[This is one of my first conlangs, which I haven't used for a long time. I try to remake this language now by using earlier documents. Because of discovering newer things and making its grammar more professional there can be temporary notes on this page, sorry.]
| Name: Panora
Number of genders: 0
Europine is a language of a fictional world.
Europine is a language of the planet Oart. Imagine our Earth with the same age, same attributes, similar continents, same flora and fauna. But a big group of the first human beings did not speak an indo-European language. They spoke the Euny language.
This language family is younger than our indo-European one.
Euny is different from Europine. After the first changes in Euny, another language started being alive: the Europine. In the middle time of Europine a new language variant appeared; this was the Panorka (today it's died). But there are two languages evolved: Panora and Norka,
Wait for the whole history later. It'll be interesting...
a, b, c [t͡s], d, e, f, g, h, i, j [ʒ], k, l, m, n, o, ö [ø], p, q [t͡ʃ], r, s, t, u, ü [y], v, w [c͡ç], x [ʃ], y [j], z
The two tables below show IPA symbols with the corresponding letter(s) of the alphabet in parentheses beside them.
|Nasal||m (m)||n (n)|
|Plosive||p (p) b (b)||t (t) d (d)||k (k) g (g)|
|Fricative||f (f) v (v)||s (s) z (z)||ʃ (x) ʒ (j)||r (r)||h (h)|
|Affricate||t͡s (c)||t͡ʃ (q)||c͡ç|
|Approximant||l (l)||j (y)|
|Close||i (i) ü (y)||u (u)|
|Close-mid||e (e) ø (ö)||o (o)|
The one-syllabe words have no stress in general.
In other cases the stress is always on the last syllabe..
One syllabe words are basically short.
The vowel in a stressed syllabe is always long and the others in the same word are short.
The definite article is la. It does not change according to number or case. Use it when something is supposed to be known or a concrete thing by the person who you speak with. Do not use before personal names.
haze - house; la haze the house
The indefinite article is ün. It does not change according to number or case.
ün finie - a cat
Nouns have no genders. Every noun finishes in -e.
You use plural when you speak about more than one thing (and they are not one pair). You use it even if something other shows the plurality (for example a number before). The plural ending is -z or -sk (with accusative).
There are three cases: accusative, possessive and nominative.
Me vidij ün hazek. – I see a house.
Me vidij hazesk. – I see houses.
La dadeo la haze - the house of the dad
Me sosej for la dade. – I help the father.
Adjectives have no genders, numbers or cases. Every adjective finishes in -u.
The cardinals from one to ten are: ün, dün, thoan, foren, früjn, sesün, sen, ohün, nün, tün
We use ordinals edding -u. ünu, dünu, thoanu etc.
|he/ she/ it (human or animal)||yü||yüo||yoryü|
|you, the poele (general pronoun)||onu||onuo||yoronu|
The infinitive form of the verbs has no engings. You have to conjugate the verbs
|Active||-(e)j||-ej / -uj||-oj|
|Conditional||'(e)n||-ej / -un||'on|
For make a passive form you have to use the particle aväūk before the conjugated verb.
For make the factitive you have to use the particle (?)
In active and conditional present do not use ej just j, if you can connect it to the verb like a general ending. For example: Duz vidij - You (pl.) see. Duz sosej. - You help.
In past tense you have to use the -ej form of a verb, which is connected in present like a general ending. If the verb in present form have the ending -ej, then in past you have to use: -uj.
Duz vidiej - You saw./ Duz sosuj - You helped.
The verb "to be"Edit
|he/ she (general form)||ej|
|you, the poele (general pronoun)||ell|
You have to use one of the next endings to make a participle from a verb.
The non-personal endings first will be added to the verb, it will fallow between apostrophes the active time ending, and then the ending, whoch shows whether is it an adjetive -ill, a noun or an adverb.
Fut - to run
futüs'e'o - a male non-human or object being which is running now (f. e. a dog)
fut'esöro - a male person who is running now
wid (?)- to see
widaväk'ö'e - that thing, which will be seen
wid'eqamära - that female human being, who will be seen
We make adverbs from adjectives. We have to change the vowels in the adjetive ending.
Ca böde can'ej methüs. - The bird sings on a nice way.
i -> ü
u -> a
tyük– instead of
el – in fron of, before
nelt– next to
ö – at
irod– at about
ey/ye – of (quantity)
auū/uaū– of (possessive)
pavü – while, during
däset – from
et – in
früů – till
böůn – bewtween
genan – against
nüj – out of
soaū – with
tyümi – according to
weůäc – in spite of
söů – by, with
fo – for
al – behind, after
rimtö – away
däsa – from the top of
biqoz – because of
nas – without
tapp – under
tepp – above
a – on
guriŋ – through
teyvol – beyond
We can simple connect the words and write them with a streek (-). In the middle of the words, the ending -e and -ill you do not have to use.
The verbs basically are untransitive. If a verb can have a transitive and an untransitive form too, then we have to add the ä- particle to the begin of the world.
to turn - prepp/ ä'prepp
I turn - Prepp'ey
He turns the book. - Ä-prepp'ej qa ca bükne.