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Elene: Unit 1 Lesson 3Edit
Food; Plural; Participle Tense and GerundEdit
For help with Learner Pronunciation, see here.
|umala o soÿ||u.ma.la o soy||soy milk|
rotì - to eat
hjȍ - to drink
dollù - to share
In Elene, nouns are declined according to number. This means that the word changes based on the amount there is of that word. In English, this is just like adding -(e)s to verbs when there are more than one.
This is done by adding a suffix to the end of a noun, changing a letter, or inserting a letter. It depends on the following endings:
Ending in a VowelEdit
- a, o, õ, or u.
vuttja vuttjav bird birds
- Some proper nouns such as names or demonyms can end in i or e.
i armeni iv armeni'v an Armenian some Armenians
Ending in a ConsonantEdit
Singlular nouns can also end in all consonants, except for f, h, j, n, ń, or v. What makes the words plural depends on endings:
- b, d, g, y, ÿ
- -ev is added
eÿ eÿev egg eggs
- l, r
toral toralov back backs
- ń is placed in front of the m
asastam asastańm stick sticks
- ń replaces the n
lõng lõńg ash ashes
- p, q, s, t
omboit omboitjav belly bellies
- If a noun, in loan words or proper nouns such as names, ends in f, h, j, n, ń, or v
e iv e iv'ov the eve the eves
Participle Tense and GerundEdit
The participle tense in Elene is similar to the -ing ending in English. The difference is, you use the particle or auxiliary verb "lȍn" after the verb in use and add a conjugated "è" in front. Follow these steps:
1. Take the infinitive from of the verb in use.
- rotì - to eat
2. Add and conjugate "è".
- êe rotì - I am to eat
3. Place "lȍn" at the end.
- êe rotì lȍn - I am eating
The gerund form of the verb treats it as if it were an object, much like the English sentence I like eating. This is written the same as participle tense, but without the added "è".
- Eme oî rotì lȍn - I like eating.
Practice Sentences Translate the following questions. Answers below!
- 1. Ellen hjỗus agotto o narang.
- 2. Ette êt dollù lȍn ne eme.
- 3. E sot ês emÿalai.
- 4. We love sharing the dessert with them.
- 5. Do you guys drink soy milk?
- 6. I eat carrots.
The Vowel U
- U is pronounced in IPA as [u]. It is similar to the oo in boot. Try to say:
vullu pianu numu
The Diphthong UI and Digraph VM
- UI is pronounced in IPA as [ɥi]. This is similar to "wee" and "yee" at the same time.
- VM is pronounced in IPA as [m̩]. It is just like saying "mmm" in English, like a hum without the breathy sound.
The Consonants H and L
- H is pronounced in IPA as [x], This is like a harsh h sound, like Spanish j or Scottish loch. If it is followed by E, I, or J, it makes IPA [ç], exactly like the h in the English word hue. If preceded by an N, and not followed by E, I, or J, it is pronounced as IPA [ŋk͡x]. This is as if saying the nk sound as in ink, ending with the harsh [x] sound.
- L is pronounced in IPA as [l], similar to English lost. If it is doubled, it becomes IPA [ɫ]. This is like the English word all.
humal hjȍ manha lag dollù
- 1. Ellen drinks orange juice.
- 2. You are sharing with me.
- 3. The bread is gross.
- 4. Emite oî dollù lȍn e savarotja ne asitta.
- 5. Etitte hjőte umala o soÿ?
- 6. Eme rotî heqeluv.