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Euxino

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Name: Euxino

Type: Fusional semi-agglutinative language

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Initial

Number of genders: 3 (masculine, feminine, neuter)

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Classification and DialectsEdit

Euxino is a Romance language spoken on the North shores of the Black Sea west of Crimea. Latin reached the region during Trajan's rule, when much trade was conducted there. Several Latin-speaking communities quickly sprung up, especially in ports. Latin never gained much prominence, but because it was mainly spoken in the one region, and because it was spoken in significant numbers, several Latin features leaked into the Slavic language spoken there and the language took a form of its own.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal
Plosive
Fricative
Affricate
Approximant
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High
Near-high
High-mid
Mid
Low-mid
Near-low
Low

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

Letter A
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound

GrammarEdit

VerbsEdit

Verbs are conjugated according to tense and according to aspect. There are three tenses: present, past, and future. There are two aspects as well: perfect and imperfect.

Verb structure: simple tense (present, past, future) = root+ending, aspect = root+pronoun abbreviation+present, past, or future vowel ending

There are three verb endings: -ar, -ir, and -or. It is also important to note that the infinitive endings include a final e which is not entirely pronounced (the e is part of the r, similar to the uvular r).

The table below visually depicts the inflection of consonants in verbal stems according to verb tense:

Present Past Future
Verbs with b-stem -b- -v- -ur-
Verbs with n-stem -n- -l- -ud-
Verbs with t-stem -t- -d- -us-
Verbs with s-stem -s- -sh- -uzh-

The verb tense is changed according to these changes in stem consonants. Verbs in the present tense always include b, n, t, or s in their stem; when verbs in the present or future tense are made past, the consonants change to v, l, d, or sh, respectively. When past or present-tense verbs are made future, the consonants change to ur, ud, us, or uzh, respectively.

It is important to note that the verb`s root is not regular: it changes along with the tenses used. Therefore, the present, present perfect, and present imperfect have different roots, but the latter two end in the same vowel.

To form different aspects, one changes the verb ending, which is always the abbreviation for a pronoun and the vowel ending. The ending for the -ar verbs in the perfect aspect is always -e. That of the -ir verbs is always é, and that of the -or verbs is always -и. In the imperfect aspect, the -ar verbs end in -i, the -ir verbs in -o and the -or verbs in u. The changes are described in the table below:

Perfect Imperfect
-ar -e -a
-ir -o
-or
-u

When the consonant which is changed is , the imperfect always is -v- and the future simple always -ur-.

"To have" in Euxinian is abor, which is conjugated as such in the indicative:

Abor Present Present Perfect Present Imperfect Past Past Perfect
1. abo aboi avojи avomи avoju avomu avo avoi avojи avomи
2. aboa abou avotи avonи avotu avonu avoa avou avotи avonи
3. abot aboe avolи avosи avolu avosu avot avoe avolи avosи
Past Imperfect Future Future Perfect Future Imperfect
1. avoju avomu auro auroi aurojи auromи auroju auromu
2 avotu avonu auroa aurou aurotи auronи aurotu auronu
3. avolu avosu aurot auroe aurolи aurosи aurolu aurosu
Venir Present Present Perfect Present Imperfect Past Past Perfect
1. venio veni venijé venimé venijo venimo velio veli velijé velimé
2. venia veniu venité veniné venito venino velia veliu velité veliné
3. venit venie venilé venisé venilo veniso velit velie vetilé velisé
Past Imperfect Future Future Perfect Future Imperfect
1. velijo velimo veudi veudyi veudijé veudimé veudijo veudimo
2. velito velino veudia veudiu veudité veudiné veudito veudino
3. velilo veliso veudit veudie veudilé veudisé veudilo veudiso
Itar Present Present Perfect Present Imperfect Past Past Perfect
1. iteo itai iteji itami iteja itama ideo idai idaji idami
2. itea itau iteti itani iteta itana idea idau idati idani
3. itat itae itali itasi itala itasa idat idae idali idasi
Past Imperfect Future Future Perfect Future Imperfect
1. ideja idama iuseo iusai iuseji iusami iuseja iusama
2. ideta idana iusea iutau iuseti iusani iuseta iusana
3. idala idasa iusat iutae iusali iusasi iusala iusasa

There are no irregular verbs.

The Subjunctive Mood is formed by adding an r before the last vowel. The imperative is formed by adding or changing a final vowel of the indicative mood.

a i o
Indicative present iteo venio abo
past ideo velio avo
future iuseo veudi auro
Subjunctive present itero veniro abro
past idero veliro avro
future iusero veudri aurro
Imperative present itea venia abu
past ideyu veliu avu
future iuseyu veudiyu auru

Translation of verbs Edit

Simple verbs are very easily translated (abo=I have; avo=I had; auro=I will/shall/am going to have). Compound verbs not so much: the present perfect is translated as have (verb in the past tense), e.g. I have done. The present imperfect is translated as have been ...ing.

The past perfect (also known as the pluperfect) is translated as had ...ed. The past imperfect (or simply: the imperfect) is translated as was ...ing.

The future perfect is translated as will have ...ed while the future imperfect is translated as will have been ...ing.

Nouns Edit

Nouns are declined like Latin and old Slavic. There are three declensions which correspond to the genders.

Masculine 1st Declension
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
os-stem yo-stem
Nominative -os -a -i -yo -ya -yi
Vocative -e -a -i -yu -ya -yi
Accusative -os -a -yo -ya -yew
Genitive -oi -u -y -yoi -yu -y
Dative -o -oma -om -yu -yema -yem
Instrumental -omy -oma -y -yem -yema
Locative -ye -u -yech -yi -yu -yich
Feminine 2nd Declension
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
a-stem ya-stem
Nominative -a -e -y -ya -yi -yew
Vocative -e -a -i -yu -yi -yi
Accusative -ow -e -yaw -yiw -yew
Genitive -u -arum -yew -yu -y
Dative -ye -ama -am -yi -yama -yam
Instrumental -ow -ama -ami -yaw -yama -yami
Locative -ye -u -yach -yi -yu -yach
Neuter 3rd Declension
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
i-stem u-stem
Nominative -y -i -i -y -y -ove
Vocative -i -i -i -u -y -ove
Accusative -y -i -i -a -y
Genitive -i -yu -yi -u -ovu -ovy
Dative -i -yma -ym -ovi -ma -my
Instrumental -yow -yma -ymi -my -ma -myi
Locative -i -yu -ych -u -ovu -ych

Pronouns Edit

The Euxinian pronouns are very similar to the ones of Latin and of modern-day Ukrainian:

  1. Ja (zha)
  2. Tu
  3. Li, le, lo
  4. Mo
  5. No
  6. Si, se, so

Noun Definiteness Edit

Definite nouns do not change from their original form, whereas indefinite nouns have a suffix of -p in all cases, numbers, and genders.

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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