snack
sereÿal cereal
eÿev e.yev eggs
fosot fo.sot toast
duliov pancakes
baqonu bacon
lavarot salad
sotańo so.ta.'no sandwich
numu strawberry
banenu banana
narang na.rang orange
hottog hot.tog hot dog
hamburgu hamburger
umõp u.moop beef
aqraqup a.kra.kup chicken
inqup ing.qup pork
tohu tofu
sjaÿ shay water
umala milk
umala o soÿ o soy soy milk
agotto juice
satsot sat.sot cookie
savasot cake
sot sot bread
savo sa.vo candy
heqelu carrot
untanja un.ta.nya onion
babiqqu ba.bik.ku tomato
agoppua soup
pitsa pizza
ivmilan im.mi.lan delicious
emÿalai e.mya.lay gross

Verb ReviewEdit

rotì - to eat

rotî rotîe
rotît rotîte
rotêis rotêise

hjȍ - to drink

hjỗ hjỗe
hjỗt hjỗte
hjỗus hjỗuse

dollù - to share

dollû dollûe
dollût dollûte
dollûos dollûose


In Elene, nouns are declined according to number. This means that the word changes based on the amount there is of that word. In English, this is just like adding -(e)s to verbs when there are more than one.

This is done by adding a suffix to the end of a noun, changing a letter, or inserting a letter. It depends on the following endings:

Ending in a VowelEdit

  • a, o, õ, or u. 
vuttja vuttjav
bird birds
  • Some proper nouns such as names or demonyms can end in i or e.
i armeni iv armeni'v
an Armenian some Armenians

Ending in a ConsonantEdit

Singlular nouns can also end in all consonants, except for f, h, j, n, ń, or v. What makes the words plural depends on endings:

  • b, d, g, y, ÿ
-ev is added
eÿ eÿev
egg eggs
  • l, r
toral toralov
back backs
  • m
ń is placed in front of the m
asastam asastańm
stick sticks
  • ng
ń replaces the n
lõng lõńg
ash ashes
  • p, q, s, t
omboit omboitjav
belly bellies
  • If a noun, in loan words or proper nouns such as names, ends in f, h, j, n, ń, or v
e iv e iv'ov
the eve the eves

Participle Tense and GerundEdit

The participle tense in Elene is similar to the -ing ending in English. The difference is, you use the particle or auxiliary verb "lȍn" after the verb in use and add a conjugated "è" in front. Follow these steps:

1. Take the infinitive from of the verb in use.

  •  rotì - to eat

2. Add and conjugate "è".

  •  êe rotì - I am to eat

3. Place "lȍn" at the end.

  • êe rotì lȍn - I am eating

The gerund form of the verb treats it as if it were an object, much like the English sentence I like eating. This is written the same as participle tense, but without the added "è".

  • Eme oî rotì lȍn - I like eating.

Practice Sentences Translate the following questions. Answers below!

1. Ellen hjỗus agotto o narang.
2. Ette êt dollù lȍn ne eme.
3. E sot ês emÿalai.
4. We love sharing the dessert with them.
5. Do you guys drink soy milk?
6. I eat carrots.


The Vowel U

U is pronounced in IPA as [u]. It is similar to the oo in boot. Try to say:
vullu pianu numu

The Diphthong UI and Digraph VM

UI is pronounced in IPA as [ɥi]. This is similar to "wee" and "yee" at the same time.
VM is pronounced in IPA as [m̩]. It is just like saying "mmm" in English, like a hum without the breathy sound.
tui ivmilan

The Consonants H and L

H is pronounced in IPA as [x], This is like a harsh h sound, like Spanish j or Scottish loch. If it is followed by E, I, or J, it makes IPA [ç], exactly like the h in the English word hue. If preceded by an N, and not followed by E, I, or J, it is pronounced as IPA [ŋk͡x]. This is as if saying the nk sound as in ink, ending with the harsh [x] sound.
L is pronounced in IPA as [l], similar to English lost. If it is doubled, it becomes IPA [ɫ]. This is like the English word all.
humal hjȍ manha lag dollù

Practice AnswersEdit

1. Ellen drinks orange juice.
2. You are sharing with me.
3. The bread is gross.
4. Emite oî dollù lȍn e savarotja ne asitta.
5. Etitte hjőte umala o soÿ?
6. Eme rotî heqeluv.

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