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Emülas

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Emülas
Moonspeech
Type
Agglutinative-Polysynthetic
Alignment
SVO
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Emülas ([ɛmuːlas]), translated as Moonspeech is a lingua franca spoken by the various races that inhabit the Realmworld. By far the largest spoken language in the world, the exact number of speakers of Emülas is unknown but it is assumed over ten million speak it or a variation. Emülas is known as the 'language of magic' as it is the direct language of which all spells derive their incantations from. Devised by the gods in the Age of Heroes as a means to create unity among the peoples of the Realmworld, the language fell out of use during the Great Spelldrought. The tongue was rediscovered by the Order of the Burning Lotus and served as the main language of use for the order's members before eventually being reintroduced to the world at large through the scholars at Hightown. It is a predominantly prefixing agglutinative language which has various polysynthetic tendencies.

GeneralEdit

Emülas is a non-noun-incorporating polysynthetic-agglutinative language. The language is strongly head-initial. The language is almost entirely suffixing. Word order is generally SVO however as nouns can decline by object, word order can be changed around. Emülas is heavily dependent on noun declensions, having almost fifty cases, four numbers, and four genders. Nouns also decline for possession. Verbs conjugate for apsect, tense, number and mood, however not for voice or person.

HistoryEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Dental Central Alveolar Lateral Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v θ ð s z ɬ ʃ ʒ x ɣ h
Approximant l j w ʍ
Trill r

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i(ː) y(ː) u(ː)
Close-mid eː
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a(ː)

Diphthongs Edit

Emülas has seven diphthongs (eulaï): /iu, eu, ea, ai, au, oi, ui/. All of these are falling, except for /iu/ which is rising. Long diphthongs can also occur, namely: /iü, eü, eä, aï, aü, oï, uï/. It should be noted that on long diphthongs, only the final vowel sound is lengthened.

Edit

Phonotactics Edit

  • The syllable structure of Emülas is (C)(C)V(C)(C).
  • The onset allows all single consonant sounds.
  • The coda allows all single consonant sounds except for /ɬ, h, j, w, ʍ/.
  • The nucleus allows all vowels and all diphthongs.
  • Onset clusters must be composed of obstruents plus sonorants.
  • Coda clusters must be composed of sonorants plus obstruents.
  • When the sound /v/ follows a consonant it becomes /w/.

OrthographyEdit

Phoneme Grapheme
/a/ a
/aː/ ä
/ɛ/ e
/eː/ ë
/i/ i
/iː/ ï
/ɔ/ o
/oː/ ö
/u/ u
/uː/ ü
/y/ y
/yː/ ÿ
/b/ b
/d/ d
/θ/ ð or dh
/f/ f
/g/ g
/ɣ/ gh
/h/ h
/j/ j
/k/ q
/l/ l
/ɬ/ lh
/m/ m
/n/ n
/p/ p
/r/ r
/s/ s
/ʃ/ sh
/t/ t
/ð/ þ or th
/v/ v
/w/ w
/ʍ/ hw
/x/ x
/z/ z
/ʒ/ zh

Stress Edit

In Emülas the stressing of a syllable is predictable and non-phonemic but it is partly determined by syllable weight. Words of two syllables are stressed on the first syllable. In words of three or more syllables, the stress is on the penultimate syllable if this is heavy, otherwise on the third last syllable. In Emülas, heavy syllables are syllables that contain either a long vowel, a diphthong, or a cluster of two consonants. The placement of stress and the distinction between heavy and light syllables is important in Emülas verse.

GrammarEdit

NounEdit

GenderEdit

There are four genders (huren) in Emülas;

  • earth (teghor huren)
  • air (hwevyn huren)
  • fire (agna huren)
  • water (zhus huren)

As a general principle, most earth nouns end in -r, most air nouns end in -n, most fire nouns end in a vowel, and most water nouns end in -s, although there are a significant number of exceptions to this guideline based on other noun declensions. Each gender also has appears to have a preferred vowel, so many earth nouns end in -or, many air nouns end in -yn, many fire nouns end in -a, and many water nouns end in -us. This is far from absolute however.

There is no exact equivalence between the genders and semantic categories, but there are some general tendencies:

  • Words for human beings are most often earth or fire: valor "man," vala "woman," mhysa "mother," padhor "father," aiqsor "teacher," tyro "student," etc.
  • Words for terrestrial animals are generally earth: uxhor "bear," hwundor "dog," etc.
  • Words for aquatic or semi-aquatic animals are generally water: nimus "fish," etc.
  • Words for birds are generally air: mhebyn "bird (general)," aqsyn "owl," falxyn "falcon," etc.
  • Words for pets are generally fire: qimja "cat," lhenxu "rabbit," etc.
  • Words for occupations are generally earth: azantyr "soldier," dasor "king," lhysör "priest," etc.
  • Words for body parts are generally water: deqos "foot," aros "arm," noghus "hair," mus "face," etc.
  • Words for intangible ideas are generally air: amoren "love," varyn "power," qenöbyn "hope," etc.
  • Words for physical phenomena are generally earth: ypor "mountain," feldor "glen," ondor "stone," etc.
  • Words for liquids and bodies thereof are frequently water: zhus "water," roshtes "blood," särus "wine," etc.

CaseEdit

Nouns in Emülas can be inflected for almost fifty different cases. The large number of cases in the language elimantes the need for adpositions. The cases are listed as:

  • Nominative - The grammatical subject of a sentence. The nominative singular is the basic, uninflected form of the noun and has no special ending. An example of the nominative is in the sentence "i nixa lomis." - "the night is passing."
  • Accusative - The direct object of a verb. A noun in the accusative ends in -l regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the accusative, the final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped and replaced with -l. An example of the accusative is in the sentence "mhebyl nurhis i qimja." - "the cat stalks a bird."
  • Dative - The indirect object of a verb. A noun in the dative ends in -dh regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the dative, the final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped and replaced with -dh. An example of the dative is in the sentence "i valor ympashid toghol i hwundodh" - "the man gave a bone to the dog."
  • Genitive - To mark the possession of a noun, used to express words with respect to "of" in English. Genitives usually come directly after the possessed noun. To inflect a noun for the genitive, the final vowel and consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped and replaced with -o in earth, air and water nouns, and -aï in fire nouns. An example of the genative is in the sentence "ä thonid i vaghol tadhalo" - "I saw the gates of a city."
  • Instrumental - To mark the instrument with which an action is accomplished. A noun in the instrumental ends in -th regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the instrumental, the final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped and replaced with -th. An example of the instrumental is in the sentence "i valor matid nuxol siqloth." - "the man ate meat with a knife."
  • Carative - To mark an action taking place without the use of an object. A noun in the carative ends in -vez regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the carative, the final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped and replaced with -vez. An example of the carative is in the sentence "i vala matid nuxol siqlovez." - "the woman ate meat without a knife."
  • Benefactive - To mark the nouns that are the beneficiary of an action, used to express words with respect to "for" in English. A noun in the benefactive ends in -g regardless of gende. Thus to inflect a noun for the benefactive, the final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped and replaced with -g. An example of the benefactive is in the sentence "ä'nsid ves elenodh istameg." - "I gave you a book for school."
  • Malefactive - To mark nouns that are negatively affected by an action. A noun in the malefactive ends in -x regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the malefactive, the final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped and replaced with -x. An example of the malefactive is in the sentence "i nhoqus morghid valox." - "the horse died on the man."
  • Vocative - To address someone directly. A noun in the vocative ends in a vowel regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the vocative, drop the final consonant (or consonant cluster) and lengthen the final vowel. An example of the vocative is in the sentence "mhysä, tulir." - "mother, come here."
  • Comitative - To mark the accompaniment of an action. A noun in the comitative ends in -zh regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the comitative, drop the final consonant (or consonant cluster), lengthen the final vowel and add -zh. An example of the comitative is in the sentence "ä matid qimjäzh än." - "I ate with my cat."
  • Privative - To mark the lack of a noun in respect to a verb. A noun in the privative ends in -dwez regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the privative, drop the final consonant (or consonant cluster), and add -dwez. An example of the privative is in the sentence "ä suwis ghiraudwez än." - "I am riding without my saddle."
  • Locative - To express an indefinite location, somewhere "at," "near" or "around" the subject. A noun in the locative ends in -m regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the locative, drop the final consonant (or consonant cluster) and add -m. An example of the locative is in the sentence "ï hine gwanjid i'pedom." - "the children played near the house." 
  • Abessive - To express an action is not done near a place or object. A noun in the abessive ends in -bwyl a vowel regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the abessive, drop the final consonant (or consonant cluster) and add -bwyl. Furthermore, to express an action taking place far away from a place or object (for emphasis on the distance), the "y" is lengthened to give the ending -bwÿl. An example of the abessive is in the sentence "ï hine gwanjid i'pebwyl." - "the children played away from the house."
  • Allative - To express the noun motioning towards something. A noun in the allative ends in -ëq regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the allative, the final vowel and final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped and replaced with -ëq. An example of the allative is in the sentence "i valor tjanis opedëq." - "the man is walking towards a house."
  • Ablative - To express the noun motioning away from something. Thus to inflect a noun for the ablative, the final vowel and final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped and replaced with -ÿgh. An example of the ablative is in the sentence "ä belid ealhÿgh." - "I moved away from the sea."
  • Illative - To express the noun motioning into something. Thus to inflect a noun for the illative, the final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped and replaced with -nwes. An example of the illative is in the sentence "i shigwën tjanid ïslynwes." - "the dark-looking girl walking into the mist."
  • Elative To express the noun motioning out of something. A noun in the elative ends in -sh regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the elative, the final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped and replaced with -sh. An example of the elative is in the sentence "i vala tjanis opedosh." - "the woman walked out of the house."
  • Inessive - To express that a noun is located within something. The inessive is also used to determine the position of a noun at specific points in time. A noun in the inessive ends in -ms regardless of gender.  Thus to inflect a noun for the inessive, the final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped and replaced with -ms. An example of the inessive is in the sentence "ä thonid nwynal aurasems." - "I saw a girl at sunset."
  • Enessive - To express that a noun is on top of something. A noun in the enessive ends in -iuq regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the enessive for earth, wind and water nouns, the ending -iuq is placed after the final consonant, and for fire nouns the final vowel is replaced with the ending -iuq. An example of the enessive is in the sentence "mhebyn telhorid hanoriuq än." - "a bird landed on top of my hand."
  • Enlative - To express that a noun has motioned onto another object. A noun inflect for the enlative has an ending of -wert regardless of gender. Thus the final vowel and consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped and replaced with -wert. An example of the enlative is in the sentence "lasur qantjid hanwert än." - "a leaf fell onto my hand."
  • Delative - To express a noun has motioned off of another object. A noun in the delative ends in -juz regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the delative, -juz is added to the final consonant for earth, air and water nouns, and the final vowel is removed and replaced with -juz for fire nouns. An example of the delative is in the sentence "i nwyna bhandid ghiraudjuz nwo." - "the girl came down off of her saddle."
  • Subessive - To express a noun is located under another object. A noun in the subessive ends in -t regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the subessive, -t is added to the end of the word and the final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped. An example of the subessive is in the sentence "ä misulid shigwël i silmat." - "I kissed a dark-looking girl under the stars."
  • Sublative - To express a noun has motioned underneath another object. A noun in the sublative form has the ending -v regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the sublative, -v is added to the end of the word and the final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped. An example of the sublative is in the sentence "aimithur dwinjid i rezeghov." - "a mouse ran underneath the table."
  • Proessive - To express a noun is motions in front of or "after" another object. A noun in the proessive form has the ending -wed regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the proessive, -wed is added to the end of the word and the final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped. An example of the proessive is in the sentece "i nhoqus gwendhid i valowed." - "the horse cantered in front of the man."
  • Prolative - To express a noun is located in front of another object. A noun in the prolative form has the ending -b regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the sublative, -b is added to the end of the word and the final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped. An example of the prolative is in the sentence "i lhenxus nenlid rixjub." - "the rabbit slept in front of a river."
  • Postessive - To express a noun motions after or "before" another object. A noun in the postessive form has the ending -er regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the postessive the final verb and final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped and -er is added to the end of the word. An example of the postessive is in the sentence "i hwundhor firthid qimjer." - "the dog chased behind the cat."
  • Postlative - To express a noun is locate behind another object. A noun in the postlative form has the ending -lh regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the postlative, -lh is added to the end of the word and the final consonant (or consonant cluster) must be dropped. An example of the postlative is in the sentence "i majodis adhelh." - "I am bathing behind the tree."
  • Translative - To express a noun is being motioned through by another noun. A noun in the translative form has the ending -iüm regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the translative, the ending -iüm replaces the final vowel in fire-gendered nouns and is added on to the final consonant (or consonant cluster) for earth, air and water nouns. An example of the translative is in the sentence "valür Odyseän fanthid lisel tjulemydh qeluso lo'dhym sylowid ealhysiüm." - "Oddyseus' men tied him to the mast as they sailed through the sea."
  • Topical - To express a noun is the topic of a situation. A noun in the topical form has the ending -hwÿ regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the topical, the ending -hwÿ replaces the final consonant (or consonant cluster) in earth, air and water nouns, ad is added on to the final vowel in fire nouns. An example of the topical is in the sentence "i zamindora y xulor shamjelis i julhahwÿ." - "the landlord and a tenant talked (discussed) about the winter harvest."
  • Becausative - To express a noun is the cause of a situation. A noun in the becausative form has the ending -xemhel regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the becausaitve, the final consonant (or consonant cluster) is removed and replaced with -xemhel. An example of the becausative is in the sentence "i julhathor xazorid i julyxemhel." - "the winter harvest had failed because of the snow."
  • Focative - To express a noun is the focus of another. A noun in the focative form has the ending -glëm regardless of gender. Thus to inflect a noun for the focative, the final consonant (or consonant cluster) is removed and replaced with -glëm. An example of the focative is in the sentence "dwezhol än drenghid i thadoglëm." - "I pitched my tent with respect to the oak."
  • Authorative - To express a noun gets its power through another. A noun in the authorative form has the ending -anhe. Thus to inflect a noun for the authorative in fire-gendered nouns the final vowel is removed and replaced by -anhe, and in earth, air and water nouns -anhe is added onto the final consonant or consonant cluster. An example of the authorative is in the sentence "i enqoshis ves i dasoranhe!" - "I am arresting you by the (orders of) the king!"
  • Contrative - To express a noun is acting away from another. A noun in the contrative form has the ending -z. Thus to inflect a noun for the contrative, the final consonant (or consonant cluster) is removed and replaced with -z. An example of the contrative is in the sentence "i nimus pisulhid i'buruz." - "the fish swam against the current."
  • Exhortative - To mark a noun as an adverb in describing the action of another noun. A noun in the exhortative has the ending -d. Thus to inflect a noun for the exhortative the final consonant (or consonant cluster) is removed and replaced with -d. An example of the exhortative is in the sentence "i'zantyr tjodhid nhozryd lisel." - "the soldier looked at him darkly." The word "nhozrys" meaning darkness.
  • Adjective - To mark a noun as an adjective in describing another noun. A noun in the adjective has the ending -f. Thus to inflect a noun for the adjective the final consonant (or consonant cluster) is removed and replaced with -f. An example of the adjective is in the sentence "jis hanorÿ etid hwenteqof." - "his hands were spider-like."
  • Interrogative - -q
  • Negative - -nö
  • Durative - -lt
  • Equative - -p
  • Inequative - -phün
  • Comparative - -rhyz
  • Superlative - -nt
  • Contrastive - -sht
  • Comprisitive - -dhuz
  • Distributive - -gh
  • Diminutive - A root modifying case used express the smallness of a noun. To create the diminutive form of a noun, remove the final consonant (or consonant cluster) and add -shï to the end of the noun. An example is the word for cat in Emülas is "qimja" yet the word for kitten is "qimjashï." The diminutive can also be created through the adjective mïr placed at the beginning of the word. For instance, "kitten" can also be translated as "mïrqimja."

NumberEdit

ArticleEdit

VerbEdit

AspectEdit

TenseEdit

MoodEdit

NumberEdit

AdjectiveEdit

PronounEdit

LexiconEdit

Main Article: Emülas/Lexicon

silman - star

silmanla - starlight

rixjus - river

fyzor - flower

wenda - maiden

iln- - bright

nwaron - cloud

hwefi - to throw forcefully, to throw and rub

glembor - cake, pastry

zios - god

emü - moon

emanla - moonlight

emu - (one's own) daughter

enla - light

sïghor - lion

sherqa - tiger

mïr- - little

mïrauru - little day, dayling

mïremü - little moon

mïraura - little sun

jeldÿn - first night of winter

favüthe - spring/rainy season

läremba - summer

hwethryn - autumn

jule - winter

favüthryn - spring-rain

lärembryn - summer-rain

hwethrÿn - autumn-rain

julryn - winter-rain

pezyr - ash

glyn - life

nhozryn - darkness

osghyn - terror

lhoqys - potion, mixture

düten - evening, dimming

dütenla - evening light, dim light

welhyn - sky

nixuwelhyn - night-sky

fhirun - north

lheus - east

dwïor - south

azra - west

ryqus - rain

qoëryn - season

ryn - song, melody

ryqusryn - rain-song

nixusryn - night-song

qasar - bracelet

qyn - rope, ribbon

xavor - nothingness, emptiness, void

xavoryn - song of the void (sound of the universe before inception)

alef - first

alefryn - first rain

moqur - woods, small forest

esta - slow, steady

penor - home, secure place/person

sundra - raisin

ghauru - grief

xauri - to consume, to devour

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