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Enlihupa
Nlihuba
Type
Analytic
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
left
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
No
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Enlihupa (Nlihuba /nlihʷupa/) is a language formerly spoken by the Chesnon of the moon of the same name. Though it is a dead language, it is very important in Chesnon history, and its descendants form a rather large language family.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Radical Labiovelar
plain labialized plain labialized plain labialized plain labialized
Nasal m n ŋ ŋʷ ŋ͡m
Plosive p pʰ t tʰ tʷ tʰʷ k kʰ kʷ kʰʷ k͡p k͡pʰ
Fricative s ʃ ʃʷ h ʍ
Approximant ʋ l j ɥ ɰ w
Trill ʀ ʀʷ
  • /m/, /p/, /b/, /ʋ/, /ŋm/, /kp/, and /ɡb/ only have labial forms before /u/, where all consonants are labialized. Therefore their labial forms can be considered allophones, and are omitted from this chart.
  • /s/, /sʷ/, /ʃ/, and /ʃʷ/ are voiced if adjacent to a voiced consonant.
  • /ʋ/, /l/, and /lʷ/ are devoiced before a voiceless consonant.

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High i ǝ u
Low a
  • /ǝ/ is typically reduced to nothing before /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, and /ʀ/, where those consonants become syllabic.
  • /u/ causes labialization of any preceding consonant.

PhonotacticsEdit

The minimal syllable is CV (e. g. u /wu/ "hi"). The maximal syllable is CCVC (e. g. sdăr /stǝʀ/ "run"). The syllable-final consonants are limited to: /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /p/, /t/, /k/, /s/, /j/, and /ʀ/.

Allowed syllable-initial consonant clusters are:

  • /ʋ/ or /l/ plus a nasal, /l/, /s/, /ʃ/, /h/, or /ʀ/ (vxuar "visit");
  • any nasal plus /l/, /ʃ/, /h/, or /ʀ/ (nmrua "yell");
  • a homorganic nasal plus a stop (ngkid);
  • /s/ plus any consonant (except /ɰ/) (sgad);
  • any consonant (except /ɰ/ and /h/) plus /j/ (pyug "stench");
  • plus all can be labialized if the second member of the cluster can

Orthography Edit

Native script Edit

Enlihupan script1

Enlihupa is written in a featural alphabet which is very easy to learn and has persisted for generations on Chesnon.

Writing direction Edit

The native script's writing direction is much less intuitive than it's letter design. Individual syllables are written left-to-right. These are then stacked top-to-bottom, and the stacks are arranged right-to-left.

Punctuation Edit

There are very few punctuation marks in Enlihupa. No spaces are placed between words. Sentences are separated by a long line (―). Asterisk-like marks enclose quotes and parentheticals.

Romanization Edit

letter a ă b d g gb h i
phoneme /a/ /ǝ/ /p/ /t/ /k/ /kp/ /h/ /i/
letter k kp l m n ng nm p
phoneme /kʰ/ /kpʰ/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ŋm/ /pʰ/
letter r s t u v x y
phoneme /ʀ/ /s/ /tʰ/ /u/, /ʷ/ /ʋ/ /ʃ/ /j/ /ɰ/

Nouns Edit

Pronouns Edit

Personal pronouns Edit

Personal pronouns distinguish singular from plural, gender in the third person, and, in the singular, the gender of the speaker.

singular plural
α β γ
1 nga ngid ngun yuăn
2 lua luid lun luăy
3.α ra rid run răy
3.β pa pid pun păy
3.γ va vid vun văy

ex. Yuăn da ngid hă luid hă răy. "By us, I mean me, you, and them." (Spoken by a beta)

Demonstratives Edit

dem name
ki proximal close to speaker
bid between between speaker and listener(s)
nmăs mesioproximal close to listener(s)
nuam mesiodistal within sight
hung distal out of sight

Rational nouns Edit

Nouns referring to Chesnon or some animals are called 'Rational nouns'. These can be pluralized with a prefix lă- and can take the optional gendering suffixes -ri, -pi, -vi. ex. lăsgadyăng "instructors", sgadyăngri "instructor of the α gender"

Verbs Edit

Postpositions Edit

ma "at, near"

Syntax Edit

Gendered speech Edit

VocabularyEdit

Important phrases Edit

Enlihupa IPA Translation Gender
U! [wu] "Hi!"
aysa-u [ɰajzawu] "welcome" α
aysid-u [ɰajzitwu] β
aysun-u [ɰajzʷunwu] γ
tămsa [tm̩za] "good luck" α
tămsid [tm̩zit] β
tămsun [tm̩zʷun] γ
Hă sding? [hǝstiŋ] "What's your name?"
Hă nuamhung ma? [hǝnʷamʍuŋma] "Where are you from?"
Hă gbyang Nlihuba? [hǝk͡pjaŋnliʍupa] "Do you speak Enlihupa?"
Kambăy! [kʰampǝj] "Cheers!"

ngăg- nook and/or cranny

kpis- stupid

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