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endärs
nisärböl
Type inflective
Alignment final
Head direction final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 5
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 8%
Statistics
Nouns 6%
Verbs 1%
Adjectives 4%
Syntax 23%
Words 3000 of 100000
Creator Ṽedviḳh

this is the endärs language. it is spoken on a planet called térrë-skövý (new earth). it is spoken by at least 2.7 billion people. it was in a massive language family, but the other languages were very small so they died quickly or were absorbed by endärs.

Classification and DialectsEdit

endärs is an inflective language. it has 3 main dialects: endë pré, ëléžöl, and éöænsk.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m mʲ mʰ (mː) n nʰ (nː) ɲ (ɲː) ŋ
Plosive

p pʲ p'

b bʲ b' bʰ

t tʰ t' d dʰ c c' ɟ

k k' kʰ kʲ g kʷ

q q' qʷ qʰ ʔ
Fricative f v vʲ vʰ vʲʰ (vː) (fː) vʷ θ θʷ ð ðʷ s sː sʰ s' sʷ z zʰ ʃ ʃʰ ʃʷ (ʃː) ʒ ʒʷ ɕ ʑ (ʒː) ç x xʷ ħ h
Affricate pf bv ts tʃ tʃʰ tʃʷ ʤ ʤʷ gɣ gɣ' kx kxʷ
Approximant w ʍ ɹ ɹʰ j (jː)
Trill ʙ r
lateral aff. c͡ʎ̥ k͡ʟ̝̊
Lateral fric. ɮ ɬ ɬʷ
Lateral app. l lʰ (ɭ) ʎ (ʎː) ʟ
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
close iː ĩː y uː ũ (uːˤ)
Near-close

ɪ ʏ

close-mid e (eˤ)ø øː ɤ o oː õː (oˤ)
Mid ə
open-mid ɛ ɛ̃ (ɛˤ) ʌ ʌ̃ ɔ ɔː ɔ̃ː (ɔːˤ)
Near-open æ æ̃ æː (æˤ)
open ɑ ɑ̃ (ɑˤ)

PhonotacticsEdit

all approximants can blend with any consonant.

all palatals can blend with any other letter.

trills must be after a vowel or at the beginning of a word.

ŋ must be last in a word unless there is a suffix involved.

ý is used for transliteration of / ii / (ɪː) of other languages.

ħ can begin a word, and can only be followed by /ɑ/ or /ə/ and can be after /e,uː,ɔː,ɑ,o,æ,ɛ/

the letters in parentheses are allophonic, so they only appear as allophones

the voiced retroflex lateral approximant is allophonic if /l/ is after the sequence /ħɑ/

Writing SystemEdit

æ (æ), æ̈ (æː) and æ̨ (æ̃) are not letters in the alphabet, nor are the trills, aspirated letters, labialized letters, palatalized letters or ( ' ). they are sounds that are modified or borrowed from other languages. geminated letters are just two of the same letters next to each other unless otherwise mentioned

official sounds of the endars language
letter ä ą̈

ää

b b' bb bv č
sound ɑ ɑ̃ ɔ b b' ʙ bv
letter čw d e é ę ë f g ǧ
sound tʃʷ d ɛ

e

ɛ̃

ə f g
letter ǧ' h hx hxw i ĭ î ï-ý įį
sound gɣ' h x

ɪ

ʌɪ

ĩː

letter

džw

k k' l m n
sound ʤ ʤʷ k k' l m n
letter ň ŋ o ö ǫ̈ öy ō

ǭ

ø
sound ɲ ŋ o õː ɔɪ ɔː ɔ̃ː ø
letter ø̈ p p' pf q q' qw r
sound øː p p' pf q q' ɹ
letter rr s š s' šw t tz þ þw
sound r s ʃ s' ʃʷ t ts θ-ð

θʷ-ðʷ

letter u û ü ų ų̈ v w y ŷ
sound ʌ juː

ʌ̃ ũː v w j waɪ
letter z ž žw

ƕ

' č̣
sound ʏ z ʒ ʒʷ ʍ ʔ tʃʰ
letter qh ṣ̌
sound ɹʰ ʃʰ
letter ṿ ṿ̃ c' t' ł ú ĉ
sound vʲʰ c' t' ɮ y ɟ
letter sw kx kxw ś

św

c ç ş ź
sound kx kxʷ ɬ ɬʷ c ç ɕ ʑ
letter ss ħ kw õ cĺh kl̄h vw
sound ħ ɤ c͡ʎ̥ ʟ k͡ʟ̝̊

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

person, place or thing, can be modified with the 15 cases and the prefixes and suffixes, and the 6 aspects

VerbsEdit

actions, can be put onto nouns if needed, can be modified with the 15 cases and the prefixes and suffixes, and the 6 aspects

SyntaxEdit

  1. If an adjective is before a noun, the endärs equivalent has the adjective AFTER the noun

  2. If a verb is before a noun, it is after it in endärs

  3. If a verb is after a noun, it remains the same

  4. A pronoun that is after a noun is before it in endärs

  5. An adverb after an adjective or verb is before it in endärs

  6. Conjunctions, prepositions and interjections are the same as in english

  7. Verbs come after prepositions in endärs

LexiconEdit

there are 15 cases, 6 aspects, and well over 2000 words, with a target of 100,000 words

Example textEdit

téb! înhärný? (hi! how are you?)

nisärböl döväwtï. (this is endärs.)

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