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Enhe

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Enhe
Enhe
Type fusional
Alignment nom-acc
Word Order SOV
Head direction final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Topic-Prominence No
Classes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Classification and DialectsEdit

Enhe is an elvish language, to be used in future stories by a friend of mine.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive p t
Fricative ɸ β θ ð x ɣ h
Sibilant s z ʃ ʒ
Affricate ts dz tʃ dʒ
Approximant l j w
Trill r

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i y u
Close-mid e ø o
Near-open æ
Open ɑ

ø, æ and y only occur in umlauts.

Diphthongs and glidesEdit

-i -u
i-
y- ʊy
u-
e-
ø- øɪ øʊ
o- œy
æ- æɪ æʊ
ɑ- ɑɪ ɑʊ

Phonotactics & allophonyEdit

a syllable may be up to (c)(c)v(c)(c), though also (c)s(c) and (c)f syllables are legal to occur, in this case c is any consonant, v is any vowel, s is any of the approximants or trills and f is a fricative or sibilant. any unvoiced consonant followed by a voiced consonant becomes voiced.

any consonant occuring twice (or more) in a row will become geminiated

vowels occuring twice (or more) will become long

a hiatus occurs inbetween vowels that are not diphthongs or glides.

h is not pronounced inbetween two consonants

p becomes pɸ at the beginning or ending of a word and inbetween vowels, the same applies to t, where it becomes tθ

all fricatives and sibilants but /ð/ become unvoiced at the end of a word.

Writing SystemEdit

Letter A a D d E e Ë ë F f G g H h I i J j K k L l M m
Sound ɑ ð e æ ɸ ɣ h i j x l m
Letter N n Y y O o Ö ö P p R r S s Sj sj T t Th th U u Ü ü
Sound n ɲ o ø p r s ʃ t θ u y
Letter V v W w IJ ij Z z Zj zj
Sound β w ɛɪ z ʒ

with these soundchanges any thing in the enhe latin orthography can be converted into it's ipa equivalent http://pastebin.com/pWZ5369X this is done by using this in the SCA2

GrammarEdit

UmlautsEdit

For forming an umlauted stem of any stem these rules can be applied to the orthography (not phonology) in SCA2 http://pastebin.com/Cs5RttVf

ArticleEdit

DefiniteEdit

Singular Plural
Nominative
Genitive ja jan
Dative il iln
Other cases rwa rwan
Accusative

IndefiniteEdit

Singular Plural
Nominative me me
Genitive jma jman
Dative lim liin
Other cases rma rman
Accusative me men

Especially in the Definite form, if an article could be placed, it is not needed. Often the article is omited, only when needed to fix something contextal the article is added to show definiteness.

NounsEdit

Nouns decline to number and case, a noun ending on a vowel has slightly different suffixes than a noun ending on a consonant.

Singular Plural
stem final letter: consonant vowel consonant vowel
Nominative - - an n
Genitive ai i ain in
Dative il l in n
Instrumental aik ik ain in
Causative * aka ka aikan ikan
Essive * ekem kem eken ken
Elative * ilan lan ilanni lanni
Inessive * il l illi lli
Illative * illati llati illin llin
Ablative * uman man umanni manni
Adessive * um m ummi mmi
Allative * ummati mmati ummin mmin
Vialis * ollot llot ollotton llotton
Accusative em m em m

*If the case is red, the stem of the word not only gets a suffix, but also the last vowel of the stem gets umlauted.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives agree to the noun they describe in case and number, these suffix come after the stem+nin(or alike)

Singular Plural
Nominative
Genitive i iin
Dative il illin
Other cases a a
Accusative e

An adjective always has nin after the stem in a vocabulary list or a dictionary. This nin indicates a positive adjective, though not being part of the stem, the suffixes which agree to the noun come after this part.

The nin can be replaced with nain to form a negative adjective or nar for an inclusive adjective, which implies something is (adjective) but also can contain other varieties of the same property. nair is the negative form of the inclusive, which means it is everything but what the adjective is.

The nin can also be replaced by nol to form a comparative adjective or nuron to form a superlative adjective.

AdverbsEdit

The adverbs both agree to the verb they belong to in tense and their nin after the changes to agree to the needed adjective degree.

positive comperative superlative
Present nir nom nurom
future nar nam naram

VerbsEdit

Simple verbsEdit

these are the suffixes regular verbs follow

plain present future *
1st singular e al
2nd singular ek ak
3rd singular eth
plural en an
imperative present future *
singular o -
plural on
optative present future *
everything ome ama
attemptive present future *
1st i u
2nd and 3rd ik uk

* In the future tense the last vowel of the stem gets gets umlauted.

Conditional verbsEdit

Conditional verbs are used if the action can only be executed if a requirement is met.

plain present future *
1st singular ere aral
2nd singular erek arak
3rd singular ereth
plural eren aran
attemptive present future *
1st eri aru
2nd and 3rd erik aruk

Potential verbsEdit

Potential verbs are used when an action is possible to be done, or the ability to is there. In most cases the action is not actually executed.

plain present future *
1st om am
2nd and 3rd singular oth ath
2nd and 3rd plural oken athen
optative present future *
1st orem aram
2nd and 3rd omek amak
attemptive present future *
1st onon anan
2nd and 3rd onok anak

Auxiliary verbsEdit

a list with auxiliary verbs

the first occuring (and most important/highest priority) auxiliary verb conjugates like the main verb, all other auxiliary verbs come after that, followed by the actual action of the sentence at the end of the sentence. the other verbs are all in the dictionary form, which equals the 1st person singular plain form. When using a future tense all auxiliary verbs and the base verb get the umlaut, the 1st person singular plain becomes the 1st person singular plain form of the future.

usage auxiliary verb (like) litteral meaning priority
perfect thire to occur -
continuous e - -

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Personal pronounsEdit

singular plural
1st olem wiran
2nd ake alkon
3rd (male) ithen ithen
3rd (female) ithai athan
3rd (object) sed sen

The personal pronoun acts like a regular noun while declining to a case. The only exception of the regularity is the plural form, where the regular plural n is the last n of every personal pronoun in the plural column.

NumeralsEdit

Enhe uses a base 12 system, this means that "10" is worth 12 in english, "100" is worth 144 in english etc.

0~Ɛ normal after 100
one (1) ji we
two (2) wen wen
three (3) sil si
four (4) sak sak
five (5) lem sem
six (6) thiw siw
seven (7) sit sit
eight (8) sok sok
nine (9) mir/mer min
ten (ᘔ) koon wo
elv (Ɛ) maas wan
zero (0) nel
101 (10) hoom
102 (100) fel
103 (1000) nig
106 (1000000) kje
109 (1000000000) kjen

for big numbers the numbers get split up every three positions, they will be formatted as: XfelYhoomZ(kjen/kje/nig/-)

so the number 382Ɛ712ᘔ3 will be chopped up in the blocks 382, Ɛ71 and 2ᘔ3 which respectively are silfelsokhoomwen, maasfelsithoomwe and wenfelkoonhoomsi, put together including the bigger powers the number becomes silfelsokhoomwenkjemaasfelsithoomwenigwenfelkoonhoomsi.

Other vocab (random)Edit

English Enhe
human (noun) maketh
male (adj) owhrenin
female (adj) marenin
elf (noun) enhe
man (noun) owhe
woman (noun) mare
tree (noun) ml / mul / mulin
and (int) wo / ow
day (noun) sijhal
sun (noun) sijme
night (noun) morek
moon (noun) rekme
month (noun) rekhal
year (noun) mayrak
hour (noun) miirin
minute (noun) monur
second (noun) thijk
time (noun) thiirin
light (adj) sijnin
dark (adj) reknin
big (adj) oranin
small (adj) irenin
boy (noun) irowhre
girl (noun) irmare
forest (noun) mulakin
"giant" tree (noun) molumulin
many (noun) akinan
few (adj) oknin
to sit (verb) silaate
under (noun) impa

Example textEdit

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