Englisc is a language based on Old Englisc, carried forward to today. There is a bit of German in it, and some modern English, but it maintains its core language, unlike our language. This language is basically Old English as if it evolved like Modern German.
Here is a basic grammar of Englisc:
- Capital: A, Æ, B, C, D, Ð, E, F, G, Ȝ, H, Ƕ, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, Œ, P, Q, R, S, T, Þ, U, V, W, X, Y, Z
- Lowercase: a, æ, b, c, d, ð, e, f, g, ȝ, h, ƕ, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, œ, p, q, r, s, t, þ, u, v, w, x, y, z
- Runic: ᚪ, ᚫ, ᛒ, ᚳ, ᛞ, ᚧ, ᛖ, ᚠ, ᚸ, ᚷ, ᚻ, ᛰ, ᛁ, ᛄ, ᛣ, ᛚ, ᛗ, ᚾ, ᚩ, ᛟ, ᛈ, ᛢ, ᚱ, ᛋ, ᛏ, ᚦ, ᚢ, ᚡ, ᚹ, ᛉ, ᚣ, ᛊ; additionally: ᛥ (st), ᛝ (ng), ᛡ (ia, io), ᛠ (ea), ᛤ (kk), ᛇ (eo)
- (please download Junicode to view the Runes)
The alphabet can also be written with runic characters, and when done in this form, can be written backwards, forwards, boustrephedonically, and vertically up or down, depending on the need of the writer. The Runic letters are arranged alphabetically in their own arrangement, different from Latin form. The V is simply a dotted-F rune. The rune ᛢ stands for QU and KW in any word. The conjunction "and" can also be shortened, especially in writing with Runes, to ⁊.
Runic alphabetical order: f u þ o r c; ȝ w h n i j; eo p x s t b; e m l ng œ d; a æ y ea ia k; kk g kw st ð v; z ƕ
There is also the letter hwair (Ƕ, ƕ) used to write "hwa" and other words beginning with HW, which is ordered after H. This is mostly a written convention to merge the two letters, but some dictionaries will order words beginning with HW as a separate letter, not between HU and HY words.
When writing Englisc, there are some abbreviations you might see, most notably the letter þ with a stroke through the top (Ꝥ ꝥ) which is short for þat. The second is what is called 'Tironian et', a short version of 'and', written like the number 7, but straight, and descending below the line (⁊).
See: Pronunciation Examples
The letters b, d, g, k, l, m, n, p, t, v, w, x sound like modern English. The Z sounds like 'ts' as in cats in any unstressed syllable, and dz in a stressed syllable. The letter C is always like ch in church. The letter yogh Ȝ is a y-sound like yes in all positions. In foreign loanwords, the letter J indicates the same sound. The letters Þ and Ð sound like think and that, respectively. H at the beginning of a word is like hard; at the end of a word (after a/o/u) like Scottish loch and after front vowels (æ/e/i/œ/y) like German ich. The letter Q is always in the combination qu and is only used in foreign words; the native version is spelled as kw. The letter S is pronounced like sing in all cases except between vowels, when it sounds like zulu. The letter w is always like wire, except in the combination wl or wr when it can sound like victor. The letter yogh, in inflectional endings is replaced with g, such as DæȜ "day" becoming Dage "days". In these cases, the letter G is pronounced like German ach-laut, sounding like "Daa-kheh". In adjective endings, mainly -iȜ, the yogh is replaced with a G before all inflectional endings. This should be pronounced like a regular G, though some dialects would pronounce it as an ich-laut in less formal registers.
- EI - buy
- IE - fee
- EA - may - this is simply a long æ. In words ending in 2 consonants, this digraph is used to indicate a long vowel.
- IO - like yo
|short||[/a/]||[/ɛ/, /æ/]||[/ɛ/, /ə/]||[/ɪ/]||[/ɔ/]||[/œ/]||[/ʊ/]||[/ʏ/]|
- Short 'o' in some dialects sounds like o in English 'not' ([/ɒ/]
- Umlaut of a, æ has two pronunciations: short like Bett and long like air; or short like hat and long like gäbe (stage German pronunciation)
- The schwa ə
occurs only in unstressed syllables, for instance in besetten bəˈsɛt:ən 'occupy'. It is often considered a complementary allophone together with ɛ which cannot occur in unstressed syllables. If a sonorant follows in the syllable coda, the schwa often disappears so that the sonorant becomes syllabic, for instance Kyccen ˈkʰytʃn̩ 'kitchen', Esel ˈeːzl̩ 'donkey'. Before /r/, this is realized as ɐ in some varieties, for instance better ˈbɛt:ɐ 'better'.
- The vowel written either as æ or ea in some cases is pronounced as the long variant of the short /æ/
|spelling||ai, ei, aȜ, eȜ||æȜ||au||eo||io|
- The diphthong 'io' is often pronounced with a slight 'y' sound at the start, so that Biologie sounds like "bjo-lo-gie"
- B - like b in bed.
- C - like ch in chisel.
- D - like d in Dog.
- Ð - like that. It alternates with þ in words such as "werþ" becoming "werðem" in an inflected form
- F - like f in father. Between vowels, voiced to v
- G - like g in gold.
- Ȝ - like y in yes. In the adjective ending iȝ, it is replaced with g in inflected forms. In nouns ending in ȝ it is often replaced with g in plural forms, especially after back vowels.
- H - like h in hotel.
- HW - like h and w together, similar to Gothic hwair.
- J - like y in yes.
- K - like k in kilogram
- L - like l in liter
- M - like m in Mann
- N - like n in Now
- P - like p in Post
- Q - always seen as qu, pronounced as in queen. Native words have kw in place of this combination
- R - like r in Rose or water (American English). It is always pronounced. More common is the trilled version as in Scottish. Uvular R is found in some dialects.
- S - like s in since at the beginning and end of syllables. Between vowels it is voiced to z.
- T - like t in Tiger
- Þ - like th in think. It alternates with ð
- V - like v in vase. This occurs only in foreign words
- W - like w in water
- X - like ks in Ex
- Z - like ts in cats. In stressed syllables, sounds like dz
- The letter H can have the pronunciation /h/ at the beginning of a syllable, and /ç/ after front vowels, and /x/ after back vowels.
See also: Nouns
Nouns have three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter), two numbers (single, plural), and four cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative), which are marked with case endings and the use of a definite article.
Masculine nouns are nouns which use the article þe and can also describe male beings (Doktor, Baker, Maker, etc.), or words ending in -dom, -els, -had, -ing, -oþ. The gender is arbitrary on things, so the gender does need to be memorized.
- As an example, the word Stan, stone in the singular: Stan, Stanes, Stan, Stan; plural: Stane, Stane, Stanen, Stane
Neuter nouns are nouns which use the article þat and can also describe things and children (Cild, Barn, etc.), or words ending in -in, -el, -incel. The gender is arbitrary on things, so the gender does need to be memorized.
- As an example, the word Barn, child, baby in the singular: Barn, Barnes, Barn, Barn; plural: Barne, Barne, Barnen, Barne
Feminine nouns are nouns which use the article þie and can also describe female beings (Doktorin, Bakestre, Makestre, etc.), or words ending in -estre, -in, -nes, -ung. The gender is arbitrary on things, so the gender does need to be memorized.
- As an example, the word Ruun, secret in the singular: Ruun; plural: Rune, Rune, Runen, Rune.
- Feminine nouns that end in an -e in the singular will have en plurals.
Pronouns operate like any other language, replacing the nouns already mentioned and indicating the speaker, and one to whom you speak.
These are the pronouns including the speaker, that is, I, we two, and we. The following table indicates modern English forms of these pronouns:
|dative||to/for me||to/for us two||to/for us|
And now in Niw Englisc:
The second person is the person to whom you are speaking. It is thou (you), ye two, and ye.
The third person is whomever you're talking about; it is the person 'over there.'
These pronouns indicate someone unknown or unnamed to the speaker or person spoken to. The prefix a- adds the meaning any, æȝ- means each
- anyone, anything: ahwa, ahwat
- each/everyone, each/everything (individually): æȝhwa, æȝhwat
- each/every one, each/every thing (as a group, together): gehwa, gehwat
- no one, nothing: nehwa, nehwat
- someone, something: nathwa, nathwat
- anything: oht
- nothing: noht
Indefinite Pronouns with Adjective EndingsEdit
These words function like pronouns, but have adjective endings
- each: æȝhwilc
- each of two, both (individually); æȝhwæðer
- both, each of two (as a group, together): gehwæðer
- each, every, any: gehwilc
- neither of two: nehwæðer
The most commonly used:
- ælc: each
- swilc: such
- þyslic: such
Not a pronoun, but closely associated:
- maniȝ: many a
- Example: Many a student came by the school: maniȝ Student kaam be þer Skole forbiȝ.
These pronouns are question words, asking information from someone
|_||Which of two? (m)|
It is important to note that hwæðer and hwilc are used with 2 or more than 2 things, respectively.
- Mid hwæðerem Hemþ scolde ic utgaan? with which shirt (of two) should I go outside?
- Hwilc Magazin scolde ic bycgen? Which magazine (of many) should I buy?
The definite article declines, or changes form, based on the gender of the noun it describes. The article can be masculine, feminine, neuter, or plural. It has cases to agree with the nouns it describes. This word translates the English 'the, that.'
This word translates the English 'a, an.' An adjective following this is in the weak form.
There is no plural form for 'a, an' but if it means 'single, only' then it can have a plural form, as in 'the only women here' (þie anen Weife hier). If you intend to mean 'one' instead of 'a, an' then you write a double-a, as in 'aan, aanes' et al.
This / These Edit
This word translates the English 'this, these.' An adjective following this is in the weak form. In a stressed form, meaning 'this one here directly in front of me' or 'this one we have been discussing just now' you write 'þies, þiesses' et al.
The same, the very sameEdit
|nominative||þe selfe||þie selfe||þæt selfe||þie selfen|
|genitive||þes selfen||þer selfen||þes selfen||þer selfen|
|dative||þem selfen||þer selfen||þem selfen||þen selfen|
|accusative||þen selfen||þie selfe||þæt selfe||þie selfen|
Adjectives add endings to tell their function in a sentence. When standing before a noun, they add strong endings.
- Example: Stan (m), great Stan (big stone), ȝung Cild (young child), ȝunges Mæȝdens (of a young girl), aldem Mann (to an old person (male or female)), kalde Dage (cold days)
Weak endings occur after an article having an ending is placed before a noun. This is before the words þe, þie, þat, mein, þein (et al), an, þis.
- Example: þe Stan -> þe grœne Stan; þat Mæȝden -> þat ȝunge Mægden; þie Frowe -> mid þer wlitigen Frowe
For all adjectives, comparison is made adding the suffixes -er and -est. For example:
- gemæn, gemæner, gemænst- (common, commoner, commonest)
- dier, dierer, dierst- (dear, dearer, dearest)
Some adjectives have irregular comparative forms, with umlaut. They are all single-syllable, and quite common:
- ald, ælder, ældest (old)
- brad, bræder, brædest (broad)
- ferr, fierrer, fierrst (far)
- great, grieter, grietst (great, big)
- ȝung, ȝynger, ȝyngst (young)
- heah, hieher, hiehst (high)
- lang, længer, længst (long)
- scort, scœrter, scœrtst (short)
- strang, strænger, strængst (strongest)
And a small number of adjectives have a completely different comparative/superlative form than the positive:
- god, better, betst (good, better, best)
- lytel, læsse, læst (little, less, least)
- micel, mære, mæst ((great, much), more, most)
- yfel, wiers, wierst (evil, worse, worst)
Word-formation: Adjective endingsEdit
To make new adjectives, you can use a set of adjective suffixes to nouns, forming new words:
- bære - bearing, having; ex: lihtbære light-bearing, hornbære having horns
- en - made of X; ex: wuden wooden, fellen made of skins, gylden golden
- ern - in the direction of; ex: norðern, suðern, western, eastern
- fæst - fast, fixed, firm; ex: arfæst firm in honor, virtuous, ærendfæst fixed in an errand
- fald - X-fold, X-times; ex: anfald one time; single, twifald two times, double
- full - full
- iȝ - having the quality of X (note: the ȝ turns to g before adjective endings)
- iht - a more emphatic version of iȝ, noting a higher degree of the trait; ex: geþyldiȝ, geþyldiht patient
- isc - having a trait like X; cildisc - childish
- lic - X-like
- læs - X-less; arlæs honorless
- el - forms adjectives from verbs; spreken -> sprekel talkative, etten -> ettel voracious
- sum - in an X manner
- ward - notes position or direction
- wende - forms adjectives from nouns and other adjectives
Verbs are those words describing an action or a state of being. Verbs are either strong or weak, like nouns and adjectives. Strong verbs change their vowel to indicate tense, while weak verbs add a dental suffix (-de, -te) to indicate tense. All verbs conjugate for person, singular/plural, and tense (past/present).
A weak verb has the following endings in the present tense, using maken to make, do as an example:
|I||make, do make, am making||we make, do make, are making|
|thou||makest, doest make, art making||ye make, do make, are making|
|he/she/it||makes, does make, is making||they make, do make, are making|
So, the endings for weak and strong verbs are:
- ic -e
- þu -(e)st
- he -(e)þ
- wiȝ/ȝiȝ/hje -eþ
Just add the endings to the stem (maken is the stem mak- and the infinitive ending -en)
If the verb ends in a d/t, or some consonant cluster that makes it difficult to hear the ending, you keep the e in the 2nd and 3rd person. The plural ending is the same for all persons.
You can also derive verbs from adjectives by means of umlaut. For example:
- full - full -> fyllen to fill
- gold - gold -> gylden - to gild
- hard - hard -> hærden - to harden
- lang - long -> lengen - to lengthen
- strang - strong -> strengen - to strengthen
Past tense of weak verbsEdit
Weak verbs form the past tense with either -de or -te. If the word ends in a voiceless consonant, such as k, p, s/z, then it will add -te, otherwise, -de. If the verb ends in some kind of consonant cluster that makes the ending hard to hear, add e between the verb stem and the ending (gelanden -> gelandede).
The following illustrate the past tense endings:
Irregular Weak VerbsEdit
See: Irregular Weak Verbs
There are some weak verbs which, like modern English and German, are irregular. They are equivalent to think, thought, thought.
And the past:
Strong verbs are those verbs that change the vowel in the stem to indicate the tense, such as 'write, wrote, written' in modern English. It works essentially the same way in Niw Englisc, just that there are a few more strong verbs, and you can place them into 7 broad types to make it easier to predict their forms. Basically, a strong verb will look like this in the present:
And the past:
Like all verbs, the plural is the same ending for all three persons. The ic and he forms are the same, however, in the past tense.
Type 1 -ei/a/iEdit
See: Strong Verbs type 1
The first type of strong verb has a ei vowel in the stem. Verbs like wreiten, streifen, sleiden, and sweifen are all type 1 verbs, and are declined the same way:
Streifen - to strive
And the past:
And in the perfect tense with haben to have:
- ic habe gestriffen, etc.
Please note here that there is a slight change in the stem, doubling the consonant. This is merely to indicate the vowel preceding is short, but it does make some consonants voiceless that would otherwise be voiced (f sound instead of v sound, þ instead of ð, etc.)
Special note on þ/ð - the letter thorn (þ) is the voiceless version of eth (ð), and as such, will alternate with it in certain forms of a verb or other word, depending on how it's used in a sentence. Take here the example of leiðen - to go, sail, travel:
And the past:
|Ic||em geliþþen||wiȝ||sind geliþþen|
|þu||ert geliþþen||ȝiȝ||sind geliþþen|
|he/scie/it||is geliþþen||hje||sind geliþþen|
Type 2 ie-o-o Edit
Driegen - to endure
And the past:
- Subjunctive II:
And in the perfect tense with haben to have:
|Ic||habe gedrogen||wiȝ||habeþ gedrogen|
|þu||hafst gedrogen||ȝiȝ||habeþ gedrogen|
|he/scie/it||hafþ gedrogen||hje||habeþ gedrogen|
Special Note: verbs whose stems end in yogh ȝ pronounce it like English yes in the present after e/i, but in the past tense, it sounds like 'ch' in the German 'ach' (IPA: x). This is a sound change based in historical linguistics, and needs to be memorized. When the vowel umlauts for the subjunctive, this sound further changes to the German 'ich' sound (IPA: ç).
Example: flieȝen to flee
Type 3 - e/i-a-o Edit
See: Strong Verbs type 3
Example: helpen - to help
And the past:
Past subjunctive is a little irregular, normally taking æ, but can take the 'u' vowel as an archaism:
|Ic||habe geholpen||wiȝ||habeþ geholpen|
|þu||hafst geholpen||ȝiȝ||habeþ geholpen|
|he/scie/it||hafþ geholpen||hje||habeþ geholpen|
Type 4 - e-a-oEdit
beran to bear
And the past:
Type 5 - e-a-eEdit
See: Strong Verbs type 5
These verbs alternate between e-a-e in the tenses:
kweðen - to say
And the past:
Type 6 -a/o/aEdit
- faren - to go, travel
And the past:
Type 7 -a/e/aEdit
- scaden - to separate; scadend-, gescaden
And the past:
- floken - to clap, strike; flokendi, gefloken
And the past:
- bannen - to summon; bannend-, gebannen
And the past:
Type 7 -irregularEdit
See: Type 7 Irregular Verbs
There are a few type 7 verbs with irregular past tenses, a remnant of the old reduplicated verbs that all Germanic languages had at one point.
- beaten, beft, gebeaten
- dræden, drerd, gedræden
- haaten, heht/hett, gehaten
- laaken, lelk, gelaaken
- læten, lert, gelæten
- ræden, rerd/redd, geræden
- spaaten, speft, gespaaten
- See: Irregular Verbs
These verbs are very irregular and have such a high frequency, that it's better just to memorize them.
- don - to do
- gan - to go
- haben - to have
- hycgen - to think
- libben - to live
- secgen - to say
- wesen/been - to be; the only verb to have a distinct future tense form
Modal Verbs / Preterite-Present VerbsEdit
See: Preterite-Present Verbs
Modal verbs in Niw Englisc work similarly to German. They have full conjugations, and some can act alone without another verb to complete their meanings.
- Modals: durren, kunnen, magen, moten, scullen, þurfen, willen
- Preterite-Present: agen, benugen, dugen, gemunen, genugen, witten
- As an example, the verb kunnen which alone means 'to be acquainted with, to know' and with an infinitive 'to be able to, can, know how to'
- 1-20: an, tweȝn, þrie, fier, feif, six, sefen, aht, neiȝn, tien, endlefen, twelf, þrietien, fiertien, feiftien, sixtien, sefentien, ahttien, neiȝntien, tweȝntiȝ
- decades: tien, tweȝntiȝ, þrittiȝ, fiertiȝ, feiftiȝ, sixtiȝ, sefentiȝ, ahttiȝ, neiȝntiȝ, hund/hundred, endlefentiȝ (110), twelftiȝ (120)
- hundreds: hund/hundred, twahund, þriehund, fierhund, feifhund...
- larger numbers: þusend, tienþusend, hundþusend, Million (10^6), Billion (10^9), Trillion (10^12), Quadrillion (10^15), Quintillion (10^18), et al.
Writing numbers: when writing numbers, like in German, they are written together, with the digits preceding the decades. When writing hundreds, you write hundred when it's an even hundred (100, 200,..., 900), but otherwise, the shortened form is used.
- 31: anandþrittiȝ
- 568: feifhundahtandsixtiȝ
- 9327: neiȝnþusendþriehundsefenandtweȝntiȝ
- Addition: aan and aan sind tweȝn, aan plus tweȝn makeþ þrie, aan and fier sind feif
- Subtraction: aan minus aan is null; tweȝntiȝ wane þrie is sefentien
- Multiplication: þrifeald þrie is neiȝn, feif seiðen feif is feifandtweȝntiȝ
- Division: tweȝntiȝ gedld þurh feif is fier
- Fractions: feif fierþlinge (5/4) (formed by the ordinal plus the ending -ling); special fraction: Half (þrie Halfe - 3/2, uses the plural)
- andlang - alongside
- hweilen - during
- inteiden - during (a variant from in Teiden - in times)
- innerseids - inside of
- midhelpe - with the help of
- oferseids - on top of
- onstede - in place of, instead of
- to - towards, in the direction of
- underseids - underneath, on the bottom of
- utenseids - outside of
- wiþ - opposite of
- buten - besides, except
- biȝ - by, near
- gelang - depending on
- mid - with
- of - from, out of
- onmang - among
- oþ - until
- seiþ - after (a period of time)
- to - to, at;
- ut - out of
- þurh - through
- wiþ - against (ic fehte wiþ hin I fight with/against him)
- in - in, into
- ofer - over, above; across; (he stændeþ ofer þem Feld he's standing over the field; he geng ofer þen Feld - he went across the field)
- on - on, onto
- ongejn - opposite, against, over against, in a direction opposite to; (it hængþ ongejn þem Wall - I'm against the wall; þu gæst ongejn þen Stream - you're walking in a direction opposite the stream)
- under - under
All Nouns (substantives) are written with a capital letter, including adjectives acting as nouns. All nouns have gender to them; this is not an indication of natural gender, but it is merely an indicator of how to decline the noun in the sentence.
Nouns can be masculine, feminine, or neuter; they can be singular or plural in number; they have four cases: nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative.
This is the case of the direct object of a sentence, and the object of some prepositions. In a sentence such as 'I see the boy' Ic see þen Knafen, the word Knafen is in the accusative case, as indicated by the article þen and the ending n on the noun.
Verbs agree in number and person with the subject of the sentence: Ic finde, he findeþ. Verbs also carry tense and mood, as in 'ic fare - I travel' and 'ic for - I traveled.'
A contrary-to-fact statement is in subjunctive mood: ic fœre mid ȝu if ic Geld hæfde - I would travel with you if I had the money. A statement of fact is in the indicative mood: ic fare mid ȝu, forþen ic Geld habe - I travel with you because I do have the money. A command is in the imperative mood, and written with an exclamation point: Finde scie! - Find her! Indirect speech is in present subjunctive: Þe Eðelþeȝn sæȝde, þat he sekk sei - the foreign minister said he is sick (but I cannot verify this).
- Þie Polizei (Burgward) sæȝde, scie werke, þat Barn to finden - the police said it is working to find the child.
- The definite article (þe, þie, þat) serves the same function as in German, and the English words "the" and "that".
- The difference is in how the article is emphasized in speech. Þe Knafe findeþ þat Handy The boy finds the cell-phone versus Þe Knafe findeþ þat Handy The boy finds that cellphone.
- Direct Articles can merge with prepositions in certain instances, as in modern German.
- In þem => im
- To þem => tom
- To þer => tor
- As in any other Germanic language, prepositions come before a noun, article, and adjective to indicate its relationship with the rest of the sentence: with the young boy, in the blue ocean, etc. [mid þem ȝungen Knapen, in þen bluen Garsecg]
- The difference between Englisc and other Germanic languages is that in certain instances, the preposition follows the noun it describes. It only occurs in certain set instances, so it's very easy to tell when it would occur.
- A preposition may follow the pronoun when doing so places the preposition next to a verb: ic him mid gaa I go with him, þu her to geng you went to her
Coordinating conjunctions are the conjunctions that link two complete sentences together. In Englisc, they are: and, ak, oþþe (and, but, or); neither/nor ne...ne eak, nahwæðer...ne; either/or æȝþer...ȝe; both/and ȝe...ȝe; therefore þonn.
- Ic fand þat Handy and ic kallde hje I found the cellphone and I called them
- Þu hrepst ak þu þiȝ ne ondrerdst? you screamed but weren't scared?
- Wit kunneþ int Hus gan oþþe wit kunneþ umtreden we can go into the house or walk around
- Ic þenke, þonn ic em. I think, therefore I am.
Subordinating conjunctions are those that link a sentence with a dependent clause that completes the meaning of the independent clause. They are always preceded with a comma, and the conjugated verb must be the final element of the clause. The only exception is with modal verb phrases with 3 or more verbs.
- als - as
- ærþem before: Greip þeine Kæge ærþem wiȝ þie Dure klyseþ. Grab your keys before we close the door.
- forþen because: wiȝ habeþ an niwe Auto, forþen wiȝ an Niwe bycgen þorften we have a new car because we needed to buy a new one.
- nefne unless, except - wiȝ ne kunneþ gaan, nefne þu þeinen Rycgsakk bringst we can't go unless you bring your backpack.
- nuþat now that
- oþ until
- siþþen - since
- so...als just...as
- so son - as soon as
- soþat - so that
- toþen in order to/that
- þa - when (at a definite point in time) - þa he his Katte fand, hlog he when he found his cat, he laughed.
- þeah - although
- þenden - while - þenden wiȝ þisse Rosen planteþ, gaa tor Scyppen and bring us anen Turl while we plant these roses, go to the shed and bring us a trowel.
- þann - when (in the future at some indefinite time) - þann þu onkommst, nimm þeine Scohe of when you arrive, take your shoes off.
- The word order in a simple sentence is Subject, Verb, Object
- If the object is a single pronoun, dative or accusative, you can place it before the verb. Ic hin fand I found him, Wij hjem helpeþ we are helping them.
- This is a very natural order when there is only a single pronoun object, otherwise, the objects all follow the verb: ic fand þen Knafen in þem Beam I found the boy in the tree
Complex sentences are those which contain a main clause and a subordinate clause. Subordinate clauses follow the order: Relative Pronoun + Subject + Object + Verb. The verb is the final unit in the sentence.
- I see that she has a phone.
- Ic see, þat scie an Telefon hafþ
A more complex sentence:
- I know that she will find her book
- Ic waat, þat scie here Bok finden wirþ
- He says that his sister has a new cellphone.
- He sæȝþ, þat seine Swester an niwe Handy habe.
In each case, the verb is the final thing in the subordinate clause.
Here's a more complex example:
- The brown-haired man knew that he would need to find a new car.
- Þe brunfaxe Werr wiste, þat he an niwe Auto finden þœrfte.
- The young girl knew, that her brother would have been seen in the box.
- Þat ȝonge Mæȝden wiste, þat her Broðer in þer Box wære geseen worden wesen.
There are two ways to form questions - Verb-first, and using a question word. The simplest way to make a question is to put verb first, subject second, and then the rest of the sentence:
- Þu findest þeine Swester - You find your sister.
- Findest þu þeine Swester? - Do you find your sister? (taken as are you looking for your sister?)
The second way to ask a question uses a question word to get information, such as hwær/hwider/hwanen (where/to where/from where), hwa/hwat (who/what), hwei/hwy (why?), hwenn? (when), hu (how), to hwon/for hwon (to what end, for what purpose)
- To hwon gæst þu mid her? - To what end are you going with her?
- Hwider forst þu ȝesternniht? - Where'd you go last night?
Word Order of ElementsEdit
While sentence order is typically Subject-Conjugated Verb-Object, between the verb and object, that's where you normally place the adverbs of time, manner, then place.
- Ic will morgen to Disney faren I want to go to Disney tomorrow. (morgen time: tomorrow; to Disney place: to Disney)
- Mein Swester snaak ȝesternnaht softe tom Kyccen My sister quietly snuck to the kitchen last night (time: ȝesternnaht, manner: softe, place: tom Kyccen)
Objects typically follow the order of dative object, then accusative object.
- "Ic gife meinem Fader þat Geld" (I give my father the money)
- "Ic gife it him" (I give it to him)
- "Ic gife him þat Geld" (I give him the money)
- "Ic gife it meinem Fader " (I give it to my father)
- "Ic gife þat Geld meinem Fader " (I give the money to my father)
- "Ic gife þat Geld him" (I give the money to him)
very strange (but still correct):
- "Ic gife him it" (I give him it)
- "Ic gife meinem Fader it" (I give my father it)
- 100 basic words
- 1000 basic words
- 20 Common verbs
- Genesis 1:23: And þær was Æfen, and þær was Morgen-þe feifte Dæȝ
- Genesis 1:23 (Run): ᚪᚾᛞ ᚦᚫᚱ ᚹᚪᛋ ᚫᚠᛖᚾ, ᚪᚾᛞ ᚦᚫᚱ ᚹᚪᛋ ᛗᚩᚱᚸᛖᚾ-ᚦᛖ ᚠᛖᛁᚠᛏᛖ ᛞᚫᚷ
- If man seinen Computer mid Windows 7 aniwe, kyðe man snude seen, hu snell sein Computer been kann. Þie Swifte þisses Bedreifsystems warþ oft im Internet gewritten wesen.
- Þe Senator hafþ seine Party gewendt. Senator Arlen Spector, þe ærstens in 1966 gecosen wurðe, bodede þat he 2010 als Demokrat rinnen wolde.
- "Supersnell US-Jet ne spœwþ bei seinem Testflyht"
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